Many believe that care for aloe at home is not required. An unpretentious succulent can grow in the same pot for years and decades, but with careful care the plant can please the eye with unusual flowers.
Aloe vera, otherwise - Aloe present, living on almost every window-sill, comes from countries with a hot climate. His homeland is Central Africa, from where the flower has spread everywhere. Healing properties have made succulent popular for growing at home. Aloe vera contains volatile production, used for medicinal purposes, for which it is not only grown at home, but also planted entire plantations.
Features care for aloe vera at home
Aloe can survive in any condition, but, like other plants, favorably accepts caring care. The fact that aloe vera blooms, few people know: in the apartment it happens every 15-20 years. If you comply with all the requirements of care for aloe, at home it will bloom in a few years after planting.
The flowers are small, similar to the tubes, collected in the brush. With good care, they bloom most often in spring or summer, and for this you need to comply with certain requirements. For aloe vera, home care includes:
- sufficient lighting
- observance of optimum temperature condition,
- timely watering,
It looks like aloe vera flower
Light is the main factor for plant growth. Homeland aloe vera are countries located close to the equator, where the sun shines all year round. And at home care for aloe means placing it in a well-lit place. In order for as many sunshine as possible to reach the flower, it is better to put the pot on the south or southeast side.
With a lack of natural light in winter, caring for a plant implies additional lighting with fluorescent lamps. In the spring, in order to avoid sunburn, the flower is first pristened for a week, using gauze, light tulle, then the pot can be taken out on the balcony or in the garden.
If you are seriously interested in how to care for aloe at home, pay attention to the soil in which your flower grows. It is transplanted often, best of all, into a ready-made substrate for succulents, which can be bought in flower shops.
You can prepare the soil at home on your own using:
- sod land - 4 parts,
- humus and sheet soil - 2 parts,
- coarse river sand - 2 parts,
- charcoal and crushed brick - 1 part each.
The soil should not be particularly nutritious, the main thing is that it retains moisture well. At the bottom of the pot it is necessary to lay a drainage 3-5 centimeters high, as which you can use gravel, perlite or expanded clay. When planting aloe in a pot, make sure that its roots are positioned freely, and there is at least 3-4 cm to the sides of the container.
Like all succulents, aloe vera is not demanding for watering, but proper plant care requires regular soil moisture.
Home care for aloe allows for two types of watering:
- top - direct soil moistening in a pot,
- lower - through the pallet.
How to care for aloe when the room is hot:
- Although aloe at home can easily carry dry air, it will not give up wiping leaves with wet gauze - it will be easier for him to breathe.
- Fleshy leaves retain water, so you need to water only as the top layer of soil dries. In the summer, this should be done 1-2 times a week, in winter, if the air in the apartment is dry, it will have to be watered more often.
In this case, too frequent watering can cause stagnation of moisture in the soil and lead to rotting of the roots.
Top dressing and fertilizer
If you decide to grow aloe vera at home, leaving means regular feeding. In winter, it is not necessary to fertilize the flower, but in the spring and summer, from May to September, it is recommended to apply complex mineral fertilizers every three weeks. Basic rules for aloe care at home:
- Within six months after transplantation, there is no need to fertilize the soil: the substrate has enough nutrients necessary for growth and development,
- fertilizer need to be during irrigation,
- if aloe is sick, it is undesirable to apply top dressing until recovery.
When growing aloe care at home includes the obligatory pruning. It is carried out in the fall. Sanitary pruning involves the removal of diseased, dry leaves, those that have lost their brightness.
When transplanting pruned long roots. This will facilitate transplantation and help the aloe develop a strong root system.
Basic rules for aloe care at home:
- remove dried, damaged and diseased leaves as soon as they appear,
- side shoots are removed to control the size of aloe: they take away some of the nutrients, not allowing the mother plant to develop fully.
Remove young shoots when the leaves reach 6-10 centimeters in height. To do this, sometimes it is enough to carefully pull out a young sprout from the ground, if this fails - you have to get the whole aloe bush from the pot and separate the young spikes from the main root.
