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Chistyak: care, cultivation, useful properties of the plant

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Spring: buttercup, spring buttercup, kuroslepnik, oil color, early lettuce, poisonous leaf, gill, pshonka, pshinka, hare salad, hare salad, chistnik, etc.

A perennial herbaceous ephemeroid, in which all aboveground parts die off after flowering and root tubers remain in the soil until next spring - vegetative propagation organs. It is used in folk medicine as a diuretic, expectorant, blood-purifying and wound healing agent.

In medicine

Spring Chistyak does not belong to the number of pharmacopoeial plants, and its medicinal properties are used only in traditional medicine.

Also, fresh leaves of the cleansing are used in homeopathy in the manufacture of drugs. In addition, Chistyak is one of the first early spring plants containing vitamin C, so it is used to prepare blood purifying spring lettuce.

Contraindications and side effects

The plant is contraindicated in children, pregnant and lactating women. Overdose should be avoided, since side effects are possible, in particular, irritation of the stomach and intestines, as well as a negative effect on the kidneys. It is important to know that after the end of flowering and fruiting, the spring scrub becomes very poisonous. Dry leaves of the scourer are less dangerous, since upon drying, caustic substances are destroyed and become harmless.

Classification

Chistyak spring (lat. Ficaria verna) - include the rather large genus Buttercup (lat. Ranunculus), the buttercup family (lat. Ranunculaceae), or they are separated into a separate subgenus Chistyak (lat. Ficaria). The genus Buttercup is made up of about 600 species of grassy plants distributed throughout the globe.

Botanical description

Chistyak spring - a small (10-20 cm in height) perennial ephemeroid. Stems and leaves are very delicate, light green, naked, shiny, shoots often reclining. It has brood buds of two types: on the roots of tuber-like thickened adventitious roots, and in the axils of the leaves, which are used for vegetative reproduction. The leaves are alternate, without stipules, long-petiolate, rounded or nearly rounded (2-4 cm long and wide), crenate, with a heart-shaped base. Flowers solitary, actinomorphic (regular), rather large (25–35 mm in diameter), bright yellow, with 6–9 oblong, shiny tepals. At the base of the petals is a nectar fossa. Stamens and pistils numerous. Formula flower purist spring - * CH5L5T∞P∞. The fruit is a nutlet. Early flowering and vegetative (April - May) plant.

Spread

It is distributed everywhere, especially in the middle and southern strip of European Russia and in the south-west of Siberia. It grows in forests, mostly broad-leaved, but also conifer-broad-leaved and small-leaved, often in damp and damp, often along watercourses, in thickets of bushes. It can also be found in open places - grassy steppes, meadows, forest edges and glades of deciduous forests, as well as in the flood plain and on the banks of rivers and streams. Often forms massive aggregations.

Preparation of raw materials

Medicinal raw material is the aerial part or the whole plant (grass with roots). Raw materials harvested during the flowering period. Lay out a thin layer and dry in the open air under a canopy or in a room with good ventilation. Ready raw materials are stored in paper bags. The shelf life of raw materials - 1 year.

You should know that the tubers collected after ripening fruits are poisonous.

Use in traditional medicine

In folk medicine, spring scrub plays an important role in treating various diseases (for example, bronchitis, tracheitis, constipation, hemorrhoids, skin rashes, diathesis, acne, gingivitis, stomatitis, polyarthritis, abrasions, wounds). For therapeutic purposes, folk healers and herbalists use the above-ground part and the roots of the plant only at a young age. A decoction of the roots and leaves of the scapula is used against warts, scabies.

