For several centuries, Japanese chrysanthemum has been very popular with professional landscapers and florists. These plants bloom quite early, they are unpretentious in care, and also help to give the garden an original, more attractive look.
Chrysanthemum has a rounded regular bush shape and many small inflorescences. They differ in a variety of shapes and shades, which is why they can become a real decoration of the garden.
The history of the emergence of the culture of flowers
Southeast Asia is considered the birthplace of chrysanthemums, where this plant has been known since ancient times. This is evidenced by numerous legends, legends and interesting facts about these flowers. They played a particularly prominent role in the culture of China and Japan.
Japanese chrysanthemums, photos of which show all their peculiarity, brightness and attractiveness, are very popular not only in the Land of the Rising Sun, but throughout Europe. In Japan, these flowers appeared in the IV century and quickly spread there. They began to be called "kiku", which means "the sun." The country began to cultivate new varieties of chrysanthemums of various shapes and colors.
In the 10th century, Emperor Uda opened the first exhibition of the most beautiful chrysanthemums in the gardens of his palace in Tokyo. Then such exhibitions became a tradition, and the holiday of chrysanthemums in Japan became an annual event.
Writers, craftsmen and poets paid a lot of attention to the plant and assigned a special place in the works. Numerous literary works, scientific works, couplets of haiku have survived until today. A special place is occupied by chrysanthemum in Japanese painting, so you can see the flower in various engravings. This demonstrates the importance of the plant for the culture of Japan.
Since 797, the Japanese chrysanthemum is decorated with the emblem of this country, depicted on coins and the highest order. In the past, the flower was depicted on samurai helmets, which symbolizes the rising sun.
In 1888, the Order of Chrysanthemum was established in Japan. They were awarded 100 people, which speaks of the value of this award. This flower has many different signs and superstitions.
Japanese chrysanthemums are considered a symbol of the sun. This flower indicates the rapid course of life, its value and fragility. It is also considered a symbol of long life.
A strong and flowering bush on the windowsill is considered an indicator of an emotionally stable atmosphere in the apartment. This plant helps to maintain mutual understanding and love in a married couple. In any case, the chrysanthemum will become a true decoration of the garden and the house, and also it has useful properties.
The plant was brought to Europe from the Far East, where it was treated with special respect. Chrysanthemum almost immediately became a real decoration of the autumn garden.
This is a herbaceous ornamental plant up to 1.5 meters high, which can grow both outdoors and at home in a pot. Rhizome thickened, sometimes completely woody, often branched, releasing under the ground shoots. Inflorescences can be small or large in various shades. The aroma of chrysanthemum is saturated, specific, wormwood, but some varieties have a subtle, delicate and spicy scent. Reproduction is carried out by seeds or cuttings.
There are many different forms and types of chrysanthemum. This plant is often the subject of collecting many gardeners.
According to the system developed by the scientists of the imperial park, in Japan, chrysanthemums are primarily divided into those grown in the wild and domesticated. Cultivars are divided into decorative and edible. Decorative divide the timing of flowering on:
Autumn chrysanthemums - the largest group of plants, which is mainly grown in the country. It includes small-flowered, medium-flowered and large-flowered species. The diameter of the small-colored Japanese chrysanthemum does not exceed 9 cm. Terry - miniature plants with a basket diameter of up to 3 cm, with an osteous inflorescence, which in their form resemble a fishtail. By the number of rows of reed rims, they are eight-layered.
To medium-flowered chrysanthemum plants include plants with a diameter of 9-18 cm. They consist of reed flowers with flat or tubular halos. This category also includes flowers for special purposes, for example, intended for religious purposes.
Large-flowered chrysanthemums in Japan include varieties with inflorescences with a diameter of more than 18 cm with flat or tubular corollas. Depending on the diameter of the corolla, they are divided into thin-tube, medium-tube and thick-tube.
How to choose the seedlings?
Golden Japanese chrysanthemums, photos of which allow to evaluate their beauty and peculiarity of a flower, look great on a garden bed, at home on a windowsill, in winter gardens and bouquets. In addition, they can be used for culinary purposes, as young inflorescences are quite edible.
Now saplings of different varieties of chrysanthemums are on sale almost all year round. In the Russian latitudes, perennial Japanese chrysanthemums, which are frost resistant, have become particularly popular.
To grow a strong and healthy plant, you need to choose the right seedlings. When buying them, you need to pay attention not only to the general appearance, but also to the quality and number of buds. They should begin to open and show the tips of the petals. Only in this case, after planting in the soil chrysanthemum necessarily bloom. If the plant was purchased with green buds, the flowers may not open.
Growing from seed
Recently, golden Japanese chrysanthemums have become particularly popular. They bloom profusely, decorative and very beautiful. There is absolutely no difficulty in growing them from seed. Sowing is carried out directly on the flower bed or by growing seedling material.
In a flower bed, seeds are sown from mid-May. This method is suitable for almost all types of annual chrysanthemums. For this you need:
- dig holes, the distance between which is 35 cm,
- pour over
- put on 2 seeds,
- sprinkle with earth and cover with a film to save heat.