Aloe flower was planted at home - how to care for it? The basic rules for the care and cultivation of a strong plant at home include not only watering and feeding, but also regular transplantation.
It is necessary to transplant young plants every 1-2 years, for adults it is enough to update the substrate and increase the volume of the pot every 3-4 years. Transplantation can be done in one of two ways:
- transfer of earthen coma into a new pot,
- by removing the ground from the roots and carefully planting it in a new substrate.
To transplant aloe, you need to lay drainage on the bottom of the tank, then carefully place the succulent and sprinkle the roots with earth, leaving a growth point on the surface.
The succulent growing in nature is propagated by seeds or basal shoots, in room conditions one can choose any breeding option.
When propagating by shoots, it is necessary to separate the young shoots from the mother flower when the leaves are 5-7 centimeters long:
- moisten the soil in the prepared container so that it and the drainage are fully soaked,
- place the process in the ground at a depth of 1 centimeter,
- leave the pot in a bright place, protected from direct sunlight,
- the soil is kept wet for several days, then the young plant is tended in the same way as an adult.
During reproduction, seeds are soaked in a weak solution of potassium permanganate or in aloe diluted with water for 20 hours. Capacities for planting are also treated with potassium permanganate or soapy water.
In early spring, seeds are sown in the ground, maintaining a distance between them of 2 centimeters, sprinkled with fine river sand. Water the soil from below, waiting until the top layer is moistened. Before the emergence of seedlings will need to withstand an ambient temperature of 25-30 degrees. Dive plants, when they appear on 2 leaves, and transplanted when they get stronger.
How to care for a flower in winter?
An important question - how to care for aloe in winter. The light-loving succulent, accustomed to the bright tropical sun, in our latitudes, requires additional illumination on cloudy days. It is important to ensure that it is not less than 16 hours of daylight. By the end of winter, gradually accustom the flower to a bright light, exposing the pot to the lighted place, slightly lightening it from direct sunlight.
Plant Diseases and Treatments
Very rarely, but succulent can be exposed to diseases or damage by pests. It is important to know, when growing aloe vera at home, how to care for it during illness:
- When the root rot appears, the plant growth is delayed, the leaves dry. To save the flower, you need to remove the affected parts of the root, sprinkle the healthy roots with charcoal and transplant it into a fresh substrate, generously adding coarse sand to it.
- Have you noticed that the aloe quickly began to dry? Perhaps he was struck by dry rot. It is necessary to spray the fungicide and change the entire substrate, transplanting the plant into another container.
- With the defeat of pests (mealybug, aphids, shield) leaves dry out, the presence of insects will be visible to the naked eye. Affected leaves should be removed, sprayed with garlic and soapy water, insecticides can be used, but be very careful if you grow a plant as a curative.
For beginning flower growers aloe is the best choice because it grows quickly and confidently, without requiring special attention. It is enough to follow simple guidelines for care, and your room will be decorated with a beautiful and large plant, which, if necessary, can become a real medicine:
Tree Aloe Care
Agave is positive to sunlight, so it is preferable to put it on the window sill, the windows of which face south. Such a love of the sun is characteristic of tropical plants of South African origin. In winter, when the sun is low, additional lighting will be required with special lamps. Watering.
It is necessary to carry out moderate watering 1-2 times per month. The soil should dry out between treatments. Water is suitable at room temperature, pre-settled for about 10 hours. During the cold weather irrigation is rarely made.
In the summer, it should be at least 23-25, and in the winter - 13-15 degrees. When it is cold, it is very important to monitor the temperature, since aloe is a heat-loving plant. With a decrease in performance to zero and below, the flower may die. Soil composition.
It is best to buy ready-made soil, suitable for succulents. It should include sod and leaf earth, sand, humus. In the process of planting, you need to add charcoal and as a drainage broken brick. Pot.
The shape of the container can be absolutely any. When choosing it, you need to pay attention only to the fact that the aloe root system fits the size. In the pot must be large holes at the bottom. They are needed so that excess water does not stagnate. How to feed?
