Adiantum, Adiant (lat. Adiantum) is a genus of ferns from the family Pterisovye, consisting of more than 200 species of plants. The origin of the name is Greek and means "waterproof plant" (from the particle "a", meaning "not", and the word meaning wetting, moisturizing). And those who know about this plant can really say that it always remains dry, no matter what the humidity around it.
Surprisingly, the dry outwardly fern has its tropics in the Andes of South America and East Asia. This plant likes to settle near rivers, waterfalls, where the land on rock is very moist.
The adiantum fern is described in the writings of the great Roman historian Pliny the Elder, in whom this plant is found in the book Natural History. This type of fern is quite popular and common in greenhouse business. He has no less demand among ordinary people who grow it as a houseplant. Adiantum is not only beautiful in appearance, but also useful, it can be used for medicinal purposes, which makes it doubly valuable.
Adiantum plant description with photo
Adiantum: home care is simple
Adiantum flower is a perennial grassy fern, the rhizome of which is thin and curved, covered outside with brownish-black scales. The arrangement of the leaves can be either regular or opposite, the stalks are dark, shiny, covered with scales at the base. Their length is 25 centimeters.
The leaf itself is green, maybe with a grayish tint. The plate is quite wide, smooth, dissected. The appearance of the segments may vary. There are trapezoidal, wedge-shaped and obovate elements, which are located on the petiole fanlike. On the veins on the underside of most of the segments are sori with sporangia of the linear, round and oblong type.
Adiantum is cultivated in the open field. As a rule, it is stopant-like adiantum. For growing in the same room, they use “Venerin hair”, Ruddy's adiantum, delicate, transparent and other types.
Adiantum photo care at home
One of the principles of successful cultivation of this fern - its frequent watering. It is necessary to ensure that the earth com never dried out, otherwise the death of individual leaves and rhizome sections, and then the whole plant, will begin. In turn, an excess of moisture will start the process of decay of the rhizome with roots, which will also lead to death.
What to do to avoid the death of a fern due to improper watering? To ensure normal moisture, the pot is placed in a container with warm water (separately for this purpose, separated warm water is harvested) so that the entire soil volume is saturated. Evidence of this is the wet gloss of the surface.
Then the pot with fern is transferred to the sink, so that the glass is filled with water, wipe the bottom and put on the window sill. Both in winter and in summer they are watered in the same way, but in the cold season the number of irrigations is halved.
Adiantum flower photo
The plant is best grown in a small pot, as it prefers cramp. Fern is transplanted with Venerin hair no more than once every three years and only when the roots penetrate through the drainage holes. In the same seasons when transplantation is not planned, only the first 5-7 cm of soil is replaced.
- The Adiantum pot is selected wooden, spacious, you can choose a ceramic, not covered with glaze. There must be sufficient drainage holes. This is due to all the presence of a large root system.
Begin landing adiantum with the installation of drainage to the bottom in large quantities. Then fall asleep pot loose soil. Select a special acidic mixture, saturated with humus. The ideal composition would be: leaf soil and peat (1: 2). A part of the soil substrate is poured to the drainage layer, then the plant is placed in a new pot using the transshipment method, filling the rest of the soil to it, ensuring that there are no empty spots. At the same time, the soil is not compacted, as for the adiantum the loose substrate will be optimal.
Adiant Diseases and the Most Common Pests
This fern has a natural chemical protection. Its leaves contain poisons that counteract the pest invasion. But their own mechanisms do not always work, because a number of insects get used quickly to any means. In particular, it is easy to adapt to many poisoned insects, mealybugs, aphids and spider mites.
With flaps fighting with alcohol. To do this, moisten an ear stick in it and treat the surface with parasites. To avoid aphids, the leaves are wiped with a soap solution, after which the remnants of it are washed off with copious amounts of water. You can also treat the plant with special means, such as:
Antitlin, Fitoverm and Biotlin also remove mealybugs well. Aktar, Mospilan, Confidant, and Confidor are still used to fight him. To eliminate spider mites, Fitoverm and Aktellik are used.