When the first shoots appear, you need to remove the film, and after 7 days to apply fertilizer. When the plants are about 7–12 cm tall, thin them out.
You can plant flowers, pre-grown material for seedlings. In this case, chrysanthemums begin to bloom earlier. Seeds are sown in late February or early March. For this you need:
- put drainage in shallow boxes,
- pour in soil mixture
- slightly moisten
- spread the seeds evenly
- sprinkle on top of the earth, a layer up to 1 cm,
- a little pour water, cover with glass or film.
Put the seed container in a place where the temperature is at least 24 degrees. Boxes with shoots need to be periodically ventilated. After 10-14 days to remove the film and put the container in a bright place. After the appearance of the first 4-6 leaflets, thin the plants. In May, after the first frosts take place, land on flower beds.
Where and how to plant?
To make the plant strong and strong, you need to know how to grow Japanese chrysanthemums. The flower requires a sunny spot, as well as drained neutral or slightly acid soil. In case of insufficient lighting, shoots are strongly drawn out and thinned, and late flowering.
Chrysanthemums like well-fertilized soil. On this ground, they bloom very magnificently. If the soil in the garden is not fertile enough, then before planting the cuttings you need to make:
- rotted manure
- complex mineral fertilizer.
Chrysanthemum cuttings are best planted not in the hole, but in a trench at a distance of 30-50 cm from each other. It depends on the size of the plant and the main characteristics of the variety. After planting, it is necessary to pour the soil into the trench with the Kornevina solution (1 g of product per 1 l of water). This contributes to the formation of a more powerful root system. As a result of this, a beautiful and strong plant will develop from a young sprig.
Top seedlings need to cover lightweight material. It will create the most favorable microclimate. The film will help protect the plant from direct sunlight and warm during the cooling season.
Which flower is a symbol of Japan?
Many people are sure that the floral symbol of Japan is Sakura. However, this is a big mistake. Residents of the country so passionately love chrysanthemum, which informally recognized its flower as a symbol of Japan. The official name of this plant is "Kikkamonsho", i.e. "Coat of arms in the form of chrysanthemum". And it is the flower with 16 petals that is considered to be a sign of imperial power, the Sun and wealth. It is often mistaken for a national emblem. The chrysanthemum flower is decorated with the coat of arms of the Japanese imperial court, and it is also located in Japanese passports.
Chrysanthemum as a symbol of Japan. Legend
Even Japan itself should thank the chrysanthemum for its origin. In ancient times, according to a famous legend, the Chinese cruel emperor learned that a magical plant, a chrysanthemum, grows on islands beyond the sea. From the juice of this flower it was possible to prepare the elixir of immortality. However, the magic was valid in the event that the flower will be picked by an honest, good-natured person with good intentions. The emperor knew that neither he nor his subordinates would succeed in retaining this power, since all of them have evil hearts. Therefore, he found an honest doctor and selected three hundred girls and young men so that each one would pick a flower. Of this amount, surely there must be at least one person who is able to preserve this action. On the island, all the people were fascinated by the beauty of the area. All of them understood that after they returned, the emperor would execute them, so nobody decided to come back to their homeland. On the island, they founded their own country called Japan.
Some facts about chrysanthemum
Chrysanthemum is considered one of the most common types of flower crops on our continent. Chrysanthemum received universal recognition and love for a variety of types and forms. Certain types of flower came to us from the countries of the Mediterranean and Africa, but China and Japan are still the main motherland. The first image of a flower is considered to be a drawing on Chinese porcelain products found by archaeologists. These products were made at least 2.5 thousand years ago. The flower can be seen in patterns on fabrics, dishes and vases. In ancient times, the chrysanthemum depicted on clothing was considered sacred, and therefore it was worn only by representatives of the imperial family.
The flower-symbol of Japan personifies happiness and wisdom, because The ancient Japanese identified this bright, radiant power and energy of a plant with the sun. It is the chrysanthemum that is associated with the sun goddess, Amaterasu, who is considered the head of the divine temple and the long-time ancestor of the Japanese emperors.
Flower symbol chrysanthemum in the life of Japan
As early as the 12th century, Emperor Gotoba, during the reign of 1183-1198, being a fierce fan of chrysanthemum, used the symbol of Japan as a personal seal. After him, this tradition was supported by the remaining rulers of the Kamakura era. Subsequently, it happened that the tacit consent of the ruling clan raised the chrysanthemum to the status of the sacred insignia of the imperial personages.
In the official order, the chrysanthemum with 16 petals was used as the coat of arms of the imperial court in 1869. After 2 years, the government issued a decree, according to which the right of representatives of the imperial house to use the image of chrysanthemum was enshrined. However, all the other Japanese were not entitled to use it. Currently, this prohibition is no longer valid.
During the Second World War, the chrysanthemum appeared as a symbol of the Great Japanese Empire. The image of chrysanthemum fastened to military aircraft and ships. Kamikaze warriors were also allowed to use the flower-symbol of Japan as a sign of courage. Soldier helmets, sleeve patches and covers were decorated with an anchor and chrysanthemum. The names of the military operations also mentioned the name of the chrysanthemum.