Often, in the complex feeding includes liquid mineral fertilizers.
In no case should fertilizer fall on the stalks of aloe, as this may harm the plant or cause disease. To stimulate the growth and good condition of the flower, in the summer, such feeding should be carried out every two weeks. Another important condition - wet soil during fertilizing. How to care for roots?
Particular attention should be paid to the roots in winter. Frequent watering is not advisable during this period, as excessive moisture can cause the root system to rot. Each gardener must be vigilant and follow all the rules and instructions for watering.
The shape of mature aloe is adjusted by trimming. Tops and side shoots are cut off. This allows the plant to rejuvenate. Already cut shoots are often used as cuttings, to obtain young aloe. Do not be afraid of frequent pruning, as the plant is very hardy and tenacious.
The roots of the aloe tree do not develop so slowly, so from time to time transplantation is required. Young copies are transplanted every year, aloe older once in 2-3 years. Capacity needs to be picked up one and a half times the previous one. In autumn and winter, transplantation is strictly prohibited, as the plant is in a dormant period and will not be able to adapt to new conditions.
How to plant aloe? It is necessary to do this in the spring so that he has as little stress as possible. The composition of the new soil should not differ from the previous one. New pot is selected a little larger.
- The day before planting, you need to water the plant plentifully. This is done so that it can be easily removed from the old container without damaging the root system.
- In the process of extracting the agave, the pot is turned over and the aloe is carefully taken out, while getting rid of the old soil.
- The plant is placed in the center and filled up with new soil to the previous level, then it is watered and, as necessary, the ground is filled.
How to transplant a plant without root:
- To transplant aloe this way you need to cut the cuttings and leave them to dry for 5-7 days until the cut is completely dry, then immediately land in a small container that will be filled with wet sand.
Preparing for the winter
During the cold weather, experienced growers recommend putting out aloe on little heated verandas, as the flower likes a cool and bright room. Since aloe belongs to succulents, the plant prefers that the temperature during the day and at night be quite different.
- How often to water the plant in winter? In the cold season, succulent need to be watered rarely. Water should be slightly warm and only boiled.
- Aloe aged 3 years and requires moderate and rare watering.
- Spraying agave in winter is not necessary.
- Any dressing stops.
- Transplants during the cold weather are prohibited.
- The temperature in the room should not fall below 10 degrees.
- The plant must be protected from drafts.
- In winter, the plant will need more light, which can be given with the help of special lamps. The lamp can be installed near the plant.
Diseases and pests
- Why the tips of leaves dry?
Dry tips are a clear sign that aloe has not been transplanted. The root system has taken all the free space in the pot, so the agave is not receiving enough nutrients. And he begins to feed on the leaves. In this case, it should be transplanted immediately. Dry rot.
Often, with this disease, aloe dies, as it is very difficult to recognize dry rot in a timely manner. The plant dries from the inside, but outwardly it does not manifest itself.
Root rotting from excessive moisture in the soil. The main reason - abundant and frequent watering. The disease is recognized by the following features: the stem dries out, the flower does not respond to watering, does not grow for a long time.
The disease is treated only by transplant. It is necessary to dig up aloe and carefully trim the roots that have rotted. The remaining roots are powdered with sulfur or coal powder.
After that, it is planted in a spacious container. Within three weeks, the plant is better not to water. Mealybug.
These pests suck aloe juice. They can be seen with the naked eye. Small white lumps resembling fluff or cotton - a sign of a mealy worm. You can try to defeat the enemy with garlic tincture, but if the defeat is strong, you will have to use chemicals.
Appearance and origin
Succulent plant of the asphodea subfamily. In nature, it grows mainly in the desert areas of Arabia and Africa. The genus has about 500 species. There are many different forms of plants - grass, shrubs, tree forms. The leaves are always fleshy, often linearly-lanceolate form. Grow on a stalk spiral, form dense sockets.