Fungal, viral, and other diseases are not peculiar to adiantum, but sometimes a plant can lose its beautiful appearance due to improper care. For example, with insufficient watering, the edges of the leaves become dry and brown. And if the fern sheds greens altogether, you need to humidify the air by spraying and start doing it always, because the room is too dry. The burning of the green part of the fern indicates an excess of light, so the pot needs to be moved to a darker place. If the leaves curl but do not turn brown, it means that the room is too cold and humid.
Useful properties of adiantum
Adiantum flower photo and description
Fern greens contains the following biologically active compounds:
- essential oils,
- phenol carboxylic acids,
- lipids, etc.
Due to its rich composition, adiantum is actively used in medicine in Western Europe. On its basis, make infusions, syrups, powders, extracts. Thus, the water extract of fern has an antibacterial effect, and the syrup stimulates expectoration and reduces the temperature.
- On this basis, adiantum is actively used to combat diseases of the respiratory system, spleen, liver, and bladder.
- Outwardly, the sap of the plant is used in the form of lotions and compresses for the bites of animals (for detoxification), the presence of wounds that do not heal for a long time. Traditional medicine also uses an adiantum to treat alcoholism.
Cosmetic application of adiantum is equally important. From it make a decoction or juice, which is added to the water. Using a similar hair rinse, you can get rid of dandruff and even cure some intractable skin diseases.
There are two types of adiantum breeding: shrub dividing and seed (or spore) breeding. Consider them in more detail:
1. Dividing bush. This type of reproduction is carried out in the spring, when lady's hair is transplanted. It is freed from the old pot and divided with a sharp knife into several parts. Place the cuts sprinkled with coal, after which each part of the rhizome is sown in a new pot. Only one plant with a lot of growth points is selected for transplantation, otherwise the adiantum will die during transplantation.
One should not worry when the adiantum will not show signs of growth for a long time after transplantation - this is normal. Before dividing the rhizomes, the earthen room should be dry. When planting a new plant in the ground, it should be ensured that the root collar is not recessed into the ground to avoid the rotting of greenery.
2. Spores breeding. Adiantum is successfully grown using spores. For their germination pick a pot of shallow depth, which is filled with a mixture of peat, sand and leaf earth in the ratio of 2: 1: 1. Before use, the substrate is doused with boiling water to disinfect it. As soon as after the procedure, the earth acquires a normal temperature, seeds are planted on its surface, which are covered with glass.
- Sprout spores in a warm room. Adiantum will rise faster if the pot is heated from below to 21 ºC. Germination period is 1-10 weeks.
As soon as small plants appear above the surface, the glass is removed, and the pot is placed in a bright place where direct sunlight does not fall. Through time, the saplings dive. planting them 2-3 pieces in small pots with peat.
Types of Adiantum
Adiantum Venerin Hair
Adiantum Venerin Hair (Adiantum capillus-veneris). This fern in the open area can be found in the Crimea, the Caucasus, in Central Asia. His favorite place of germination is limestone soil near the source of moisture. The plant has a thin black rhizomes, and the name it is due to its characteristic leaves. They are very thin, light green, fan-shaped, located on a long 25-cm stem. This is the most popular indoor plant of adiantums.
Adiantum stopovidny ibrikatum Adiantum pedatum imbricatum
Stopant-shaped adiantum (Adiantum pedatum). Beautiful and most elegant view of ferns. It lives in deciduous forests of North America and East Asia. Some individuals of this plant grow to 60 cm in height. The leafy part is flat, shiny, located unilaterally, light green in color. Leaves are pinnate, with cuts on the sides, sitting on small thin petioles horizontally. This adiantum survives even in severe frost (down to -35 ºC), so it can be planted in open soil.
View is presented in the form of the following varieties:
- Compactum - a small plant up to 35 cm high,
- Imbricatum is a dwarf plant not more than 15 cm tall,
- Yaponikum is the largest adiantum variety, which is 45 cm high and 30 cm wide. Its young shoots have a copper-pink shade, which gradually changes to green as it grows,
- Aleuticum is a small adiantum with a height of 10 cm and a width of up to 20 cm. It is ideal for growing in a pot, as it withstands exposure to the sun.
Adiantum tender Adiantum tenerum Sexy Pink
Adiantum tender (Adiantum tenerum). It is also called the pink adiantum. This fern grows in the Antilles and in the tropics of America. Rhizome plants creeping, short. The leaves are three-pediculate, with wedge-shaped bases and wide-wide upper part. The length of the leaves is 70 cm (excluding the petiole, the length of which is another 30 cm), and its width is 50 cm.
