Colloidal sulfur (another common name - fungicide) is used everywhere to protect all garden and garden crops from most pests and diseases, including powdery mildew, ascochitoz, keel, plant mites, oidium, anthracnose, scab.
The fight against any of the listed diseases begins at the first signs of its manifestation. Processing is carried out at absolute absence of precipitation and wind. It is very important to moisten the leaves on both sides, evenly. Sulfur colloidal phytotoxic exposure usually does not cause (if you follow the instructions and follow the dosage), however, sometimes unwanted damage is possible (for example, in certain varieties of gooseberries), up to the fall of the flowers and part of the leaves. Therefore, when flowering plants is better not to handle.
Colloidal sulfur should not be mixed with other drugs, although the instruction is allowed to combine with some fungicides. However, chemical reagents tend to give a reaction, so in order not to be left without a crop, it is better to abandon experiments. Standard packaging - 40 g.
Colloidal sulfur, application
1. For processing cabbage against keel or sugar beet against dew of a powdery bag of the drug is diluted in ten liters of water. Liter of solution is designed for 10 m². Processing is threefold.
2. For the treatment of cucumbers from powdery mildew:
- in the open ground, a working solution of 20 liters of water and 40 g of the preparation is prepared (a liter of solution is designed for 10 m², four times treatment),
- for a protected soil, the working solution is prepared from 10 liters and 40 g of the preparation (two liters of solution are calculated for 10 m², the treatment is fivefold).
3. For the treatment of melons and watermelons from ascochytosis, anthracnose, powdery mildew, one packet (40 g) is diluted in 10 liters of water. 10 m² is treated with a liter of mortar. Sprayed three times.
4. To protect the currant from mealy dew, a packet of the drug is diluted in 10 liters of water. On one bush need 1.5 liters of solution. Processed three times.
5. For the treatment of apples, quinces, pears against scab and dew powdery package of the drug is diluted in 5 liters of water. About two liters of solution are spent on a young tree. For an adult, the volume of the solution is increased depending on the size of the tree. Processing fivefold.
6. Processing of grapes against oidium is carried out with a solution of 5 liters and a sachet of the drug. About 1.5 liters of solution are consumed per 10 m². On average, six treatments are required.
7. Medicinal cultures against powdery mildew are treated with a solution prepared from 4 liters of water and a bag of colloidal sulfur. Consumption rate - liter per 10 m². Double processing.
8. Flowers, flowering crops against anthracnose, ascohytosis, powdery mildew require treatment with a solution of 5 liters of water and a bag of the drug. Approximate consumption per 10 m² - liter of mortar. Five spraying.
9. The remaining cultures against plant mites are treated with a solution of colloidal sulfur prepared from 5 liters of water and a bag of the drug. Five spraying.
The intervals between treatments are 10-15 days. The last spraying can be carried out 3 days before the harvest. The solution is prepared by gradually adding water to the preparation and is consumed on the same day. Colloidal sulfur is not stored in diluted form. The action begins after 3 hours.
Which powder is better?
The main advantage of sulfur for agrochemistry is cheapness. Working with a gray joint venture is generally no more difficult than with EDC, and the difference in price is noticeable. Therefore, most hosts prefer sulfur in the form of finely ground powder.
In nature, as well as a by-product of chemical production, free sulfur exists in the form of allotropic modifications S2, S4, S6, S8, S (n), which form rhombic or monoclinic crystals (crystallization form), as well as in the form of so-called. plastic sulfur. Depending on the conditions of formation, the powder of colloidal sulfur may have a color from lemon and bright yellow to pale yellow and brown, see fig .:
Types of powdered sulfur
For the purposes of agricultural engineering, the color and composition of colloidal sulfur impurities have absolutely no significance, since active ingredient of the preparation of sulfur vapor S (see below). More important than the other. A lumpy, compressed powder (position a on the next fig.) Is quite suitable - it can be kneaded directly in an unopened bag.
Ground compressed and crystalline sulfur
But there are even cheaper crystalline sulfur, pos. b. In no case should we take it here: sulfur grinding is an extremely harmful, dangerous operation, and it is carried out only in industrial conditions with special equipment. At home and do not try to crush the sulfur in a mortar: you can seriously poisoned with irreparable consequences.
Note: in the old days, people sentenced to death were sometimes offered a choice of grinding sulfur or working in mercury mines instead of executions. Those in the know preferred the ax and the scaffold or the gallows.
