From the history of the formation of egg breeds of chickens Egg or, as they are also called, “egg-laying” breeds of chickens were derived (as the name implies) specifically for the production of a large number of eggs. Breeds appeared at different times. For example, some have arisen as a result of natural breeding or crossing, carried out without the participation of specialists (Leghorn or Ushanka breed, for example).
Back in the 19th century, the creation of egg breeds of chickens was put “on the conveyor” and when breeding certain breeds, a rather complex multi-step process was carried out: crossing representatives of different breeds, breeding, increasing the population of certain breeds, consolidating certain qualities or creating new ones.
When breeding egg breeds of chickens, special emphasis is always placed on the production of eggs, but the meat quality of the bird is completely ignored, since there is an inverse relationship between the weight of the bird and the egg production: accordingly, the higher the first indicator, the lower the second.
Characteristics and features
Egg-laying hens are quite similar to each other. Among the characteristics common to all egg breeds, without exception, include the following:
- Low body weight. Chickens usually differ in rather small sizes (at least in comparison with meat breeds): the chicken weighs on average about 2-2.2 kg, and the weight of the rooster reaches only 3 kg.
The backbone of the bird is fairly light, the plumage is thick, but tight to the body, the wings and tail are well developed, have a great length. The bird is characterized by mobility and high activity.
Due to this unpleasant feature, an increase in the number of poultry is possible only with the use of a special incubator, or other breeds capable of incubation. Fast metabolism. Egg chickens are observed to have an accelerated metabolism, which is necessary for regular and frequent egg footnotes (in fact, every 25 hours).
It is for this reason that egg breeds are characterized by increased appetite, and, therefore, need mineralized nutrient feed. Unfortunately, there is a lack of calcium in egg breeds, which is important for high egg production rates.
Description of the best breeds
Among the large species diversity of egg breeds of chickens, one can especially single out a few of those that are deservedly considered the best in their category:
It is considered one of the most famous egg breeds of chickens.
- The body has a rather raised form, resembling a triangle.
- Comb of medium size, different bright red shape. In cocks it is erect, in hens it hangs a little.
- Chest convex, well developed.
- There are several types of coloring of leggorn: white, brown, fawn, etc.
- Representatives of this breed are mobile, have an excellent appetite, are hardy, perfectly acclimatize in almost any conditions.
- One layer gives about 200-250 eggs per year.
The famous breed, known in the world as the Devil's Bird. Often this breed is not attributed to the egg, and to the meat-egg breeds.
- Bird Considered to be productive, egg-eating and at the same time have tender, tasty meat.
- The appearance of the breed is extremely unusual: it has a completely black color, and the crest is V-shaped.
- The weight of the chicken is about 3 kg, the rooster - about 3.5 kg.
The breed was bred on the territory of present-day Ukraine 300 years ago. An excellent example of the absolute harmony of appearance and technical characteristics:
- Representatives of the breed have high egg production, well-developed parental instinct and excellent appearance.
- The bird's head is rather small, with a rose-shaped / leaf-like crest.
- Auricles are covered with thick tanks (that is why the breed got its name).
- The body of a bird is rather dense, slightly elongated.
- Ukrainian earflaps are unpretentious to food, do not need special conditions of detention.
Unfortunately, the breed is not particularly suitable for industrial breeding, since chickens start to be born only at the age of six months, which is unprofitable if it is necessary to obtain a large number of eggs in a short period of time.
Highly productive hardy breed, unpretentious to growing conditions.
- The bird is large in size, has a stocky squat body, scarlet-colored crest and earrings.
- One layer is able to carry up to 300 eggs per year, but on condition that a large amount of protein is present in the diet.
- This chicken cross is represented by 2 varieties: Dominant Black and Dominant Sussex. Both types of layers produce large eggs, are very viable and quickly gain weight.
Highly productive and egg-breeding hybrid, which is considered one of the best in its category at the moment. Presented by two varieties:
- Hisex white,
- Hisex Brown.
The first variety does not differ in large sizes: the weight of a chicken is about 1.7 kg, but at the same time the bird carries rather large ones. Puberty occurs early and at the age of 4.5 months you can get the first egg laying. Egg production is about 280 eggs per year.
The brown variety has a larger size - the weight of a bird is about 2.4 kg, therefore, sometimes birds are classified as meat-egg breeds. The variety has a very calm, even phlegmatic temper, therefore it is suitable even for cellular content. Egg production is about 300 eggs per year.
The result of a long and careful crossing of the leggorn with the local Russian breeds. Now the breed has practically been supplanted by the “ancestor” - leggorn. According to the external characteristics of the Russian white closer to the meat and egg breeds, rather than egg:
- The backbone of the hens is quite hard and large, and the body is elongated, deep.
- Beak, toes and skin have a slightly yellowish tint.