In folk medicine of Belarus, spring scrub is used for snake bites (the plant is crushed, mixed with lard and ointment applied to the bitten place). Tea from the dried plant is used for skin diseases, and also chamomile with a chamomile is used to make warm baths for certain skin areas and for hemorrhoids (sessile baths). Since ancient times, the purge has been used to treat inflammatory diseases of the respiratory system organs, especially bronchitis with elevated sputum. A mixture of herbs and chistyakov roots in folk medicine is used for scrofula, acne, as a spring blood-cleaning agent. Crushed fresh leaves of spring scurf in a mixture with pork fat or butter in the form of an ointment are applied to breast tumors, as well as hemorrhoidal bumps and nodes, as well as various seals. The ointment is also used as an anesthetic and anti-inflammatory agent for body aches for colds, scrofula (exudative diathesis), glandular tumors, acne and skin rashes.

In folk medicine, the scrub herb decoction is used for rinsing the mouth with periodontal disease and gum damage, as well as for compresses, lotions and washings for long non-healing and purulent wounds. The decoction of herbs Purean in whey is also used for jaundice, spring vitamin deficiency, bronchitis and diathesis. In the spring, herbalists recommend that you take the juice from fresh herbs of chistyka with milk to cleanse the blood, as well as to replenish vitamin C deficiency.

Literature

1. Barabanov E.I. Botany. M: Publishing Center "Academy", 2006. p. 237.

2. Gubanov, IA, and others. 595. Ficaria verna Huds. - Spring Chistyak // Illustrated determinant of plants in Central Russia. In 3 t. M .: T-in scientific. ed. KMK, In-t technologist. Ex., 2003. T. 2. Angiosperms (dicotyledons: otloplepestnye). P. 210.

3. Plant Life, Ed. A.L. Tahtajan. M .: Enlightenment. 1981. T. 5 (2).

4. Yelenevsky A.G., M.P. Solovyov, V.N. Tikhomirov // Botanica. Systematics of higher or terrestrial plants. M. 2004. 420 p.

5. Peshkova G.I., Schroeter A.I. Plants in home cosmetics and dermatology. M. 2001. 684 p.

6. Skvortsov V.E. Flora of Central Russia. M. 2004. 481 p.

7. Shantser I.A. plants of the middle zone of European Russia (Field Atlas). M. Publishing House KMK. 2007. 470 p.

In cooking

Since chistyak is an early plant, its young leaves, which are formed in early spring, are used as a vitamin supplement. In the absence of other natural sources of vitamins, perennial leaves are great for various salads and soups. They can be added to green soup or cabbage soup.

In folk medicine

Immediately, we note that the traditional medicine is not used chistyk - accordingly, all recipes are taken from traditional medicine.

Therapeutic ointment. Used to bite snakes and to get rid of the following ailments: exudative diathesis, skin rashes, acne, swollen glands. Take 1 tbsp. l butter or other natural fat, then pounded with 3 tbsp. l powdered leaves. This tool is used exclusively externally. The treatment is carried out until the condition improves. Rubbed ointment is better before bedtime.

A decoction based on whey. Used to treat the following diseases: jaundice, bronchitis, diathesis. Taken on half a tablespoon of crushed roots and leaves of chistyaka, after which 200 ml of whey are added. Cooked for about 2 hours on low heat. Next, the broth is settled to cool and filtered. Should take 1 tbsp. l three times a day before meals. Infusion. Water infusion is used to treat hemorrhoids. Take 2 tbsp. l chopped leaves and pour 0.5 liters of boiling water, then insist 3 hours. After cooling, the liquid is filtered. Used externally in the form of lotions. It is best to perform the procedure at bedtime.

Harm and contraindications

You need to know: all products from this plant, which are used for food or medical purposes, are safe only until the end of flowering. After that, the content of poisons that are in the leaves and roots increases dramatically, which makes the scrub dangerous.

  • pregnancy and breastfeeding,
  • childhood,
  • diseases of the stomach, kidneys and intestines during the exacerbation.

Growing up

Chistyak is planted not only for the production of medicinal raw materials, but also as an ornamental plant. If it is important to you that the perennial was beautiful, then choose the varieties “Guinea Gold” or “Glory”. Immediately it should be clarified that reproduction is carried out exclusively by rhizome, so it is better to acquire a segment of the root system, and not seeds that can simply not ascend.