Healing and magical properties of chrysanthemum
Ancient Japanese women wiped their skin every day with a piece of cloth that was wetted with dew on chrysanthemum flowers. It was a kind of ancient face tonic. In the old days beautiful girls were called “O-kiku-san” (お き く さ ん), thus comparing their beauty with chrysanthemum.
Japanese have long believed that the flower-symbol of Japan, which was torn off on the 9th day of the 9th month, has magical power. They sincerely believe that these plants can protect from disease and all kinds of misfortunes. It is on this day that all of Japan celebrates Chrysanthemum Festival. Nowadays, this is not a public holiday, but in the Heian epoch it was celebrated in a big way by noble Japanese. The imperial court received many guests, among whom there were always poets and musicians. There were contests for the best poem about chrysanthemums, boating decorated with these flowers, and universal admiration for flower arrangements.
It turns out that the flower-symbol of Japan and its leaves can be eaten. They are used to strengthen and maintain health for several centuries, and not only in Japan. Substances that are contained in the chrysanthemum, help to stock up on vital forces and save them for a long time.
For the preparation of various dishes taken young flowers and leaves of vegetable chrysanthemum, containing the maximum amount of nutrients. A small amount of this drug is enough to improve the health of the whole organism. The leaves of the vegetable chrysanthemum, which are suitable for human consumption, are called syungiku. They have a pleasant smell and an unusual savory taste that can ennoble any of the most ordinary dish. Leaves are used to make salads and seasonings for meat and fish dishes, as well as omelettes, mashed potatoes and sandwiches. Leaves can be dried and used in ground form. I wonder if you would decide to try a similar dish, and would you like it?
The Japanese firmly believe that the chrysanthemum petals in a glass of wine will provide good health and long life. The symbol of Japan is anxiously guarded, its new varieties are displayed and carefully studied by gardeners.
Some more interesting facts about the symbol of Japan - chrysanthemum
Translated from Japanese, the name of the chrysanthemum means "Sun", so it symbolizes this celestial body, which gives life to everything on the planet. The inhabitants of the Land of the Rising Sun deeply respect the flower-symbol of Japan and devote a lot of time to its growth and the breeding of new varieties.
The love for chrysanthemum in the East is boundless, therefore national holidays are devoted to it. It is considered to be a symbol of well-being, longevity and happiness. A bouquet of chrysanthemums is considered an excellent way to show friendly feelings, because the chrysanthemum brings fun, joy and relaxation, and also helps to show the openness of friendly relations. At the same time, the red flower signifies the manifestation of passionate love feelings, the yellow color indicates tender love, and the white signifies sincerity.
Today, the symbol of Japan exists primarily for aesthetic pleasure. Since the 17th century, an important and large center of Japanese floriculture has been considered Nihonmatsu. It is here that exhibitions are held annually in the autumn. Throughout the province, you can see buildings, statues and flower beds of chrysanthemums. Great interest among the public is caused by dolls, which are a frame with the head, and the garments are chrysanthemums, carefully selected by designers.
Owners decorate their cars with chrysanthemums. Flowers and compositions, where the main role is played by the symbol of Japan, can be presented by everyone, from schoolchildren to the entire offices of large companies. Therefore, in Japan, chrysanthemums are grown absolutely everything: from small to large.
Chrysanthemum is considered a universal flower, almost the most ancient on our planet. The rich history of the existence of the plant goes far into antiquity. Many mentions of the flower are in the manuscripts of philosophers who admired and enjoyed the beauty and properties of the beautiful plant. Thanks to them, the popularity of chrysanthemums quickly spread from the East to Europe in the Middle Ages.
And what do you know about chrysanthemum - the symbol of Japan? Share in the comments.
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Chrysanthemum growing conditions
Chrysanthemum belongs to the genus of annual and perennial herbaceous plants, which includes 29 species. In nature, the flower grows in the temperate and northern areas of Asia.
When growing chrysanthemums, you need to follow the rules so that the plant blossoms and has a healthy appearance.
Для начала рассмотрим, какая земля нужна для хризантем.
Хризантема требовательна к почве, поэтому субстрат нужно подбирать особый. Грунт должен быть питательный, рыхлый и иметь хорошие дренажные свойства. Таким образом, если у вас в саду тяжёлые глинистые почвы, то перед посадкой цветка нужно провести культивацию и внести достаточное количество органических удобрений. Otherwise, the chrysanthemum will grow poorly and will not accumulate enough energy to survive the winter.
Did you know?Chrysanthemum from the Greek translates as "golden flowers", as many species have yellow flowers.
Lighting and humidity
Chrysanthemum is a flower of short daylight. Plant the plant in such a way that at noon its petals do not burn the sun. The plant is light-loving, but the light must be diffused. If the flower is grown at home, the pot should be put on the east or west side. Thus, the plant receives the desired light and does not "burn out".
Humidity should be about 40-50%. Therefore, in spraying needs only in summer or winter (if the flower is contained in the house).
Watering and dressing chrysanthemums
We turn to watering and feeding plants.