- The plumage is white, tight.
- The weight of the chicken is about 2 kg, the rooster - 2.7-3 kg.
- The breed has a very high rate of productivity: one layer is able to produce about 330 eggs per year.
This breed was selected on about. Minorca in order to obtain a high egg production rate of large eggs.
- The bird has a rather slender physique.
- Coloring is of three types: white, yellow.
- The head is rather large, erect, with a massive crest.
- The chest is deep, the back of the bird is rather long.
- Eggs have a white shell.
- Among the features of the breed can be noted demanding conditions of detention and walking, as well as susceptibility to the influence of adverse weather conditions (in particular, sudden changes in weather).
Careful attention should be given to those who plan to grow the breed in a harsh climate, since the crest of a bird will freeze over in severe frost. Egg production is about 180 eggs per year. At the same time, the bird practically does not incubate them.
A widespread hybrid that is actively grown in large farms due to its productivity and unpretentiousness to the conditions of detention. The breed has almost no flaws:
- She is picky in her food, has a high egg production rate (about 350 eggs per year), good health, and a calm friendly temperament.
- The mass of birds is not particularly large: the weight of the chicken is about 1.5-1.7 kg.
Excellent in performance A hybrid that is ideal for breeding in a household.
- The bird of the breed under consideration is distinguished by a light but strong bone structure and the presence of a rather dense plumage.
- The structure of the body is strong, the pectoral muscles are strongly developed, the neck is short, curved. The bird's abdomen is voluminous (especially in chickens), and there are no plumage legs.
- The average weight of a chicken is about 2 kg.
- The breed is very hardy, unpretentious to the conditions of cultivation, not afraid of harsh climatic conditions.
- Egg production is about 380-400 eggs per year.
Egg cross, obtained by crossing two internal breeds. It is considered one of the most productive in its group. An important feature of the breed, thanks to which it is incredibly popular both in industrial oviculture and in private farming:
- Unpretentiousness to conditions of detention (productivity is equally high under different conditions of life).
- In addition to high productivity, the hens of breed Lohman Brown are also distinguished by excellent endurance, vitality, sociability, and not fearfulness.
- The hens start to give the first eggs rather early - already in 5.5 months it will be possible to get the first, and moreover, quite large eggs (the shell is mostly brown).
- Egg production is about 300 eggs per year.
- The breed is characterized by accelerated growth rates, excellent dense plumage, early maturation and high productivity.
- The bird's body is strong, the back is wide, the head is of medium size.
- Color is light brown.
- Breed well tolerate adverse climatic conditions, unpretentious to the conditions of detention, different non-aggressive curious temper.
- The weight of the bird is more than great as for an egg breed: the weight of the chicken is about 2-3 kg, the weight of the rooster is 3-4 kg.
- Egg production is about 200 eggs in DG (over time, this figure falls).
One of the oldest egg species among the existing ones. This the breed is very unpretentious to the growing conditions and climate, has a very good health, and poultry meat has an unusual taste, reminiscent of slightly game.
Mini Egg Breed
This includes several varieties of the so-called Dwarf chickens, which are distinguished by their low weight, are very unpretentious in food, consume little food and are considered excellent laying hens: every year one hen is able to give about 250 eggs.
This variety can be attributed, for example, Dwarf Leggorn. The weight of the bird is only 1.2 kg (chicken) or 1.4-1.7 kg (rooster).
Photos for visual comparison of different birds
In the photos you can clearly see the difference in the size and appearance of the birds:
Features of the content and reproduction
So that the representatives of the egg breeds can feel comfortable, you need to take care of that their housing meets certain standards by several criteria:
- The size of the chicken coop. It is better not to make the room for keeping poultry too high: 1.5–1.7 m will be quite enough. The floor in the chicken coop is better to make bulk, mud or wooden. The size of the room is calculated on the basis of the number of birds: for one you need about 0.2 square meters. m space.
- Lighting. From the moment when the chickens begin to be carried, it is important to provide them with a full day of light: at least 12 hours a day. This function will help implement the ordinary window. In the absence of such, you can use a light bulb.
- Temperature mode. In order for the chickens to be carried in the maximum possible amount, it is necessary to observe a strict temperature regime. The optimum temperature is considered to be +17 degrees.
If the temperature drops to 0 or below 0 degrees, chances are that the scallops and earrings will be frozen off, and the laying of eggs will decrease (stop altogether), which cannot be said about their appetite.
If the temperature rises above +27 degrees, the appetite, on the contrary, will decrease, eggs will appear without a shell or with a thin shell.
Remember that feeders should be not only capacious, but also properly used: never fill them to the brim (it is better to leave about 10 cm to the edge): this will allow to keep it in the tank as much as possible. Drinking bowls should also be comfortable, deep. Water should be periodically updated so that it never stagnates.