Depending on the species, the edges of the leaves are smooth, with teeth, spikes, cilia. Sizes are different - from 10 cm to 3 m in diameter. Some species grow in their natural habitat by 15 m. At home they grow compact aloe species.
In nature, it is a xerophyte, that is, it grows in arid areas. It has the ability to accumulate moisture in case of prolonged drought. The flesh of the leaf consists of small cells - moisture accumulates inside. During droughts, the pores of the skin close together to avoid strong evaporation.
It blooms rarely. Some species bloom only when they are 20–30 years old, others - already in the third or fifth year of life. A long peduncle appears from the center of the outlet. Its top is crowned with a racemose inflorescence of bell-shaped, drooping flowers. Inflorescences are red, white, yellow, orange. Blossom in the apartment - a rare case.
Only three varieties are suitable for growing in an apartment. They differ in compact size, unpretentiousness, high decorative effect.
- Aloe vera. Pretty compact bush. Stems short, fleshy. The leaves are lanceolate, smoky green in color, form compact sockets. The surface is covered with white spots, pinkish spikes grow on the edge of the sheet.
- Aloe tree. Popularly called the agave. Grows quickly, differs in longer stalks. The swordlike grayish-green leaves fold into rosettes.
- Aloe variegated. Compact plant, no more than 30 cm in height. Differs in high decorative effect. Based on the species, several improved breeding varieties have been developed. The leaves are dark green, grow in a spiral, form a dense basal rosettes. Dots and stripes of white color stand out against the dark background of the leaves.
Aloe care: what to consider a florist
Despite unpretentiousness, the houseplant needs full watering and transplanting. How to care for aloe?
- Lighting. It is believed that aloe well endure shading. In fact, it is a very light-loving plant. It is drawn out in the shade, completely loses its decorative effect. Placed on the west or east window. Можно выращивать на южной стороне, но с обязательным притенением. От летнего прямого солнца на мясистых листьях остаются некрасивые бурые ожоги.The room is often ventilated, in the summer the pot is taken out on the balcony or in the garden.
- Temperature. The temperature of aloe is neutral. During the warm period, from spring to mid-autumn, an average room temperature of 18–25 ° C is suitable for maintenance. In winter, they arrange a period of rest, lower the temperature to 14-17 ° C.
- Watering. The plant is prone to rot, so it is important to properly water the aloe. In the summer they water plentifully, after drying the surface of the soil. The average frequency of irrigation - every three to four days. Water is poured along the edge of the pot - avoid getting liquid on the leaves and the root socket. In winter, on condition of cold content, the intervals between irrigation increase to two weeks.
- Humidity. Normally grows at any level of humidity. Spraying is an unnecessary and even dangerous procedure. Moisture in the leaf axil leads to rot. Additional measures to increase the humidity is not required.
- The soil. Suitable store primer for succulents. At home, the substrate is prepared from well-rotted hardwood and coarse sand.
- Top dressing. Feed rarely - no more than once a month. Use balanced mineral fertilizers for succulents. During the rest period, top dressing is not needed.
- Transfer. If the root system has grown heavily, you need to transplant aloe in another pot. Young plants are transplanted annually, usually in the fall. The pot is chosen wide, spacious. Before planting, the soil is calcined in a frying pan, the pot is washed with a strong solution of potassium permanganate. Drainage is poured at the bottom. Old plants can not replant - just replace the top layer of soil.
If you properly care for aloe after transplantation, the plant will quickly recover and start growing. Aloe is removed from the sun for a while, they are not watered much - they only slightly moisten the soil. Keep at moderate temperature. After the appearance of signs of growth return to its original place.
Aloe can be propagated in different ways - vegetatively or by seed. More often used vegetative reproduction lateral shoots, children, leaf.
- Side shoots. In spring or summer, side shoots are separated from the base with a sharp knife. Sections are dusted with activated charcoal, dried for two days in a dark, well-ventilated place. The shoots are slightly buried in wet sand with the base. Roots appear quickly - in a week. Rooted shoots are seated in separate pots, caring as for adult plants.