Action and scope
The effect of colloidal sulfur on pathogenic fungi
The effect of sulfur on pests is shown in Fig. on the right for the example of the drug Tiovita (see below). The active principle is gaseous sulfur S, which takes away the hydrogen ions in the tissue solutions of the elimination objects and thereby completely destroys their metabolism. As a by-product, hydrogen sulfide H2S is released. Yes, the same one who has now become the talk of the town "thanks to" landfills near Moscow, "smelling" sulfur pathogens in the full sense of the word rot alive. But sulfur in the air is sublimated very poorly, and hydrogen sulfide is produced very little - its smell is not felt, but it stinks unbearably already in concentration, far from dangerous for humans. However, such a mechanism of action is, firstly, very sensitive to weather conditions. Secondly, to the species susceptibility of the poison both by the elimination objects and the plants protected from them.
For pre-planting irrigation of the soil from the keel (black leg of the seedling) - as the soil warms up and the pathogen is activated, the effect of the drug on it will increase. The effect of colloidal sulfur on pests, pathogens and plants depends on the temperature and humidity of the air:
- For fruit and berry in years, especially favorable for powdery mildew and scab - cool wet or, on the contrary, hot and humid.
- Regularly - on crops, especially susceptible to powdery mildew, for example, on currants. But the gooseberry disappears, because suffers from sulfur not less than from mushrooms.
- On grapes - in any conditions from oidium. This authentic scourge of vineyards is also a powdery mildew. Some depression of grapes with sulfur at high temperatures has virtually no effect on yield, because during the ripening of berries, its assimilating organs are already preparing to die off for the winter, and the heat itself in the viticulture zone happens in the second half of summer.
Note: colloidal sulfur is still one of the most effective remedies for oidium, since does not accumulate in the fruit and can be used during the ripening of the crop, see video:
In a number of popular sources, it is argued that colloidal sulfur has a beneficial effect on plants and increases yields, because promotes a more complete absorption of nitrogen by them. This is fundamentally wrong. Sulfur is indeed the meso element of plant nutrition, since it “sews” protein molecules into their tertiary structure; this process is somewhat similar to the vulcanization of rubber into rubber, see for example. video lecture:
Sulfur is a hazard class III substance, practically non-volatile and insoluble in water. However, it is not possible to facilitate PPE to work with it. Sulfur is slightly soluble in fats, even more in bioactive liquid media. Therefore, to work with colloidal sulfur, it is necessary to use mucous membranes, skin and respiratory organs protection: latex gloves, goggles and a petal respirator. Protective clothing - dustproof, with a hood on an elastic band on the head, see fig.
Personal protective equipment for working with colloidal sulfur
The permissible time of working with colloidal sulfur (starting from opening the package) is 6 hours. Do not remove PPE in the work area. At the slightest signs of indisposition (and if the drug gets into the eyes, mucous membranes and / or inside), immediately stop working and consult a doctor. After work, be sure to take a hot shower, wash working clothes.
Considering the flammability of sulfur and its release when burning a huge amount of deadly toxic sulfur dioxide (sulfur dioxide), sulfur must be stored even more carefully than the most poisonous pesticides: in a separate non-residential room that does not store food, under reliable constipation in a fireproof container at a temperature not higher than 35 degrees. If the smell of sulfur, immediately ventilate the room, and take the drug out to a shaded cooler place.
Note: if sulfur is stored in an opened container in the heat, for safety it is useful to spray it with water a little in the morning.
Suspension (working solution) of colloidal sulfur is prepared according to the usual rules for the joint venture and EDC: 1 / 4-1 / 5 of water is poured into a separate bowl, powder is strewed in a thin stream while stirring. Then the mother liquor is intensively mixed for 2-5 minutes, and with stirring, water is added to the norm, the suspension is poured into the sprayer tank and immediately start working. Every half hour the tank is shaken 3-4 times. The sprayer should be designed to work with suspensions: with a folding nozzle to be cleaned. The device is tuned to a spray of medium size: from the "fog" of sulfur, any nozzle instantly becomes clogged. Spraying of colloidal sulfur is carried out in the morning, given the characteristics of the activity of the drug (see above). The time before the rain and the beginning of the protective action - 3 hours. Free sulfur does not migrate into plant tissue, therefore spraying should be carried out from 2 sides of the leaves.
Instructions for the use of colloidal sulfur are given in table. below. The range of dosage is given for cases when the drug concentration matters: smaller doses correspond to 80% of sulfur, large ones - 70%. The minimum allowable interval between treatments at +22 degrees is 14 days, at +35 7 days. The increase in processing yields dramatically increases the negative effect of sulfur on plants, without increasing noticeably the effect on pathogens.
In wet cool weather on the grapes and fruit, pollinating dry colloidal sulfur in a 1: 1 mixture with talcum (better), sifted with kiln ash or finely ground slaked lime gives the best effect. The mixture consumption is the same (in g / weaving or area of the assimilating surface). In no case should pure sulfur be used for dry pollination: it strongly acidifies the film of moisture on the leaves and the chemical burn should be immediately. Alkaline additives neutralize the acidity of sulfur.