Chrysanthemum, although resistant to drought, but it is not necessary to take it as a rule. The flower should be watered often, but do not wet the ground too much so that the roots are not affected by rot. Moisturize the soil when the top layer of soil dries.
Important!When grown at home, you do not need to install a pallet and pour water there.
Chrysanthemums are very fond of additional feeding. The plant grows well on soils rich in minerals and humus, but the supply of nutrients is not eternal, so fertilizing is necessary and important. The plant loves organic fertilizer in the form of humus and compost. Also, the plant requires peat for normal growth and development.
- First stage - after landing in the ground. Use organics, which add superphosphate.
- Second phase - 2 weeks after the growing season. The third dressing is introduced during the formation of buds (make a mixture in which 25 g of phosphorus and 45 g of potassium).
Fertilizers for chrysanthemum.
Nitrogen Potash. Submitted under the small-flowered plants. In such fertilizers should be more potassium than nitrogen (using a mixture in which 25 g of nitrogen, 25 g of phosphorus and 45 g of potassium).
Important!With excessive saturation of the soil with nitrogen, the plant is drawn out, and the buds lose their color and become faded.
Nitrogen. Used for tall chrysanthemums with large flowers. In this case, the dose of nitrogen in fertilizers increases (50 g of nitrogen, 25 g of phosphorus and 25 g of potassium). The lack of nitrogenous fertilizers leads to the fact that the plant begins to weaken, the leaves turn yellow and fall off, the flowers become smaller. Nitrogen deficiency is determined by the paleness of the leaves (in a healthy flower the color is dark green).
Phosphorus. This element is necessary both during flowering and during the growing season. Especially important phosphorus for large plants.
Important!A large dose of phosphorus with a small dose of nitrogen increases the safety of flowers in the bouquet.
Phosphorus is recommended to be applied in early spring along with organic fertilizers. In the case of phosphorus, overdose does not carry any danger to the chrysanthemum.
Nuances of care
Every plant needs at least minimal care. Chrysanthemum also requires attention, which we will tell you about.
Since the chrysanthemum is an open ground plant, it needs frequent transplants, which are carried out at least once every 3 years.
Did you know?In China, there is a city that is named after a flower - Chu Siena. In this country, chrysanthemum is considered a symbol of autumn and is included in the “four noble” group.
Let's start with the autumn plant transplant. Transplantation into the pot is carried out during flowering, when the temperature at night drops below zero. The new “house” is filled with nutrient soil, gravel or stones are put on the bottom of the pot for good drainage.
The place for the winter period is chosen cool (+3 ˚C will be an ideal temperature), with poor lighting. When the chrysanthemum blooms, you need to cut the flower, leaving about 15 cm of the stem, cover with a paper bag and leave it until spring.
Important!When transplanting need to be careful with the roots. The slightest damage is detrimental to chrysanthemum.
Spring transplantation is carried out after warming, when at night the temperature does not fall below zero. To begin with, remove the sack from the pot, so that new sprouts appear. When the chrysanthemum "wakes up", it can be planted in open ground.
Trimming and Pinching
For a plant, pruning and pinching are very important, since after these actions new lateral shoots are formed and the development of the root system improves.
Important!Small-flowered varieties of chrysanthemum only pinch. Trimming does not apply.
Pinching and pruning are techniques during which the upper part of the flower's shoot is cut. The difference between pinching and trimming - in the amount of the top, which is cut. In order to get a lush bush, you need to pruning chrysanthemums in the spring. Also pruning is carried out if new cuttings are needed. If cuttings are not required - make a nip.
Let's start with pinching. Large-flowered chrysanthemums pinch when the plant reaches a height of 15 cm. Pinching is to remove the apical bud. Of all the shoots leave 2-3, which remove all side shoots and buds, except for the apical. Chrysanthemum bud formation: 1 - spring bud, 2 - the first crown, 3 - the second crown, 4 - the third crown
Pinching small-flowered plants is the formation of a well-developed crown with a large number of shoots. For this, pruning of the shoot over the 5th leaf is performed. From the remaining buds appear shoots that pinch over the 8th leaf. After pinching, we get a plant with a lush crown, which gives about 30 inflorescences.
Important!After the first pinching, you need to water the plant with a solution of fertilizers that contain nitrogen.
Pruning chrysanthemum. Most modern chrysanthemum hybrids do not need pruning buds, but the general rule is this: the smaller the buds, the larger the flowers. If you want to get a lush inflorescence of large diameter - you need to cut off all the side shoots and buds, leaving one main.
If you do not repot the chrysanthemum in the pot for the winter, then you should take care of the shelter of the plant. Let's write out the "instruction" of preparation.
Preparation of plants for winter begin in early September. The plant is fed with phosphorus-potassium fertilizers, which increase the frost resistance of the flower. After feeding, pruned dry branches and check for diseases (if the flower is sick, we are treating, and only then we continue to transplant). After processing and testing, chrysanthemum spud and level the soil around the plant. Before planting chrysanthemums for the winter you need to shorten the stem so that there is no more than 10 cm left.