These varieties are grown:
- Farleyens - has attractive twisted leaves.
- Scutum Roseum - remarkable for its colorful young leaves, which vary in shades from pink to green.
Adiantum small hair Adiantum hispidulum
Adianteum small hair (Adiantum hispidulum). This is a representative of the African fauna that grows in the mountains on the border with snow. It is also found in Australia and New Zealand, India, Madagascar. The plant has a creeping rhizome and relatively small leaves (15-25 cm) of the flat-dissected type, growing on long petioles (about 35 cm) with small bristles. The leaves of the second order are small (2x0.5 cm), covered with setae, diamond-shaped. This is a very popular houseplant.
Adiantum Ruddy Adiantum raddianum
Adiantum Ruddy (Adiantum raddianum). It is also called wedge. An epiphytic plant from Brazilian forests with huge leaves that are 45 cm long and 25 cm wide. The leaves of this fern bend beautifully. They consist of dozens of small leaves, sitting on black shiny petioles.
The following varieties are used in indoor floriculture:
- Micro pinnum and Grasillium - have very small leaves, the normal existence of which requires high humidity in the room. This can be achieved only in the florarium.
- Festum and Fritz Loot - these varieties are unpretentious, resistant to living indoors.
Adiantum tailed Adiantum caudatum
Tail adiantum (Adiantum caudatum). The leaves of this fern are very long (about 60 cm), therefore an ampelous plant is made from it in room floriculture. The petioles are brown in color, the leaves at the ends are offspring. It is necessary to ensure that the earthy bed with this plant does not dry out, since it is very susceptible to this.
Adiantum beautiful Adiantum formosum
Adiantum beautiful (Adiantum formosum). High ferns, bush which reaches 1 m, but they have a fragile rhizome. The color of the roots is purple-black, the leaves are dark green, multi-feathery, triangular-obovate.
Adiantum charming Adiantum venustum
Adiantum charming (Adiantum venustum). Place of growth - Kashmir and Nepal. The length of the leaves is small, 20 cm. They are narrow, pointed. The color of the petioles is purplish black.
Adiantum wedge-shaped (Adiantum cuneatum
Wedge-shaped adiantum (Adiantum cuneatum). Similar to the adiantum beautiful, but it has other forms of sori. Growing in southern Brazil.
Adiantum transparent Adiantum diaphanum
Adiantum transparent (Adiantum diaphanum). Plant height is 25-40 cm, leaves are pinnate or double-pinnate. The leaves are dull green, thin petioles.
Adiantum frarans Adiantum Fragrans
Adiantum fragran (Adiantum Fragrans). This is a popular houseplant that grows in the Andes. The fern develops quickly. Differs oval leaves of pale green, sitting on short 10-15 cm petioles.
Adiantum venerin hair - a flower that is most popular among gardeners in connection with its extraordinary aesthetic qualities, the exclusivity of which you can see by looking at his photo.
This plant is a perennial, the rhizome of which has a short creeping shape, additionally framed by narrow black shades. The height, as a rule, does not exceed 60 cm. Petioles containing leaves are black-brown, thin, 15 to 25 cm long.
The leaves are a pale green shade, about 3 cm in length and 2 cm in width, with rather thin petals, delicate to the touch, obovate, at the base - wedge-like and fan-shaped at the top.
This type of fern in nature can often be found near water bodies in Australia and New Zealand. Often grown as a decorative species, especially well-suited for breeding in rooms with temperatures approaching 25-30 ° C.
It has a creeping thin root, often located just a few centimeters deeper than the surface of the earth. The leaves of the first order, the length of which is up to 60 cm, and the width varies within 40-45 cm, triangular, three or four feathery.
The leaves of the second order are of a dark green color, grassy, resemble a rhombus in shape, length is 2 cm, width is up to 1 cm. The upper part of the leaves ends with a frame containing young spores. Scapes somewhat rough to the touch, up to 50 cm long.
This type of fern can often be found in the tropical zones of Central and South America. Well suited for decorating lawns and drawing up flower ensembles, thanks to large leaves of unusual shape.