Feeding laying hens should be very diverse, complete and nutritious. Be sure to provide the bird in sufficient quantities (at least 1/2 of the diet) grain, which will help make more intense metabolism. Be sure to add to the diet of protein (legumes, lupine, etc.). Add to the diet mash. In the cold season it is better to cook them in broth or whey.
In addition to cereal, it is advisable to add greens, vegetables, mineral additives (bone meal, ground egg shells, etc.) to the poultry diet, and periodically pour small pebbles into the hen house to help the hens improve digestion.
Unfortunately, the predominant part of the egg breeds as a result of long-term selection almost completely lost the ability to incubate chickenstherefore, those who would like to grow a breed will have to use an incubator to breed chicks.
On this familiarity with the best egg breeds of chickens comes to an end. You have learned about all the virtues of this bird, as well as the intricacies of its rearing.
Common signs of egg breeds
Dozens, hundreds of egg breeds that are suitable for domestic and industrial breeding were bred. They all have common features:
- Low weight - up to 2.8 kg.
- Long, sweeping wings.
- Activity and mobility.
- Good appetite. Layers have an excellent metabolism, so they always need feed.
- Rapid puberty. Chicken egg breeds are ready from five months.
- Virtually no instinct nasizhivaniya.
Egg breeding chickens do not require special care. But they definitely need supplements - vitamins and minerals that increase the strength of the shell. Egg breeds, in comparison with meat and meat-egg, have the following advantages:
- high egg production,
- large eggs,
- hard eggshell
- high immunity
- good chick survival,
- lack of rationality
- calm and non-aggressive temper.
Consider the best egg breeds bred in poultry farms, farms and private farmsteads.
Leggorn (Leghorn) - Italian breed, bred in the early 19th century. The breed immediately became popular due to its rapid growth, early ripening and high egg production. Since the 60s. of the last century, crossing of leggorn was practiced - super egg-grown hybrids are obtained. On the basis of leggorn created famous egg and egg-meat crosses - Rhodonite, Hisex, Loman and others.
Appearance. They are characterized by a dry body structure, a sloping back and a high set chest. The head is of medium size, the legs are long. Roosters - carriers of bright red leafy, erect ridge. Chickens have a small comb, and after egg-laying begins, it falls to the side.
Roosters have white earrings. The eyes are reddish or orange. The beak is yellow. Skin - with a yellowish tinge. The tail is magnificent. Most often, the plumage is white. But in the breed standards 20 colors are fixed - motley, black, golden, cuckoo and others. In Russia, the Leghorn are known as white chickens, and the colored ones are usually imported from Europe.
Productivity. Egg production - 220-250 eggs per year. Hybrids give up to 310 eggs. Egg weight - 55-58 g. Laying weight - 2 kg, roosters - 2.6 kg. For meat, the performance is low, the carcass of a 4-5 month old rooster weighs 1-1.5 kg.
Other features. Early puberty - from 4.5 months. If the hens are well cared for, their egg production, unlike the crosses, does not decrease in the second or third year of life. A hen carries one egg a day, taking a break for molting. Poultry farmers say that leggorny are shy and nervous, prone to pecking eggs.
Any adverse factor can provoke pecking - cramping, lack of protein in feed, dirty plumage, boredom, bright lighting. In factories, in order to avoid chipping, the hen is cut off in chickens.
Conditions of detention. The breed is hardy and viable. Easily adapts to heat and cold. Can be kept in cages and in aviaries. To avoid chipping, chickens are reinforced with protein food - 15% per day of the volume, put up a muffled light and organize walking.
Хайсекс Браун — кросс, выведенный голландскими селекционерами в 1970 г. Он превосходит своего «родственника» – Хайсекс Уайт, по яичной продуктивности. Порода создавалась на базе Леггорнов, Нью-Гемпшир и Род-Айленд.
Appearance. Тело компактное и мускулистое. Крылья небольшие, плотно прилегают к бокам. Голова средней величины. Pea-shaped scallop, straight or hanging to the side. Light green eyes. Males have golden brown plumage. At the ends of the wings may be white tips. Chickens have a uniform brown-red plumage.
Productivity. Egg production - 305-320 eggs per year. Egg weight - 70 g. Eggs are strong, with a dark shell. The hen's weight is up to 2.3 kg, for roosters - 2.6 kg.
Other features. Egg production drops after 2-3 years. Character balanced, not shy, not subject to stress and panic, contact. Resistant to many diseases, but in need of vaccination, especially with a mass content. The quality of meat falls after 2-3 years, so the herd needs to be updated annually.
Conditions of detention. Unpretentious, but it does not matter tolerate cold. It is recommended to keep in a bright, well-ventilated chicken coop. No drafts. In winter, the temperature in the house should not fall below 18-20 ° C, otherwise egg production will fall. In the cold, chickens lose their appetite, their joints become inflamed and they can ache in the throat.