The plant has been prepared, now it is worth making a shelter. For this purpose, bricks are placed around the bush, and boards are placed on top of them. Such a construction will save the plant from freezing and will not allow it to “suffocate”. In this case, it is important to observe the following rules: Do not cover chrysanthemums until severe frosts, as they can rot from an overabundance of moisture, Shelter should not be very heavy and dense.
Another option (more difficult in terms of execution) suggests the following: Dig a trench 50 cm deep and 0.7 m wide, dig chrysanthemum bushes (save a clod of earth on the roots) and place them in a trench. From above you need to fall asleep all the dry leaves or straw. When it starts to freeze, you need to cover the trench with leaves of metal or slate and cover it with earth on top (the layer should be about 12-15 cm).
Important!The minus of the second method is the inability to check the bushes. They can wake up earlier and sprout sprouts that will begin to stretch towards the light. In this case, the plant will spend a lot of strength and may die.
The best option for cutting chrysanthemums is from March to the end of May. Early varieties are grafted in March or April, later - in April or May. During intensive growth of the flower it is often watered and fertilized once every 2 weeks. The cuttings are broken out (less often cut off) from the shoots, on which there are at least 4 leaves (the cutting itself should also have 3-4 leaves).
Important!After pruning plants, the instrument must be disinfected to prevent the transfer of disease.
On the cut cuttings remove the bottommost sheet, others save. Planted escape into the substrate, which "breathes" and passes moisture. To do this, use peat, perlite or a mix of turf land, peat and sand (in equal parts). The soil layer must be at least 10 cm.
Moisturize before planting. Sow cuttings to a depth of 1.5 cm so that future roots get the maximum nutrients. When planting, it is necessary to maintain the temperature in the region of 17 ° C (a higher temperature may lead to the decay of the shoot). Do not forget about the lighting, which is very important for photosynthesis. At night, 100 watt lamps are used for additional lighting.
In the first week after planting, you should regularly moisten the soil and air. Watering is carried out every 2 days.
The rooting of cuttings in January-March is 24-25 days, in April-May - about 18 days.
After rooting, chrysanthemum plants are fed 2 times a week with full-value mineral fertilizers.
Did you know?Tea from chrysanthemums is very popular in Asia. Tea from this flower has healing properties and protects the body from cardiovascular diseases.
Chrysanthemums can be propagated by dividing the bush. To do this, dig the plant immediately after flowering and thoroughly washed the roots. If the bush is very high - it should be cut so that the flower does not experience a lack of moisture (the longer the shoot, the more it evaporates).
Also removed central lignified shoots. Further, a part of the peripheral part is broken out (the knife can be not used) with developed kidneys and is used for planting.
Before planting, you need to dig a hole of the same depth, on which the mother bush “sat”. After planting, the young plant is watered abundantly.
We turn to growing chrysanthemums from seeds at home. This method can grow both annuals and perennial plants.
You can sow the seeds immediately in the ground, and you can - in the pot. When sowing in open ground, the seeds are placed in the wells (the distance between the holes - 25 cm) 2-3 pieces, watered with warm water and sprinkled with earth. A week after sowing, you need to feed the plant with highly diluted liquid fertilizer. When young chrysanthemums grow to 10 cm in height, it is worth leaving one of the strongest of 2-3 plants. Landing in open ground is carried out in the month of May.
The disadvantage of planting in the open ground is the flowering time of chrysanthemum, which will occur only in late August.
When seeding in the pot, the beginning of the “works” is transferred to the end of February. To do this, take shallow boxes, put drainage in the form of gravel on the bottom and fill it with earth (soil + peat + humus in equal amounts). When sowing perennial chrysanthemums, the seeds are left on the surface, the annuals are placed at a depth of 5 mm.
After that, the earth is sprayed with water, covered with glass or film and put in a warm place (+ 24-25 ˚C). Periodically crops need to be checked, sprayed with warm water and aired. Young plants sprout 14 days after planting.
If the seedlings have grown thickly, then after the appearance of 3-4 “real” leaves, they are transplanted into cups or other, more capacious containers.
Important!Before transplantation, it is necessary to moisten the soil so as not to damage the young roots of the plants.
Immediately after transplantation, the plants are sprayed with the preparation “Zircon” in order to make the chrysanthemum settle down better.
After the most difficult stage, the care of young plants is reduced to maintaining the temperature at the level of 16-18 С.
In the open ground seedlings are planted in late May - early June.
At this breeding seed completed. After transplantation in open ground, the conditions of care are the same as for an adult plant.
The main pests, how to deal with them
Chrysanthemum is afraid of pests as well as other garden plants. That is why it is important to know the cause of the poor state of the flower and to deal with parasites on time. We turn to the consideration of the pests of chrysanthemum.Aphids often appear on chrysanthemums, so this is the first pest on our list to help you cope.
It affects this pest, in the first place, unblown buds of the plant. The result of this parasite are twisted leaves and deformed buds.
Aphids not only deprives the plant of strength, but also is a carrier of diseases, therefore it must be fought the sooner the better.