Large-leafed adiantum is a perennial fern, whose height varies from 30 to 50 cm. Leaves that have a special pointed segment on the cut of which small strips of ripening spores are placed show recognition of this plant.
In addition, it is notable for the fact that its young foliage has a pinkish shade, and only after some time does it turn light green.
Stopant-shaped adiantum is primarily known for being a rather cold-resistant culture, therefore it is the best fit for cultivation in outdoor gardens.
This type of fern has leaves of a bright green shade, flat, with thin dark-colored rods, twice pinnate and symmetrically located.
The upper edge of the leaf is decorated with segments that have a somewhat split appearance, which contain ripening spores. Mature fern can reach sizes up to 60 cm. Rhizome rather thick, superficially located.
This species of this flower is also known as small hair. In the wild, it can be found in the African mountains, where it rises up to the snowiest lines, in the open spaces of India, on the peaks of Australia, in parts of the island of Madagascar and in New Zealand. Widely cultivated as a houseplant.
This plant has a thin creeping, branched root, from which strong petioles, covered with small bristles, whose length reaches 35 cm, depart.
The leaves of the second order are diamond-shaped, up to 2 cm long and about 0.5 cm wide, with fluffy bristles located on both sides. Along the edges of the leaves of the second order are densely located sporangia.
The habitat of its habitat is the tropical part of America, as well as the archipelagoes of the Lesser and Greater Antilles. This species is known as well-suited for growing for ornamental purposes.
The plant is equipped with a short, creeping, superficial rhizome. It has leaves in the shape of feathers, the length of which reaches 70 cm, and its width is about 50 cm.
The leaves of the second order resemble the wedge shape at the base and are wide-edge closer to the upper edge, are placed on the petioles, which are mostly dark black in color, the height of which reaches 30 cm.
It differs from its counterparts in that it has a more grassy-looking form. Рекомендуется использовать с целью озеленения тёплых полутемных помещений с окнами, которые ориентированы в западную, восточную либо северную сторону.
The height of this flower does not exceed 70 cm. The leaf color is green, the shape is round, on the edge plate of each leaf there is a jaggedness in which there are ripening spores. The leaves are placed on thin stalks, up to 20 cm long, green. The diameter of each sheet can reach up to 7 cm.
It belongs to one of the most used types of adiantum in landscape gardening. Most often in the natural environment it can be found in South America.
At the disposal of modern gardeners now there are several varieties of this type of fern, the most popular of which is adiantum frarans.
Adiantum Ruddy is a fern that stands out for its creeping leaves with wedge-shaped segments that are framed by a round edge. Slices of each sheet do not exceed 1 cm in length. The leaves themselves are rather large in size, reach a length of 45 cm, are placed on drooping, rather thin petioles that have a dark brown or black tint all over, except for the root zone, where they are greenish.
This variety of adiantum is a grassy flower, the height of an adult plant varies from 35 to 40 cm, the base of the leaves is double-pinnate, becoming feathery along the way.
His fronds have a length of about 15-25 cm and a width of about 3-4 cm, are placed on thin petioles up to twenty centimeters in size with smooth leaves of oval configuration of a pale green shade.
Homeland of this species is Nepal and Kashmir. This plant, despite its rather attractive appearance, did not find widespread use in our latitudes due to quite specific care needs and growing conditions.
It grows in the form of a shrub that forms narrow leaves approximately 20 cm long. Leaves rather sparse, light green shade, slightly pointed form, hang from the stems.
The leaves become light brown after the first frost. Scapes to which leaves are attached have a black-purple color. So, the fern will serve as a magnificent decoration of your garden or home environment. We hope that this article will help you in choosing the right type of ferns, which will best be able to meet your needs.
Adiantum fern has creeping stems with frequent root processes. The roots themselves in the soil are arranged vertically. They are covered with miniature red or dark brown scales that resemble a short nap. Twice-dissected leaflets have a drooping shape. Thin and smooth petiole painted black. Its length is 10-25 cm depending on the species.
Leaflets are alternate or opposite. Shares may have a fan-shaped, rhomboid or wedge-shaped form. Very thin leaves painted bright green. The segment length is 2.5-3 cm, and the width is 1.5-2 cm. Sori are on the back side of the sheet in the form of small dots. Usually they are located at the edges of the veins.