One of the most popular egg breeds. Bred in Germany. It bears the name of its breeder.
Appearance. Plumage is brown, with black specks. The body is strong, well-shaped, the wings are developed. Chest and abdomen - wide, bulging. The head is small, the comb is neat, leaf-shaped, with 6-9 teeth. The beak is gray-yellow, narrow. Paws of the same shade as the beak.
Productivity. Egg production - 300 eggs per year. Egg weight - 65 g. Eggs have a dense shell of a brownish shade. The weight of laying hens is up to 2 kg, for roosters up to 3.5 kg.
Other features. Differ in precocity. Carry eggs even in cold weather. Do not require a lot of food, calm, not aggressive. Do not grow fat. The disadvantage is a drop in productivity after 10 months. After the laying of eggs, chickens are sent to the face.
In Layman Brown hens, there is no incubation instinct. Therefore, for breeding livestock will have to look for other breeds of chickens, or use an incubator.
Conditions of detention. Undemanding to conditions of detention, quickly adapt to new conditions. It is not recommended to feed whole grains, preferably corn.
This is a very ancient breed, the ancient Egyptians derived it. How the chickens came to Egypt from Southeast Asia - namely, the ancestors of domestic chickens lived here, it is not known for certain.
Direction. Egg and meat. Decorative.
Appearance. The plumage is variegated, of different shades, but more often silvery. There are greenish blotches. Breed is very decorative, hens look elegant. Long legs and tail held high.
Productivity. Egg production is about 100 eggs per year. Eggs are small. The weight of hens is up to 1.5 kg, for roosters up to 2 kg.
Other features. Starts to be born at 4 months. The instinct of incubation is present, but it occurs only in 2 years. Run fast, move easily. Differ in good immunity, contact with the person.
Hatch their own offspring. Omnivorous, find food in all conditions. Bravely protect offspring, are characterized by increased burden to the creation of nests, resistant to many chicken diseases. Slowly grow, carry some eggs, and even then small. There is a desire to climb higher.
Conditions of detention. In Russia, this breed practically does not occur. But since it tolerates a hot and dry climate, it can be bred in the southern regions. In the hen house and in the aviary like space. You need a high fence, because the Fayumi fly well, or they cut off their wings. Poor tolerate cold.
Rare, almost disappearing breed. The history of the breed is unknown.
Direction. Egg. But sometimes called meat and egg. What is in priority - eggs or meat, decides the owner himself.
Appearance. The breed got its name because of the luxurious whiskers covering the lobes. There is a beard under the beak at Ushanka. The plumage is mostly brown and black, less often white. The body is not large, legs are low, pink. Comb large, leaf-shaped. The tail is luxurious, with rounded feathers.
Productivity. Egg production is about 170 eggs per year. Egg weight - 50 g. Laying weight - 2 kg, roosters - 2.8 kg.
Other features. Compared to other egg breeds, Ushanka is late-ripening - laying eggs start at 6 months, and not 4-4.5, like other laying hens.
Conditions of detention. Unpretentious to feed and content, tolerate frosts. Can be bred in cold regions.
Spanish rare breed. Andalusian blue attracts breeders with unusual coloring. Everyone would like to have a few chickens of this breed in their farm. Breed does not apply to industrial - only for home breeding. Ancestors of the breed - Minorca and blue fighting cocks.
Direction. Egg. Decorative.
Appearance. Received its name for an unusual color. Plumage - colorful or black. The body is massive, proportional. Gray beak bent. Comb is large. Eyes - yellow or brown. On the tail long braids. The wings are well developed.
Productivity. Egg production is about 160-180 eggs per year. The weight of an egg is 60 g. The weight of hens is 2-2.6 kg, of roosters 2.5-3.4 kg.
Other features. The instinct of brooding is underdeveloped. Very mobile. Good survival rate of young animals. Very tasty, tender meat.
Conditions of detention. Breed active and temperamental - may conflict with other birds. Need a walk.
South American breed known to Indians for at least 500 years. First introduced to the world in 1920, at an exhibition in The Hague. Chickens are very beautiful, have an attractive carcass, and most importantly, they carry blue eggs.
Direction. Egg and meat.
Appearance. Small body. There is no tail and tail. There is a beard, tanks, on his head - a crest. Pea-shaped comb, earrings - small. According to the standard, 12 colors are approved - black, blue, wild, golden-maned and others.
Productivity. Egg production is about 180 eggs per year. Eggs are bluish or greenish in color. The weight of an egg is 56-72 g. The weight of hens is 1.6-2 kg, of roosters 2-2.5 kg.
Other features. Egg-laying begins at 5.5-6 months - late for egg breeds.