Popular methods of struggle offer a huge number of "drugs" to combat aphids. Here are the most popular:
- decoction of dried onion leaves (used at any time when chilled),
- tincture of garlic (crushed garlic is infused for 2 hours, the infusion is diluted with water and the plant is sprayed every 3-4 hours),
If folk methods do not suit you, you can use the following drugs:
- Karbofos, metaphos, phosphomide (dissolve 20 g per 10 l of water and spray the whole plant completely),
- Chemical aerosols from flower parasites (they offer a simpler version of use).
Another unpleasant "guest" for your flower. You can only look at it with a magnifying glass, but the small web on the plant can be seen with the naked eye.
These mites, like aphids, suck the plant sap. They bite through the cells and feed on the flower’s nutrients. With a strong lesion leaves lose color and dry out.
Important!Spider mites cause the greatest harm in dry and hot weather.
Consider the methods of pest control.
- UV light. Mite does not tolerate ultraviolet light, so it is enough once a week using a home UV lamp to light the flower for 2-3 minutes.
- Alcohol treatment. The whole plant is wiped with 96% alcohol, with a small layer of the solution applied with cotton. The treatment is repeated after a week.
Folk methods of tick control:
- garlic tincture (500 g of minced garlic is filled with 3 liters of water and infused for 5 days in a dark place, 60 ml of the infusion is diluted in 10 liters of water and 50 g of soap are added),
- chamomile tincture (1 kg of dry crushed chamomile pour 10 liters of hot water and leave for 14 hours, dilute the solution with water in a ratio of 1: 3 and add soap),
- tincture of dandelion medicinal (0.5 kg of fresh leaves insist 2-4 hours in water 40 ° C, processing is carried out after the leaves bloom and after flowering).
Remember!Mite can return to the plant, so after processing the chrysanthemum, you need to disinfect everything within a radius of 1 square. m from a flower.
These are small worms that cannot be seen with the naked eye. After a nematode is damaged, black dead tissues appear in the form of spots on the plant, which are located between the veins of the leaf.
There are some varieties of chrysanthemums that are resistant to nematode damage:
To rid the plant of nematodes, it is necessary to conduct heat treatment of the plant with warm water 45 С. You also need to remove the affected parts of the plant mechanically.
If the previous measures did not help, then, unfortunately, the plant must be destroyed along with the land in which it grew.
Important!When planting new plants, it is necessary to avoid land plots where nematode damages of plants were observed.
Gray rotGray rot is a fungus. When a flower is infected, brown spots appear on the leaves, which grow to the edges of the leaf. From the leaves, the rot can “migrate” to the stem, forming light brown spots on it.
Ultimately, the flower turns into a wet brown mass and dies. All affected parts of the plant are covered with a dense gray bloom of the fungus.
The main cause of fungus is the increased humidity of the air and soil. Rot most often develops in spring and autumn in sections and “wounds” of the plant.
To get rid of gray rot, use the following fungicides:
- "Ronilan FL 0.15%",
- "Rovral 50 SP 0.15%",
- "Sumileks 50 NP 0.1%",
- "Fundazol 50 SP 0.1%".
Mealy dew appears as white or gray-white scurf. Signs of the disease appear on young leaves at the beginning of the growing season. With a strong fungus infestation, young buds do not bloom and dry out. The causative agent is microscopic fungi that parasitize on the flower.
Mealy dew infects the plant in late July - August. This happens because of the accumulation of dew on the leaves, when using a large amount of nitrogen fertilizers or lack of potassium.
To get rid of the disease, you need:
- provide regular watering
- airing and good lighting of the plant.
- remove diseased and dried leaves from the plant.
You can also use the following drugs:
- "Anvil 5 SK 0.06%",
- "Bayleton 25 SP 0.05%",
- "Triadimefon 25 SP 0.05%",
- “Sistan 12 EC 0.03%”.
Important!Different varieties of chrysanthemum exhibit different sensitivity to chemical agents, therefore, it is necessary to carry out a trial spraying of a small area before the plant is fully treated.
Leaf RustMicroscopic fungus, infection which manifests itself in the form of small yellowish-green spots on the leaves. Gradually the color of the leaves changes to yellow with black dry spots, then dies off.
The fungus twists the leaves down, which is why the chrysanthemum changes its appearance.
To get rid of the disease, you need to feed the plant phosphate-potassium fertilizers. The bush should be sprayed with fungicides (Fundazole or 1% colloidal sulfur). All affected leaves are cut off and burned off-site.
Root bacterial cancerWith the defeat of root cancer on the plant growths are formed (much like a tumor in animals). The causative agent of the disease lives in the soil. With the defeat of chrysanthemum cancer grows rapidly and destroys the plant. Лечения данной болезни нет, поэтому куст выкапывают и сжигают.
Important!Нужно провести дезинфекцию грунта после поражённой хризантемы перед посадкой других растений.
So that your plant does not hit the cancer, you need to carry out prevention. It is necessary to dig up the soil in the fall and remove all plant residues from the site. Also take care to improve drainage.
The spotting, or septoriosis of chrysanthemum is manifested in the form of pale areas on the leaves. Orange spots appear on the back of the sheet. Septoria is also caused by microscopic fungi that are dangerous to the plant.
