Reproduction of pelargonium seeds is interesting because it gives the opportunity to grow their own copy, not like the parent plant. This is a fairly time-consuming process, with a number of nuances that you need to know.
In this article, we will describe in detail how to prepare pelargonium seeds for sowing, in which soil and plant, and how to care for the young shoots of the plant in the future. You can also watch a useful video on the topic.
What kind of plant?
Pelargonium - a perennial plant of the family Geraniah. It has branched stems with leaves on long petioles. The flowers of pelargonium are large variegated or monochromatic, saturated pink, purple, white. Most plant varieties were introduced to Europe from the Republic of South Africa in the 16th century. Pelargonium was introduced to our country in the 18th century.
Pelargonium breeds in two main ways:
- vegetative cuttings or dividing the bush.
Hybrid varieties of pelargonium grown from its own seeds do not inherit the properties of the parent plant. To preserve the necessary traits, they need to be propagated only in a vegetative way. ￼
Many flower growers are interested in independently growing one or another sort of pelargonium from seeds. At the same time, you can use your own seeds as well as purchased ones. Plants obtained from seeds, bloom better and much more abundantthan the pelargonium that was grown from cuttings.
What you need to appear?
When the indoor plants appear flowers, you need to take care of the seeds. You can spend artificial pollination. To do this, you need to take a needle or tweezers to transfer pollen. In the center of the flower are ten stamens and a pestle with a stigma. With the sharp side of the needle, carefully remove the pollen from one flower and transfer it to the pistil stigma from another flower. His flower should bloom a couple of days before this procedure. Polling in this way is possible many times.
How do seeds ripen and when to pick them?
If pollination occurs, after 3-4 days the column begins to grow slowly and lengthen. Formed elongated and pointed fruit-box. When ripe, the box greatly increases in length and thickness. When the seeds are ripe, the fruit bursts. Oblong brown seeds covered with long white fibers hang on thin elastic threads.
How to collect seeds at home? Collect the seeds immediately after ripening. It is advisable to collect the seeds already from the dry cracked bolls, this indicates that they have ripened. Do not wait for the moment when the box opens and the seeds fall off. They can begin to germinate, which will not allow to store them.
What time to sow?
When to sow? Pelargonium sowing at home can be practiced all year round, but only if additional coverage is provided. The most favorable time for sowing seeds is February or March.. If you sow pelargonium later, the plant is strongly drawn out and blooms only after 9 months.
There are several options:
- mix in equal proportions peat, sand, humus and compost,
- connect two parts of garden land with one part of peat and sand,
- dilute peat with perlite in a 1: 1 ratio.
Before sowing the seeds, the prepared substrate must be disinfected.to avoid further infection of pelargonium. To do this, it is calcined for several minutes in the oven.
For soil treatment, you can use high-quality fungicides or manganese. Then landing should be postponed for one day.
To grow pelargonium quickly and without problems, you need to select and prepare planting material. When selecting seeds, special attention should be paid to the following features:
- Colour. Quality pelargonium seeds have a pronounced brown color. Slight haze and slight shade are allowed.
- Form. Developed seeds are oblong, with small depressions visible on either side.
- The size. Planting material is quite large.
- Shell. Pelargonium seeds are characterized by a dense leathery shell.
If the planting material has all these qualities, then it can be purchased. You should not choose seeds that have the following characteristics:
- covered with spots of different colors.
The seeds of some types of Pelargonium, especially the Ileum, do not germinate for 2–3 months. It is necessary to remember this and not stop caring for crops.
To maximize the time of germination, the procedure of scarification is carried out.. It consists in removing part of the seed coat to provide nutrient access. This requires:
- Take a fine-grained or medium-grained sandpaper. It will help to remove the surface layer without traumatic tears.
- Slowly rub the seed 2-3 times on sandpaper with a rotating motion.
What you need to plant?
How to plant? For planting seeds and the successful cultivation of seedlings at home will need a greenhouse. This can be a regular box for seedlings, which is covered with a plastic bag, a food tray with a transparent lid, or a plastic bottle cut in the middle. In order to provide air access, small holes must be made in the film or cover.
Sowing at home:
- Pelargonium seeds soak in warm water for three hours, which contributes to the emergence of seedlings.
- Previously prepared soil at room temperature is poured 5 to 7 cm thick in a hothouse. The soil should be free of lumps and debris. A little tamp the soil.
- Lightly sprinkle the surface of the soil with warm water and leave for one day to warm the ground to a temperature of 21–22 ° C.