- Leaf. Rooted leaves by analogy with side shoots. The sheet is cut at the very base, treated with coal powder, dried. Planted in wet sand. Film does not cover! After the appearance of the shoots are transplanted into a pot.
- Children. Next to the maternal shrub appears young shoots with an already developed root system. During aloe transplantation, it is carefully separated, deposited in separate pots.
- Apical handle. Cut off the top with five or seven leaves. After coal treatment and drying, rooted it in wet sand or in a glass of water. This method is used if the root system has suffered, and you need to plant aloe without a root. Sometimes this is the only way to save a plant from root rot.
- Seeds. Growing from seed is a long and laborious process. Sow the seeds in a light sand-peat mixture, sprayed with a spray bottle, cover with a film before germination. Maintain a temperature not lower than 20 ° C. Slightly grown seedlings need seedlings. A year later, the transshipment into full-fledged pots.
What aloe choose for home, the most common indoor varieties
The homeland of aloe is the Arabian Peninsula, and in nature there are about 400 species of these plants, although not all of them can grow in the home. When buying aloe, you will be advised those varieties that are best suited for the home, among them:
- Aloe vera, more popularly known as the "agave." In this species, the leaves are longer (20-25 centimeters). They are fleshy, razlohe and through them can be seen the stem. Along the edges of the "circled" teeth and can reach a height of 1 meter.
- Aloe "tiger". The stem of this plant is very short and it is almost invisible. The leaves are short, bright green with white stripes, folded along the stem in a spiral fashion. Very often, due to the appearance of "tiger" aloe is confused with Gaster: it has no "teeth" and is capable of flowering.
- Aloe vera (Aloe Vera). The leaves of this type of lanceolate form, are painted green with a smoky shade and teeth on the edges. They reach 50 centimeters in length and are located rosettes on a short stalk. This species may bloom (long spike with several inflorescences, and the flower itself is yellow). Some varieties of Aloe Vera may have a color with a red color.
- Aloe awesome - quite a large plant, which in natural conditions can reach up to 3 meters in height. The leaves of this species are fleshy and large - up to 50 centimeters long and 15 centimeters wide and “fold” into rosettes (a bright orange flower with a red tint appears from the middle of the rosette). Interestingly, the leaves can take on a reddish hue, and the cloves can grow throughout its area.
- Aloe soap - a representative with a stem that "winds". The leaves of this species are rather large (60: 6), flat and curved. Usually the plant is not one, but several sheet rosettes. The leaves are "decorated" with white spots, and the teeth grow along the rim of the sheet. Such plants are characterized by a cuspid inflorescence of yellow color with a red tinge.
What place to pick for aloe
In order to choose the right place for planting aloe, it is necessary to take into account its natural habitat, temperature conditions and lighting, since only under such circumstances will the care of aloe be correct. Like the rest of the succulents, this plant likes well-lit places, so all window sills that go to the south are perfect for its “life”. If the plant will get direct sunlight - this is not a problem, because it tolerates them very well.The ideal temperature for growing aloe can vary with the seasons:in winter, the optimal temperature indicators are + 10..15 ° C, and in summer, the plant can be kept at room temperature. Many flower growers are advised to take aloe to the balcony (in the yard) for the summer, but this should be done gradually, first leaving it only for 1 hour.
What should be the soilThe main thing you need to know when choosing soil for aloe is that it should be fertile and loose (for good aeration of the soil). If your soil is not loose enough, it can be loosened in the process of watering. For planting aloe, you can buy ready-made substrate, and you can cook it yourself. In the latter case, you will need: soddy-clay soil, which is mixed with leaf soil and dry sand in a ratio of 2: 1: 1. Mandatory for aloe is the presence of drainage, which can serve as expanded clay.
Aloe planting scheme is very simple and consists of the following steps:
- Preparation of earth mixture and drainage.
- Laying out the drainage at the bottom of the pot, backfilling of the earth mixture for 2/3 of the tank, and its hydration.