To get rid of the disease, you need to remove and burn the affected leaves, spray fungicides:
- "Polycarbacin (30-40 g / 10 l)",
- "Homezin (40 g / 10 l)",
- “Kuprozan (50 g / 10 l)”.
Weed control and potash-phosphate fertilizers are applied. Also, when watering should avoid moisture on the body of the flower.
We have brought to you the most important information about the cultivation and reproduction of chrysanthemums. They told about the nuances of flower care, both in the open field and at home. They told about pests and diseases that can and should be dealt with. Follow all the listed rules, and the flower will delight you with abundant flowering and healthy appearance.
Features flower care
Growing Japanese chrysanthemum does not cause any trouble, as it is very easy to care for the flower. Since the chrysanthemums are planted in the spring, you need to shade them a little from the scorching sun. For this you need to use non-woven material. It is arranged so that the fabric does not touch the leaves.
Water the chrysanthemum often need, because it is moisture-loving. Irrigated or rainwater is better for irrigation. If this is not possible, add a little ammonia to ordinary tap water to make it softer.
If chrysanthemum bushes grow in partial shade, then you may have to adjust the shape of the plant. Immediately after disembarking, the shoots pinch the tip, and after 3 weeks the procedure is repeated.
In the year of planting, Japanese white chrysanthemums do not fertilize. In the future, fertilizer is recommended 2 times per season, namely, at the initial stage of the growing season and when laying the buds.
Chrysanthemum loves organic and mineral complex fertilizers. During the flowering period required phosphorus-potassium fertilizer. Watering chrysanthemums with fertilizer is necessary only at the root, as if they hit the leaves, they will cause a burn.
It is very good to use rotted mullein or chicken manure for dressing, which you must first dilute with water. Moisturize the soil slightly before fertilizing. You can use ready-made granulated fertilizers based on chicken manure or manure.
Diseases and pests
Golden Japanese chrysanthemums suffer from diseases. This is mainly due to improper planting and care. This may be insufficient watering, incorrectly selected area and errors in the preparation of the soil. If the flowers of chrysanthemum become smaller, and the leaves began to wilt, then you need to transplant it to another place.
For a plant, aphid and spider mite are especially dangerous pests. To destroy aphids, shrubs need to be washed with soapy water, repeating the treatment every 7-10 days. Well helps the treatment of plants with a solution of "Pyrethrum". In the fight against aphids and spider mites, garlic infusion has proven itself well.
The chrysanthemum itself is an amazing plant, as it can act as an insecticidal agent. It helps in the fight against Medvedka, as the flowers and leaves contain a special essential oil with a specific odor.
The best way of reproduction of chrysanthemums is considered to be rhizome division, as this will allow preserving the varietal characteristics of the plant. After a few years, it has rather thick shoots and is a little suspended in development, which means it loses its decorative qualities. This means that it is time to update the flower.
The best time for this is spring, when the bush is ready for planting. To do this, divide the plant into several equal parts. Place the cut must be immediately sprinkled with ashes to prevent contamination of the chrysanthemum. If you need to get a few shoots, then cutting is ideal for this.
Before the plant begins to bloom, you need to cut the dense branches and lower them into the water or wet sand. After a few days, such cuttings will take root, and they can be transplanted into fertile soil.
Preparing for the winter
It is important not only to know how to grow chrysanthemums, but also how to preserve them until spring. Bushes need to be excavated annually for the winter and planted in the soil mixed with sand, sawdust and peat. This will allow better retain moisture. After that, you need to take the plant to a cool place.
In warm regions, chrysanthemums can be left to spend the winter in flower beds. To do this, before the onset of cold weather, it is recommended to cut the stems of flowers up to 10-15 cm and sprinkle their roots with a thick layer of organic mulch.
Growing at home
Looking at the photo of a bouquet of golden Japanese chrysanthemums, you can say for sure that these are just excellent flowers that can be a decoration of a house. Thanks to the efforts of breeders, they can be grown on the windows. It is rather simple to care for them and for this you need to remember that chrysanthemums:
- love the fresh air
- prefer coolness
- love spraying
- require regular feeding.
It is imperative to remove faded flowers in a timely manner so that the plant does not lose its decorative qualities. A young plant needs to be transplanted once a year, and an adult - 2 times a year.
Observing all these simple rules for growing chrysanthemums, you can get a healthy and strong plant with lush flowering.
What do chrysanthemums symbolize?
Chrysanthemums in China have been known since ancient times. Images of chrysanthemums are found in the ornaments of ancient structures, on fragments of ceramics and porcelain, on coins. The homeland of chrysanthemum is East Asia, but it is not precisely known which particular state is. Japan and China are still arguing over the right to be the birthplace of this beautiful flower.
The chrysanthemum flower symbolizes mature beauty and chastity, sublime loneliness and tranquility, perfection and abundance, good spirits in the face of life adversities and the approaching winter. It is a symbol of the emerging yin. Late autumn snow often lies on the delicate petals of a chrysanthemum.
Chinese artists liked to compare themselves with chrysanthemums. The pictures always emphasize the contrast between the bright flower and the dark green of the leaves. The image of chrysanthemum in the past served as a symbol of nobility, happiness and longevity. In honor of the chrysanthemum staged luxurious feasts, devoted a lot of poems, myths and legends.