For planting should choose a wet area, but not a swamp. Nutritional value of the substrate does not matter, but it is worth considering the structure of the soil. Perennials will grow poorly on sandstones and loams. In the first case, he will not have enough moisture, in the second - oxygen for the root system.

You already know that a cleanser can harm your body if you collect it at the wrong time. Therefore, now we will tell about when the preparation is carried out, and how to prepare the raw materials for storage. The collection of leaves and roots produced during flowering, to get the raw materials, which will be the optimal concentration of nutrients and the minimum concentration of poisons. Stems, as a rule, are not subject to harvesting, because they are difficult to grind properly, and the foliage from one bush will be enough for you.

After collecting the leaves and rhizome should be dried. For this, the raw materials are laid out in one layer under a canopy so that the sun's rays do not fall on parts of the plant. In the process of drying, you need to regularly turn the leaf plates and roots so that they do not stick. It is also important that the drying place is well ventilated. You can dry in the room, but in this case, you should lay out the raw material in the draft. It is not recommended to use electrical devices for drying.

After the leaves and roots have dried, they need to be folded in paper or linen bags. Next should be stored in a room with low humidity. Shelf life - 1 year. Chistyak spring is a good medicinal plant, which, however, it is important to properly collect and use. Remember that poisons are present in the roots and leaves, even in the raw materials that are collected at the right time. If you have the slightest symptoms of allergy, immediately stop using the scrub-based drugs.

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Grass description

Spring Chistyak is a perennial ephemeroid with roots dying off after flowering. The leaves are colored, like the stem, in a light green tint, very delicate. They are alternate, round or half-round, without stipules. The lower ones are located on long cuttings, and the upper ones are short. Shoots are often reclining. The flowers are bright yellow, solitary, with 6–9 perianth leaves with an exquisite sheen. They are well attracted (beautiful honey plants!).

Chistyk grows almost everywhere. Especially a lot of it in the south and in the middle part of European Russia and in southwestern Siberia. It occurs most often in broad and small-leaved forests, near water bodies, in thickets of shrubs. It can also be found on the fringes, in the mixed grass steppes, on the household plots. Some designers use it to create a beautiful landscape. Flowering begins in April, continues until June. If the weather is cloudy, the purse closes its flowers.

Additional names: kuroslepnik, poisonous leaf, hare salad, gill, buttercup chistyak, etc.

Medicinal properties

The beneficial properties of the spring buttercup are due to the presence in its composition of a large amount of vitamin C (more than citrus fruits!), Saponins and proteanemonins. In traditional medicine, this plant is not used. In homeopathy and traditional medicine, it is used as a mild laxative, anesthetic, blood-purifying, expectorant, and wound-healing agent. In addition, some herbalists recommend it for use in the fight against scrofula, acne, hemorrhoids, aches with colds, periodontal disease (you need to rinse with broth), wound suppuration. It is worth noting that spring scrub is also good in cooking, as part of spring blood-cleaning salads or soups.

Plant application

Spring Chistyak can be part of therapeutic ointments against acne, decoctions, water infusions and healing mixtures. In the fight against acne, traditional healers recommend making a collection of 3 tbsp. spoons of leaves of the plant and 1 tbsp. spoons of any fat or butter. It is easy to apply: just apply to the problem area and after 5-10 minutes, rinse with warm water. It is worth noting that a similar composition will also be useful for scrofula and various rashes on the skin.

When hemorrhoids can make water infusion of buttercup. For this you need to take 2 tbsp. spoons of dry young leaves, pour 50 ml of boiling water and infuse for 3 hours. Filter and start making gadgets. By the way, you can apply cotton pads soaked in a similar broth, not only to hemorrhoids, but also to the chest, as well as bumps and bruises. Very useful!