Conditions of detention. Contain small families, and separately from other breeds. The character is calm, but in the spring roosters may show aggressiveness - they even attack the owner. You can keep in cages and aviaries, walking - desirable.
The breed is created by the Hungarian company Babolna TETRA. Breeding lasted 40 years. Very prolific breed, divorced in 30 countries.
Direction. Egg and meat.
Appearance. Plumage bright, reddish-brown. The head is small, white-yellow beak, leaf-shaped scallop. The body is rectangular, with a small neck and a small tail. Legs and wings are average. The eyes are orange.
Productivity. Egg production in the first year - 230-250, then about 300 eggs per year. Egg weight - 60 g. Laying weight - 2.5 kg, roosters - 3-3.5 kg.
Other features. Males and females can be distinguished on the first day of life - the layers have a fawn shade, males - white. Meat with excellent taste.
Conditions of detention. There are no special conditions for the breed Tetra. The bird is unpretentious and easily adapts to any circumstances. All they need is a spacious chicken coop, with perches 70-80 cm high.
This breed was introduced by Czech breeders, crossing different egg-bearing breeds - Sussex, Rhode Island, Leggorn, Corniche and Plymouthrock.
Direction. Egg and meat.
Appearance. The plumage may be red, black, brown or speckled. The build is strong, the body is slightly elongated. The head is small. Legs - light yellow, fleshy legs. The eyes are orange.
Productivity. Egg production 300-320 eggs per year. Egg weight - 65-70 g. Weight of hens - 2.2 kg, roosters - 3 kg.
Other features. It is easy to distinguish the floor by color in the first days of life. Good chick survival. Calm nature, moderately active. There is absolutely no hen instinct. The meat is tasty, high nutritional value. Rush from 5-6 months.
Dominant breeds have a distinctive feature - they do not stop laying during egg shedding, which degrades the quality of clutches.
Conditions of detention. Unpretentious, withstand small frosts without a drop in productivity. Recommended insulation house. The temperature should not fall below 5 ° С. On 1 square. m should be no more than 4-5 layers.
The birthplace of the breed is the Mediterranean island of Menorca (Spain). Received by crossing local breeds of chickens. Minorok's main advantage is large and tasty eggs. The breed was brought to Russia in 1885 - it was a gift from the Turkish Sultan. Since 1911, the breed has been officially standardized in Russia. For industrial breeding is not used.
Direction. Egg and meat. Decorative.
Appearance. The body is not large. Thanks to the small head and elongated neck, the birds look elegant. Scallop leafy, bright red, with teeth. In chickens inclined to the side. The beak and claws are dark. The plumage is black with a green tint. Bright white ear lobes and rich red comb make Minorca one of the brightest and most beautiful breeds. Occasionally found white Minorca.
Productivity. Egg production 200 eggs per year. Egg weight - up to 70 g. Shell color - white. The weight of layers - 3 kg, roosters - 4 kg.
Other features. Rush from five months. There is no instinct nasizhivaniya. Very shy.
Conditions of detention. We need warm, heated poultry houses. They do not like dampness and drafts. Requires a fence and a spacious enclosure for walking.
Pushkin striped and motley
The breed was bred specifically for farms. Breeding lasted from the mid 70s. until 2005 in the Experimental farm of NIIGRZH in the town of Pushkin. The official name of the breed is Pushkin striped and motley. There are two types of breed - "Moscow" and "St. Petersburg", they differ in the nuances of the interior and productivity.
Direction. The authors position the breed as an egg, but it can be easily attributed to the egg-meat direction, as they are much heavier than ordinary layers.
Appearance. Beautiful exterior. Plumage - black and motley, white puskushki. Chickens as if powdered with snow. Roosters are light with dark spots. The head is small, elongated. Bill is light, curved. Crest pinkish, large earrings. The tail stands vertically. The wings are long, slightly lowered.
Productivity. Egg production 220 eggs per year. It happens 250-270 pieces. Egg weight - up to 58-60 g. Weight of hens - 1.8-2.5 kg, roosters - 2.6-3 kg.
Pushkin chickens have extremely large eggs - two yolks, 110 g each.
Other features. Carcasses have a beautiful presentation. The meat is delicious. Rush from 5 months. Rush, without reducing reproduction, 3-4 years.
Conditions of detention. Unpretentious and hardy, disease resistant. Hibernate in unheated poultry houses. Roosters with pinkish ridges better tolerate frosts, leaf-shaped scallops can be frostbitten.
This breed not only has good egg production, but is also very decorative. This is an old Dutch breed, whose ancestors appeared almost 300 years ago. Breed obtained by crossing Cochinchins, Yorkshire chickens and other breeds.
Direction. Egg. Sports and decorative.