- Spread the seeds on the soil surface at a distance of two centimeters from each other, slightly pressing into the ground. Seeds should be placed rounded side up. The flat side of the seed should fit snugly to the ground. Sprinkle the seeds with a thin layer of loose substrate.
- Once again, pour a little seed from a spray bottle.
- Cover the greenhouse.
Put the boxes of crops in a warm room in which the temperature stays around 22-24 ° C. Watering the seeds is necessary as the soil dries..
We grow in peat tablets
How to grow out at home in peat tablets? Take pills of medium size. Spread them in a deep container and soak them in warm water so that they increase in size by about 6 times. Place the grain in a special recess and slightly close the peat from the tablet. After that, cover the container with film or glass and put in a warm place. The first shoots will appear after a week and a half.
Watch a video about sowing pelargonium seeds in peat tablets:
Pre-planting seed treatment
As already mentioned, geranium seeds have a dense shell, making it difficult to germinate. Sometimes seedlings have to wait quite a long time, and the seeds still do not germinate. The reason for failure in improper treatment of seeds before planting or its absence.
Before planting, geranium seeds must undergo scarification - a procedure for removing a thick film. Independently carry out this procedure is easy. For this you will need fine sandpaper. With its help, only the upper dense layer is removed from the seeds, and no deep gaps remain.
It is necessary to process each seed separately, rubbing it on sandpaper several times.
Sowing Pelargonium Seeds
Seeds are sown in shallow pots or bowls, the height of which does not exceed 3 cm. If there are no special containers, then trays from semi-finished products and any improvised packaging will do.
The containers are filled with substrate and sprinkled with plenty of water, then left to warm. The recommended soil temperature is 21-22 degrees.
Prepared geranium seeds are soaked in warm water for three hours, which contributes to the emergence of seedlings. Further, they are laid out on the surface of the soil, slightly pressing into the ground. Sprinkle the seeds with a thin layer of loose substrate.
Landings covered with glass or plastic bag, take out to a well-lit place where the temperature does not fall below 20 degrees.
Important! After one or two weeks, when shoots appear, the containers need to be gradually opened. From this point you need to monitor the soil moisture.
Pelargonium care after germination
In order for the plants to grow healthy and strong, they form a beautiful bush, you need to take good care of them. Geranium needs timely watering, dressing, soil loosening, warm climates, pick picking and pinching.
Watering and feeding
A frequent mistake of beginning flower growers is excessive soil moistening, which leads to an insidious disease - a black leg. It develops very quickly and destroys all saplings. To avoid this, it is necessary to make a drainage layer in the tanks for planting and the holes for the drainage of excess water.
In addition, the irrigation mode is also important. Seedlings are watered as the soil dries, trying not to fill them. After picking in separate containers, plants are watered no more than twice a week. In winter, the frequency of watering is reduced to once every seven days.
Geranium is fed for the first time two weeks after the picking. To do this, use fertilizers for flowering plants rich in potassium and phosphorus, for example, Agricola.
Periodic feedings - once every two weeks. In winter, the cortex is stopped.
Requirements for planting material
Reproduction of geraniums in the home occurs by seed. The main criterion for seeds is their quality. They should be brown in color, oblong and hard. You should not buy planting material on the market or in other unchecked places, it is better to do this in a specialized shop of agricultural products. Let it be somewhat more expensive, but safer. Then you will be sure that it is the geranium of the desired color, durable and beautiful that will grow. Good seeds are sold ready for planting, so that special efforts for planting do not have to.
There are about 250 varieties of plants, and you can choose which one is most suitable. Pelargonium is divided into two groups: blooming and smelling. For home breeding advise white, red and fragrant geranium.
Clear recommendations when you need to plant pelargonium, does not exist, as geranium seed is not particularly picky to grow. Florists are advised to do this in the spring-summer season, when the greatest amount of sunshine.
If you do not want to wait for a warm pore - it does not matter. You can use additional lighting electric lamps and deal with seedlings all year round. To medium size, geranium will grow within 3-5 months.
As a rule, you don’t need to do anything with the seeds beforehand. Your main task is to preserve them in a dry, dark place where insects and other pests do not have access.
If the packaging indicates that the seeds are not prepared for sowing or you simply have some doubts, then they should be treated with phytohormones (“Zircon”, “Appin”), and then soak in warm water for several hours. With such simple manipulations, it is possible to accelerate the germination of grains and improve their quality.
With seeds collected at home, things are not so simple. First, they need to be sanded with emery paper to clean the rough upper layer, and then process them with preparations and soak them. In the case of domestic seeds, the probability of getting good seedlings is very small. This is due to the fact that during seed reproduction, hybrid varieties of pelargonium are likely to lose the genes of the parent plant.