Your foliage is of fringed jasper -
Hangs above the ground behind the layer,
Tens of thousands of your petals
How gold is chased burn ...
Oh, chrysanthemum, autumn flower,
Your proud spirit, your kind of unusual,
On the perfections of valiant men
They say to me ... - Li Tsinzhao (1084-1155) "Chrysanthemum"
Chrysanthemum flowers on the beams of one of the pavilions in the palace of Prince Gong (Gunwang), Beijing
The legend of how chrysanthemums came to Japan
Once, many centuries ago, the mighty emperor ruled in China. He was not afraid of anything in the world, except for old age, and only thought about one thing: to rule and live as long as possible. And so he called his chief doctor and ordered him to prepare a potion that would prolong his youth.
The cunning doctor bowed low before the emperor: “Oh, mighty sovereign,” he said. “I could have made such an elixir, but for this you need to get wonderful flowers that grow in the east, on distant islands ...”
- I will order to immediately deliver those flowers! Cried the emperor.
“Oh, if it were that simple,” the doctor sighed. - The whole secret is that a person with a pure heart should tear them down - only then the plant will give its wonderful power ...
The emperor thought: he knew that neither he nor his courtiers were suitable for fulfilling this condition. And then he decided to send 300 young men and 300 girls to the islands: surely among them there are quite a few people with a pure heart!
So they did - they equipped many ships and sent them, headed by the imperial doctor, to the islands - where Japan is now located. At one of them, they found a beautiful flower - chrysanthemum and could not stop looking at it!
“I don’t know if this flower is suitable for an elixir,” the doctor exclaimed, “but without a doubt, it pleases the heart and rejuvenates the soul!”
The wise doctor knew the insidious and cruel temper of his emperor well. "Surely," he thought, "the emperor will think that my companions and I have tried the elixir first, and will order all of us to be executed as soon as I receive the medicine." And then everyone decided not to go back. They remained to live on the islands and founded a new state there. It is not known whether they prepared a wonderful elixir or not, but the chrysanthemum became their favorite flower for them ...
Perhaps this is how Japanese people found out about chrysanthemum?
The highest state award of Japan is called the Order of Chrysanthemum. Since 1888, when it was established, only 100 people were awarded. Chrysanthemum is depicted on the Japanese state emblem, adorns the hall of the parliament and the cover of a passport. In the past, the chrysanthemum was depicted on the helmet (kabuto) the militant knights of Japan - samurai, symbolizing the rising sun, that is, Japan.
A variety of chrysanthemums and their symbolism
It is believed that the original flowers of chrysanthemums were purple. Then the Chinese gardeners brought flowers of different colors and shapes. Currently in China alone there are more than 20 species and over 3000 varieties of chrysanthemum. The diameter of the smallest chrysanthemum flower does not exceed 3 centimeters. All over the world, more than 10,000 varieties of chrysanthemums are known: large and small, terry and simple, with semicircular petals and sharp.
Yellow chrysanthemums symbolize respect and admiration. Red chrysanthemums - love, passion, energy of life. Since ancient times, white chrysanthemums symbolized grief. They were supposed to lay at the grave of the deceased. This tradition has been preserved to this day. So, for example, in Beijing, at the Mao's of Mao Zedong, you can buy for a nominal fee, and subsequently put a white chrysanthemum at the entrance as a sign of deep sorrow and respect for the “great helmsman”.
Holiday "double nines"
Chrysanthemum is dedicated to the holiday "double nines" 重九 chongjuor 重阳节 Chongyangwhich is celebrated in Japan and China on the 9th day of the 9th month of the lunar calendar. According to the "Book of Changes" ("I Ching"), this day has a powerful yang (nine - symbol yang) and therefore potentially dangerous. In order to avoid danger, on this day you need to climb a high mountain, drink wine or tea from chrysanthemums and put on the branches of cornel.
And today, this holiday is widely celebrated in China. Pupils especially teach him poems about chrysanthemums, they drink chrysanthemum tea at home, and those who adhere to stricter traditions - wine made from chrysanthemums. Also on this day often coincides with the opening of exhibitions of chrysanthemums. It is believed that the flower of chrysanthemum, plucked on this day, has a special magic power. Chrysanthemums, laid on this day to the statue of Buddha, are able to ward off illnesses, misfortunes and hardships. And chrysanthemum tea has healing power all year round.
Chrysanthemums and chicks
Photos from the exhibition of chrysanthemums and other autumn flowers in Yuanmingyuan Park
In the Chinese parks and squares in the fall arrange exhibitions of chrysanthemums. It is even incredible what chrysanthemums are, what compositions can be made from these flowers. In Beijing Park Yuanmingyuan - one of these exhibitions.
Various compositions of chrysanthemums
The book is a worthy companion of chrysanthemums
The exhibition of chrysanthemums and the history of the park Yuanmingyuan
Decorative gazebo surrounded by chrysanthemums
Chrysanthemums and not only
Chrysanthemum and stone lantern
Flower arrangement in the boat
Island with flowers
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