Note: sulfur is incompatible in tank mixtures with fertilizers and pesticides, but at temperatures below +25 it can be used in conjunction with Bordeaux mixture.
Tiovit and others
In fungicides TIOVIT, TIOVIT JET and certain. other main active ingredient is also colloidal sulfur. The essence of the additives is that sulfur is retained in a finely dispersed state (its particles do not stick together in larger lumps), which lengthens and stabilizes the protective effect. But by no other miraculous properties Tiovit, etc. do not possess.
Benefit from harm
Strawberries and especially such tasty and healthy berries - blueberries - grow well and bear fruit only on acidic soils. Under blueberries, the land needs very acidic, pH = 4.5, so its culture fails in the southern regions, where soils are chronically alkaline. Acidification of the soil with vinegar and electrolyte solutions gives a quick effect, but it kills the beneficial soil microflora and microfauna. In this case, colloidal sulfur can help the cause: hydrogen sulfide with water forms a weak and rather unstable acid, and its slow formation does not allow the poison to accumulate in dangerous doses.
Acidification of the soil with colloidal sulfur is carried out by pollination with bare earth powder for 6-12 months. before the plants start throwing out the leaves (best of all before winter). Dose for strawberry 50-150 g per 1 square. m, but in general the strawberry culture can be adjusted without sulfur. Dose for blueberry approx. 250 g / sq. m 2 times a year. In more detail about acidification of the soil under blueberry gray see the roller:
Video: about sulfur in the form of sulfur checkers for disinfection
We recommend reading:
Safety measures when using colloidal sulfur
As already mentioned, being in contact with colloidal sulfur solutions, it is important to protect your health by observing safety measures. Wear a gauze bandage or respirator.
After work, wash hands thoroughly with soap and rinse your mouth with plenty of water. Packages from drugs should not be disposed of near the dwelling, thrown into open ponds, into drain sewers and places where there are containers with garbage. It is required to bury to a sufficient depth as far as possible from residential areas. Colloidal sulfur is almost safe for humans, performs well protective functions in the garden, helps to heal plants and save pests from invasion.
Sulfur is an excellent alternative to expensive chemicals that contribute to the accumulation of nitrates. If sulfur vapor enters the eyes or respiratory system, provide first aid:
- release the victim from the soiled clothes,
- open windows and doors for fresh air,
- if the skin is damaged, clean it with a clean cloth and wash it off with water and soap,
- if the solution gets into the eyes, rinse, opening the eyes under the tap,
- if the drug gets inside, drink a large amount of liquid with a tablet of activated carbon, calculate that one tablet is 10 kg of weight. Or drink a laxative, like 20 grams of magnesia and ½ cup water.
- consult a doctor.
Keep sulfur and sulfur preparation should be in a cold place, avoiding moisture and the neighborhood with food. In the distance without access of small children and pets. Shelf life is 2 years.
How and what to process trees?
What is colloidal sulfur and how is it useful in gardening?
Cumulus (another name for the specified substance) is the oldest and proven by more than one generation means for combating insects and fungal diseases. This inorganic fungicide is produced in the form of water dispersible granules, where the sulfur concentration is 80%.
Colloidal sulfur is not very palatable for humans and animals, but requires compliance with instructions and safety rules. The effectiveness of the means depends on how long after treatment its pairs have been allocated.
The effect of the drug is greatly influenced by the air temperature (+27. + 32ºC). If the temperature drops below + 20ºC, the result will be extremely low. If the temperature is above + 35ºC, then there is a risk of damage to the leaves of the plant.
The maximum allowable temperature of use of colloidal sulfur for fruit crops and grapes is +16. + 18ºC.
The result of exposure to such a tool is based on a high level of gas evolution. The drug does not need to penetrate into the structure of the plant to stop the development and livelihoods of the fungus spores, while not allowing it to multiply and develop. Colloidal sulfur treatment is especially effective for scab, powdery mildew and rust.
Benefits of application
Undoubtedly, the mentioned sulfur has a number of advantages, which allow it to maintain its position among fungicides for a long time. Despite the many modern effective drugs, the use of this substance (particularly in viticulture) has the following advantages:
- safety and non-toxicity to plants
- the soil layer is not contaminated,
- compatibility with other fungicides and insecticides,
- high efficacy in fighting infections
- no loss in windy weather,
- easy control of dosage
- profitability of use and reasonable price.
Preparation of working solution (suspension)
Before you dilute sulfur colloid, you must remember that you can not mix it with other drugs.
To prepare the solution, water is gradually added to the preparation. At the same time it is necessary to constantly stir the solution. When the resulting mass becomes homogeneous and the consistency will resemble a suspension, the solution is ready.
The drug is diluted immediately before use, that is, with the expectation that it should be applied on the day of preparation.