Since the planting material is dry, planting pelargonium seeds requires loose soil. It should be of medium density and not too clay. The prepared soil can be bought at the store, there is a special mixture for geranium, or you can prepare it yourself at home.
To do this, you will need one of the following proportions:
- peat, sand, turf (1: 1: 2),
- sand, peat (1: 1),
- perlite, peat (1: 1).
Capacity for growing seedlings
Tara for the cultivation of seedlings of pelargonium can be divided into two types: separate and joint. Both methods of landing are equally effective, but they have their own nuances.
Individual packaging for each seed implies small, usually plastic containers, disposable cups, for example. The advantage of a separate container is the fact that when planting seedlings in a pot, the root system of a plant does not suffer exactly.
The total capacity for cultivation requires the seeding of each seed at a distance of 5-7 centimeters from each other. This is done so that the roots of pelargonium do not grow together and they can be seated easily. It is advised to choose a not very small container for growing a flower. It should have enough space not only for the soil, but also for the drainage material at the bottom. As it is suitable screening or other small pebble.
At the bottom of the tank for seedlings can not do without drainage holes. They are needed to ensure that the root system has access to oxygen and can release excess moisture.
Accordingly, it is necessary to take care of a small stand under the container, so that there is no excess dirt around.
Conditions and care for crops
Remember to keep the soil slightly moist, open the film or glass once a day for a few minutes so that oxygen can enter. If you do everything right, then shoots will be visible within a month.
Conditions and care for seedlings
When shoots appear, glass or film is removed. While the plants are still small, they are very sensitive, weak and require special attention. They should be stored where there is no wind or draft, because a small impact can break a thin and fragile stem.
Do not forget about indirect sunlight, now it is extremely necessary for geranium, as it promotes the growth of the flower and all the chemical processes inside. Take care of enough water, but do not overdo it.
The best will water the seedlings daily in small portions. Experienced housewives advise dispensing water with a conventional pipette. In the summer, as a rule, watering should be more abundant than in winter. If the droplets remain on the stalks, they can cause black spots on them, which indicate the disease of the seedlings. Having noticed them, be sure to water the seedlings with a weak solution of potassium permanganate or phyto-alcohol. Such actions will fix everything, and your plant will not be in danger anymore.
Try to constantly monitor the temperature at which the plants are located. It must be reduced to +20. +16 ° C.
If it becomes lower than this, then there is a risk that the seedlings will succumb to hypothermia and it will be impossible to save it.
The first sheet should grow back in 1-2 weeks if you are properly caring for the seedlings. The subsequent growth depends on the temperature of the room, the quality of the soil, the variety of pelargonium and the shelf life of seeds.
A signal that it is time to transplant seedlings into pots will be the appearance of 2-3 leaves on the seedlings. It is at this age that the plants are ready for picking. It is not necessary to choose a too large pot for a flower; a container with a diameter of about 10 centimeters will be quite enough.
In the future, you may need another transplant in larger pots, but this is over time. They recommend containers made of natural material, clay is well suited. This will help protect the plant from excessive overheating and will retain moisture longer, which means that pelargonium will not require frequent watering.
When transplanting using the method of transshipment - move the plant from one container to another, without disturbing the clod of soil and root. This is the safest way. During the process, it is recommended to add a portion of the long-acting fertilizer in order for geranium to “get accustomed” to the new place. Do not use fresh organic fertilizer to supply the flower nutrition. To do this, it is better to take synthetic substances that are rich in potassium, phosphate and nitrogen, as well as other various trace elements: boron, magnesium, iron, copper.
Fertilizer will promote bright and lush flowering. Transplanted geranium needs to be watered with a small amount of water. In the warm season, the flower is carried to a balcony or garden.
In conclusion, it is worth noting that, with quite a bit of effort and time, you can grow a real miracle at home that will surprise you with its beauty, pleasant aroma, and also some healing properties. Try it and you will succeed!
Lighting and air temperature
When caring for young seedlings, you need to remember about their need for light. It is better to arrange capacities with seedling on east or western windows. On the south side, shading from direct sunlight, which in winter can damage delicate foliage, is required.
In the period of active growth and the formation of shoots geranium should be covered for at least 16 hours. Если естественного света недостаточно, то в вечернее время организовывают досветку. Летом горшки с цветком выносят на балкон, террасу или в сад.
In the room where pelargonium is grown, it is necessary to maintain the optimum temperature. It should be at the level of 20-25 degrees. In winter, an adult plant can withstand a short temperature drop of up to 10 degrees. But for young shoots such fluctuations are destructive.