Appearance. Compact, elongated body, small head with a pinkish comb. Eyes are dark red. The beak is short, dark. The lobes are bright white. The neck is elongated, beautifully curved. A feather mane covers the shoulders. The plumage is variegated or monotonous, are striped, stained. Fan-shaped tail.
Productivity. Egg production is 190-195 eggs per year. Maximum - 250 eggs per year. Egg weight - up to 60 g. Weight of hens - 1.5-2 kg, roosters - 2-2.5 kg.
Other features. The main plus of the breed is high egg production under any conditions. Adapt well to any environment. No incubation instinct. They live in families headed by a rooster.
Conditions of detention. In winter, daylight hours need to be increased up to 13-14 hours. They need daily walking - they build a spacious aviary.
Young, but popular breed. Officially approved in 1980, bred specifically for harsh climates. The breed was created jointly by the Moscow Agricultural Academy and the Bratsevskaya Poultry Factory (Moscow Region). The breeders took the Yurlovskys, Golosistyh, Chicken Goose and New Hampshire as a basis.
Appearance. Elongated body with powerful muscles. Dense black plumage. There are copper or gold blotches on the shoulders, mane and back. The head is wide, with a leaf-like comb. The black beak is curved. The eyes are orange. The lobes are red or white. Low set tail.
Productivity. Egg production is 220-280 eggs per year. Egg weight - 55-60 g. Weight of hens - 2-2.5 kg, roosters - 3-3.5 kg.
Other features. Excellent immunity to disease. High chick survival rate. Instead of water, snow can peck in the winter.
Conditions of detention. Unpretentious to the content and feed. High frost resistance. Can winter in unheated rooms.
This American breed first appeared in the states of Rhode Island and Massachusetts. Registered in 1935. The USSR was brought in the 1940s.
Appearance. Plumage rich red color. Roosters have a lush tail with a green tint. The head is small in size with a bright red scallop. The body is strong, oblong, muscular. Legs are powerful. Wide chest. The tail is short.
Productivity. Egg production up to 200 eggs per year. Egg weight - 58-60 g. Eggs are yellow-brown or dark brown. The weight of hens is 2.1-3 kg, for cocks - 3-3.7 kg.
Other features. Curious and friendly, they have a calm disposition. Roosters are not aggressive. In laying hens maternal instinct is very rare.
Conditions of detention. The main plus is undemanding of the conditions of detention. But it is recommended to do the litter on the floor. No roosts are needed, nests are placed on the floor. Walking is necessary - the breed has a very mobile character.
Breed bred in FGU PPZ "Kuchinsky" (Moscow region) with the participation of specialists of the Moscow Agricultural Academy. Timiryazev. Officially, the Kuchinskaya Yubileinaya breed was registered in 1990.
Appearance. Golden print plumage of different shades. Roosters are stately, mostly red in color. Brilliant plumage on the mane and back. The breast and tail are black. Plumage chickens - red shades. Feathers have a black border.
Productivity. Egg production is 160-200 eggs per year. Egg weight - 57-60 g. Weight of hens - 2 kg, roosters - 2.4 kg.
Other features. Exceptionally tasty meat. High egg production. Calm nature. The instinct of brooding is not completely lost.
Conditions of detention. Adapted to any conditions of detention and feeding. Can be kept in cages.
Plymutrok are traced back to the 19th century. The name comes from the American town of Plymouth. Officially, the breed has been recognized since 1910. In the West, white Plymouthrocks are more valued - their meat is considered more tasty and nutritious.
Appearance. The plumage is white, gray, black, fawn, partridge. The beak is yellow. The comb is leaf-shaped. If the trunk and chest form a rectangle - this is a good layer, if the triangle is a bad one.
Productivity. Egg production is 170-190 eggs per year. Egg weight - 60 g. Laying weight - up to 3.5 kg, roosters - 5 kg.
Other features. Calm and docile disposition, roosters do not show aggressiveness. Chickens do not seek to leave their range, they do not fly over the barriers. Disease resistant.
Conditions of detention. No special requirements. Recommended walking on the grass.
Old French breed. The bird is very elegant, will decorate any bird's yard.
Appearance. The body is powerful, legs are long and strong. Black plumage. There is a greenish tide. Eyes are yellow-brown. Comb and beard - bright red. The lobes are large, white.
Productivity. Egg production 200-250 eggs per year. Egg weight - more than 60 g. Weight of hens - 3.5 kg, roosters - 4 kg. Adult roosters can reach 6 kg.
Other features. Egg-laying begins at 6-8 months. The meat is very tasty, it tastes like duck.
In chickens Barbacea meat unusual red color. The French consider it a delicacy and usually extinguish it in wine.
Conditions of detention. It tolerates climate extremes. May winter in unheated rooms. The wings are pruned so as not to fly out of the aviary.
This is a hybrid breed of chickens, bred in the United States in 1936.