- Laying dry, pre-calcined sand.
- Planting of planting material (it is slightly buried in the main ground mass).
- Moisturizing the soil with water.
How to properly care for aloe
In order for aloe to feel comfortable on your windowsill, care at home should consist of several factors: proper and timely watering, quality feeding, accurate transplanting and pruning.
Irrigation and spraying mode
Watering mode depends on the time of year. In the summer, it should be more abundant (it is worth watering as the soil dries, it will be enough 1-2 times a week). In winter, the plant goes "to rest" and the introduction of fluid is minimized. Aloe doesn’t like stagnant water, so it’s worth watering around the pot, or lowering the plant into water for 10-15 minutes. With the stagnation of water in the leaves, the plant may die. Also, the liquid should not stand in the pan for long. For watering should choose soft water, room temperature.
How to feed aloe
Aloe doesn’t need a special top-dressing, because with proper watering it develops well by itself, however, the plant’s “preventive” top-dressing develops well on a monthly basis. Fertilizing is carried out from mid-spring until the end of autumn, it is best done with mineral fertilizers and eco-fertilizers. In winter, during the rest period, it is not necessary to feed the plant.
Pruning plantsWhen deciding how best to form aloe, it is necessary to understand that all the methods used in this case are somewhat different from the methods of forming other plants, because the structure of the leaf and the stem also has certain differences. In order to properly prune this plant should follow 5 simple rules. The first thing that is important to notice when pruning is taking care of the health of the plant. You should always remove all dried up or at least slightly damaged leaves, since it is in the "sick" parts of the plant that many bacteria develop. It is impossible not to take into account the fact that the sun aloelyubit, and therefore care will be to remove the leaves that interfere with the access of light.
The second and very important rule is the correct pruning of a plant. The sheet is cut with a sharp knife at the base. Usually cut off the most extreme sheets, as they are already old and matured. They can be used for personal purposes.
The third step in pruning is controlling the size of the plant. If it has many new shoots, it is better to remove them, since they take the power from the root. Such parts are removed by pulling from the root, when they have already reached 5-6 centimeters in length.The fourth condition for quality pruning is to preserve the natural color of the pot as much as possible. After the plant has faded, the oldest leaves need to be removed, however, given that not all varieties are blooming, growers rarely encounter this problem. And the last, but not the most insignificant factor is the cutting of aloe roots. During the transplant, examine the root system and cut the longest roots. This will help the growth of a new, healthy root system.
When is it required and how to perform the transplant
The root system of aloe develops quite quickly and therefore, from time to time the plant requires transplantation. Depending on the age of aloe, it needs to be replanted either annually (young plants) or every other year (for older plants). Transplant is carried out in a pot, which will be 1.5 times the previous one.
Many people ask: "Can aloe be transplanted in the fall?". Florists categorically do not recommend this, because in the fall the plant begins to “fall asleep” and the pot will not have time to adapt to a new place of residence.
Seed propagation is a rather laborious process. Seeds are sown in late February or early March, at room temperature. Strongly bury them do not need, just enough to gently push into the previously prepared substrate. Seedlings should dive into small, shallow boxes and contain these containers at a temperature of + 21 ° C, preferably under a lamp. After they germinate, it is necessary to transplant the processes in the pots, and a year later to conduct another transplant.
Aloe can be propagated by cuttings all year round, but it is better to conduct cuttings in the summer. The cuttings grow along the stem, and they should be cut at the very base. After cutting, the resulting material is dried on a flat, sterile surface for 5 days, placing it in a dark room. The place from which the cuttings are cut is necessary to “wipe” with coal.Cuttings are planted in the sand, at a short distance of 3-5 centimeters, because only in this case the root system of the future pot will develop correctly. It is not necessary to bury the cuttings deeply, 1 cm is enough, but humidity plays an important role, therefore it is constantly maintained (when the first roots appear, watering should be strengthened even more). A month later, the grown cuttings can be transplanted into small pots for flowers, into a prepared mixture.