Adiantum leaves contain many nutrients. A decoction of them has expectorant and antibacterial properties. The plant is used in folk medicine and pharmaceuticals.
171 species have been registered in the genus, but more recently only 2-3 species were sold in the flower shops. Today the range is slightly expanded. The most popular remains adiantium venerin hair. The rhizome of a fern is covered with dark scales 1-2 cm long. Double-pinnate oblong foliage is located on petioles 10–15 cm long. The width of the frond is 10 cm and the length is 25-40 cm. There are drop-shaped sporangia in the upper part of each share.
Adiantum stopovidny. The plant forms a lace bush up to 60 cm high. Soft fronds bend in an arc. They consist of oval light green lobes. The edge of the leaves several times dissected and narrowed.
The most popular decorative variety adiantum frarans. It is known for its high growth rate and mop of small openwork leaves.
Adiantum chopped Compact view up to 50 cm in height. Finger-like lobes are seen in twice and three pinnate foliage. The length of the frond is 15-22 cm. The rigid oval-shaped segments are covered with a short nap.
Adiantum beautiful. The plant forms a spreading shrub up to a meter in height. The leaves have a triangular shape and are divided into many thin segments. The shares fit snugly together and form a dense cascade crown.
Adiantum reniform. A rather unusual plant with small leathery leaves on separate erect petioles. Sori located around the perimeter of the sheet plate. The height of an adult fern is 10-12 cm.
Growing an adiantum from a spore is pretty easy. This method allows you to get a few dozen plants at a time. Sowing plan for early spring. First, prepare a hotbed - a shallow box with a drainage layer and disinfected peat soil. Matured spores are scraped from a fronting spoon on a piece of paper. They are dried for 1-2 weeks. Spores are evenly distributed over the soil surface, without deepening. The ground is sprayed with water and covered with glass. Keep a greenhouse at a temperature of + 20 ... + 21 ° C. Daily seedlings air and moisturize. Shoots appear not too evenly within 1-3 months. Young ferns need bright diffused light. Grown up plants no longer need shelter. They are thinned out so that the distance between adiantums is at least 2.5 cm. The grown ferns are transplanted to a permanent place in several pieces.
Use in traditional medicine
Adiantum Venerin hair before other ferns began to be used in medicine. The ancient Romans, noticing its appearance similar to the hair, recommended it for the treatment of baldness. In the Middle Ages in Armenia they were treated with jaundice, urolithiasis and chronic fever. Nowadays, in the Caucasus and Western Europe, the tradition of rinsing hair with infusion of adiantum has been preserved to make it shine. In China, where traditional medicine is very popular, alcoholism and tobacco addiction are treated with a decoction of leaves.
It is believed that ferns have the ability to protect the house from evil spirits, as well as reassure their owners and eliminate conflicts.
Although we have not found any reports on the toxicity of this species, a number of ferns contain carcinogens, so you need to be vigilant. Many ferns also contain the enzyme thiaminase, which deprives the body of the B complex of vitamins. In small quantities, this enzyme will not harm people whose diet contains foods rich in vitamin B, although in large quantities can cause serious health problems. The enzyme is destroyed by heat or drying, so there is no enzyme in the treated plant.
The leaves are used as a side dish for sweet dishes. Dried leaves are used to make tea. Syrup, made from plants, is used as a refreshing summer drink. The fern is boiled in water with sugar on a slow fire for several hours, the liquid turns into a thick syrup. Then it is mixed with fruit juices to make a refreshing drink.
Editorial floral-house does not bear any responsibility for any negative consequences from the use of plants. Be sure to consult with a specialist before using medicinal plants.
Adiantum has a long history of medicinal use and was the main ingredient in the popular cough syrup called Capillaire, which was used until the 19th century. The plant is practically not used in modern herbal medicine. Fresh or dried leafy branches have antitussive, astringent, sedative, expectorant, antipyretic, laxative effects. Tea or syrup is used in the treatment of cough, sore throat and bronchitis. Externally used as a poultice for snake bites, bee stings. In Nepal, a paste made from leaves is applied to the forehead to relieve headaches. The plant is best used fresh, although it can also be collected in the summer and dried for later use. Leaves are also used to strengthen hair and treat dandruff.