Appearance. Small body, thin. The shape of the body - triangular. Pink leafy comb. The same pink earrings. Eyes are yellow. Small head, beak - yellow. The plumage is white or brown - there are crosses brown and white.
Productivity. Egg production up to 250 eggs per year. Egg weight - 50-65 g. Weight of hens - 1.5-1.8 kg, roosters - 1.8-2.3 kg.
Other features. Strong immunity, calm temper. Short egg laying - up to 1.5 years.
Conditions of detention. Undemanding to care.
Very ancient breed. Over the past three hundred years, Brequel is the most popular breed of chickens in Belgium. Differs original coloring.
Appearance. Squat and stocky body. The neck is short. Small head. Two types of plumage - golden and silver. In silver head, back and neck - white. In the golden color, black predominates, instead of white - red. The eyes are black. The beak is gray. Legs are thin, gray.
Productivity. Egg production up to 220 eggs per year. Egg weight - 65 g. Weight of hens - 1.8-2.2 kg, roosters - 2.5-2.7 kg.
Other features. The meat tastes like a game - tender and juicy, like in wild partridges. Egg-laying - from 4 months. Non-conflict.
Conditions of detention. Since the braces are very mobile, they need a large, enclosed aviary.
Breed from Italy. Very ancient - appeared in the first century of our era, and maybe earlier.
Appearance. Plumage more often brown. Also, there are - blue, gold-maned, silver, pearl. The head is small, with a toothed purple scallop. In hens, the crest is inclined to the side. The eyes are red.Light, well-formed bone. The body has a trapezoidal shape. Legs are small, strong - yellow or sand color. The tail is magnificent.
Productivity. Egg production up to 180 eggs per year. Egg weight - 58 g. The color of eggs - white. The weight of hens is 2-2.5 kg, for cocks - 2.8-3 kg.
Other features. Very tasty meat. Maternal instinct is not developed.
Conditions of detention. Sensitive to changes in temperature, humidity, drafts, cold and heat, and therefore need a warm, well-ventilated poultry house. Useful walking.
This is one of the best eggplant crosses. Launched in Europe. In addition to the Browns, there are two more types of crosses that differ in feathering - White and Black.
Appearance. The plumage is brown. Pooh is white. Tail a bit down. In roosters, the tail is hanging down. Stand-up leaf-shaped comb of bright red color. The lobes are white. Compact body.
Productivity. Egg production up to 300 eggs per year. Egg weight - 58-63 g. Laying weight - 2 kg, roosters - 2.5 kg.
Other features. Rooster in the herd is not needed. Crosses do not pass on their signs of inheritance. Meat is used for stuffing for animal feed.
Conditions of detention. Can be grown in free range and in cages.
Laying hens, breeds
Hindus noticed the egg production of chickens 3,000 years ago. Later their experience was adopted by the Egyptians and Persians, and after them by other countries. Centuries later, breeders began working on breeding new-hen breeds.
The challenge was to get the breed:
- Unpretentious to feed.
- Giving viable chickens.
- With good immunity to diseases.
- Stably carrying large eggs with hard shells.
The work of breeders has yielded results - today in the world there are more than 100 species of birds that meet all the requirements listed above.
Laying hens appeared in farms, on private farmsteads, they are bred on an industrial scale.
Rating chicken meat and egg breeds: which is better
These universal breeds are undemanding to the content, they eat everything and do not need special care. The only difficulty may be the absence of incubation instinct in hens, which requires additional expenses for the purchase of an incubator. An adult meat-egg chicken weighs about 2.5 kg, and in a year it can produce about 180–220 eggs (depending on the breed). Meat quality and egg production indicators determine which chickens from meat-yak breeds are better.
One of the best breeds of meat and egg orientation, obtained as a result of long selection work in the XIX century, in the USA. Chickens came to Russia only in the 1920s, where they were widely distributed both in poultry farms and in private farms. According to the standards, the birds have a dark red plumage with black tails, a small head, strong, short legs, a flat back and a small, curved beak.
Thanks to their dense plumage, adult birds tolerate frosts well and do not reduce productivity during the winter period.
This species is in demand and is popular due to its endurance, at which 98% of all young animals survive. Chickens start feeding at 6.5 months, and by the age of one year old they grow up to 3 kg and bring about 180 eggs per year. Eggs from them are obtained with a brown shell, medium-sized, about 60 g in weight. Representatives of the Rhode Island breed are excellent for the Russian climate, omnivorous, quickly gaining weight, and with good care they can easily produce up to 220 eggs per year. The disadvantages include only the absence of maternal instinct and the rather rare prevalence in Russia.
Excellent, unpretentious meat and egg breed, bred in the Russian Sergiev Posad. It appeared in 1950, becoming the result of a complex selection of several well-known breeds. Individuals are distinguished by a very interesting color, the roosters have black and gray plumage, and the chickens are pale pink and cream. Birds are distinguished by a rapid weight gain, an elongated body, a thick, medium-sized neck and a small tail. The breed is prone to obesity and birds cannot be fattened to more than 3 kg.
Eggs from Zagorsky salmon chickens are very large, golden brown
The first eggs from a young chicken are obtained at the age of 5 months, and the main peak of egg production is 8-12 months. At first, the eggs will be quite small, about 40 g, but over time their size increases to 70 g. The important point is that
Zagorskaya salmon is capable of producing up to 260 eggs per year, this is the highest indicator among meat and egg varieties.
Another American breed that deserves the attention of poultry farmers is New Hampshire. Due to its productive qualities, good health and fastidiousness, it took a worthy place in the ranking of the best universal breeds. The appearance of the birds is very bright, beautiful reddish plumage in chickens and a lush green tail in roosters. The body is strong and large, with powerful yellow legs and a wide chest. By coloring the little chicks, their sex can be easily determined, the roosters have white fluff on the wings, and the chickens are born brown with white stripes.
They acquire their standard color New Hampshire at the age of 3 months, then the first eggs also begin to appear in the hens
The maternal instinct in this breed is extremely rare, and they can lay eggs anywhere, but not in nests. During the year the chicken is able to lay about 200 brown eggs, weighing about 60 g. Birds are actively rushing for 2 years, after which the egg production begins to fall and stops completely. Therefore, it is very important to carry out herd rejuvenation in a timely manner. The high survival rate of young stock and undemanding of forage and grooming makes the breed quite attractive for private households.
Birds of Ukrainian breeding, obtained by crossing local breeds with several foreign ones. Small chickens (up to 2 kg) have dense plumage of light or dark brownish color with black tips on the wings and neck. The meat of the breed is very juicy, soft and tender, and the eggs have a thick, cream-colored shells, weigh an average of 50-60 g and are distinguished by high-quality protein.
In one year, one layer of Poltava clay is able to give at least 180 eggs, and chickens begin to sail at 5 months
When feeding, it is necessary to take into account that fresh corn, mixed fodder and grain must be in the diet. They do not need additional heating in winter, they tolerate frosts perfectly, without ceasing to rush. Farmers reviews about this breed are only positive, due to the high quality of meat and eggs.
Quite an ancient breed, obtained in France in the XVIII century. Differs in decorative appearance and good productivity. Birds have a small, flat head with a short, strong beak and a straight, low comb. The neck is medium in size, covered with lush plumage, resembling a mane, and the body is oblong, located horizontally. Chickens are more heavy and stocky than cocks, with strong, five-fingered legs. There are three varieties of Fireballs: silver, salmon and blue, differing in the color of feathers.
Breed Firewall is considered universal, but it is valued, above all, for tasty and incredibly tender meat
Egg production in chickens is average, that is, in the first year they are able to produce up to 180 eggs, and in the second - only 130–140. In the future, these figures only worsen, which requires periodic replacement of livestock. Layers start laying at the age of half a year, and one egg weighs no more than 60 g. They need spacious open-air cages and low humidity in the hen-house.
This excellent breed was bred in the Krasnodar Territory and received official registration in 1966. It is one of the most common and sought-after meat and egg breeds, not only in Russia, but also abroad. Birds are very hardy and viable, quickly adapt to different temperature conditions, rush for 3-4 years in a row. Outwardly, they are not too large, muscular, medium size. The body is elongated, with a deep chest and a straight back, and the plumage is dense, white with a black tail.
Adult chicken is able to gain about 3 kg of weight, and rooster up to 4 kg.
Birds grow up to the age of one year, and they begin to fly very early (at 4.5 months), which can lead to the development of serious pathologies. To avoid this, it is recommended to keep chickens and cockerels separately, to reduce the amount of feed and the length of daylight until they reach 6 months of age. Each year, up to 200 or more eggs are obtained from a single chicken, medium-sized with a thick, creamy shell.
This breed also received distribution and recognition of poultry farmers. Bred in England, where breeding work has been going on for over 30 years, and the breed was registered at the beginning of the 20th century. Birds have a massive, square body, they are squat, with broad shoulders and short legs. There are several options for coloring the plumage of chickens, but they all have high productive qualities. Basically, this breed is more valued meat with white skin and delicate texture. Adult chickens reach a weight of 4 kg, but are prone to obesity, which significantly reduces egg production.
Before the beginning of the winter period, chickens are planted on a special diet in order not to reduce egg production.
In the first year, about 170 eggs can be obtained from a chicken, and in the second year, this figure drops to 130 pieces. Eggs are medium in size, with yellow or brown shells. Every 2 years the herd needs to be updated. Chickens sit perfectly on eggs on their own, but require special conditions, a warm and bright barn, additional bedding of straw and peat.