Another way to use spring scrub is as a decoction with the addition of whey. For its preparation you need to take 1 tbsp. a spoonful of dried leaves, pour 1 cup of dairy product, boil for 2 hours. Cool, filter. Take three times within 24 hours, 1 tbsp. spoon, shortly before the meal. Indications to the use: avitaminosis, diathesis and acute bronchitis.

Contraindications

Chistyak spring is poisonous! It can not be used fresh, only in dried. Since it is after drying caustic alkaloids chelidonin and choleritrine are destroyed and become harmless. But still go to the doctor and consult about whether you can use the plant for medicinal purposes, is not forbidden. The absolute contraindications are: children's age, pregnancy and lactation.

Plant description

This is a perennial undersized flowering plant. It is distributed throughout Europe, Western Asia, North Africa and America, where it was introduced by immigrants.

Prefers wet shady places. It grows along the banks of rivers, lakes, in shady forests, slopes, along hedges, forming a dense carpet.

It belongs to the family of "Buttercups" of the genus "Buttercup". In the people it is often called the spring buttercup, gill (although this is a different species), kurolepnik, rabbit salad, pshonkoy, chistnikom.

Height chistyaka from 20 to 30 centimeters. Leaves on long petioles, growing from a short descending stem. The first leaves are large in the shape of a heart. Later remind ivy leaves. Dark green, glossy. In the axils of the leaves, some species have an onion root.

Blooms bright yellow flowers with 7-12 glossy petals. The fruit is a multiple fruit nut. Flowering begins, depending on the region of growth in April and May.

Flowers close before the rain. Even in good weather do not open before nine o'clock in the morning. By 17 o'clock in the evening already closed at night.

With the onset of longer warm days, the petals turn pale and by the end of May they are practically not visible. The elevated part dies off.

The root is a tuber, in its shape resembling the fruits of figs. They are easily divided and for reproduction enough piece with a peephole. Like potatoes.

If you need to get rid of the plants on the site, you must carefully remove all the tubers. Even a small piece left in the ground will sprout in the spring again.

Chistyak often confused with bog marsh marigold. It looks like only leaves and yellow flowers. But marigolds have 5 oval petals.

What is the chemical composition useful for?

The chemical composition of the chistyka is practically not studied. What is reliably known is the presence of proto-anemonin.

When dried, it is converted to non-toxic anemonin, which is then hydrolyzed to dicarboxylic acids.

Leaves contain vitamin C or ascorbic acid.

Saponins and carotene are present in it.

Sugar and starch are found in tubers.

Saponins are organic compounds from the class of glycosides. They are in many plants. They are used in industry and in the food industry, in particular in the production of halva.

They reduce surface tension and contribute to the formation of foam.

Carotene, a pigment that gives orange or yellow color to plants, refers to antioxidants. It fights against the harmful oxidative effects of free radicals, is necessary to maintain normal vision.

Ascorbic acid also has antioxidant properties. Responsible for strong immunity, is involved in the production of collagen.

Infusion with hemorrhoids

Take 2 tablespoons of herbs and brew 500 ml of boiling water. Wrap and insist for 3 hours. Used in the form of lotions, applying to the nodes.

A tablespoon of dried raw materials pour two cups of hot water. Soak in a water bath for 2 hours.

Inside to use 1 tablespoon 3 times a day for cough, whooping cough, scrofula, constipation, hemorrhoids. Externally washed ulcers, acne and other skin rashes.

The use of ointment is very multifaceted. She is treated with a rash on the skin, from diathesis, acne, snake bites. Helps ointment for hemorrhoidal cracks and nodes.

To prepare ground powder into dried leaves. You can sift through a sieve to avoid large particles.

Take 3 tablespoons of the resulting powder and mix with a tablespoon of natural butter or interior fat.

Cooking Application

We have not so widespread edible use. In America, England, vitamin spring salads are made from leaves. In raw form, only young leaves are eaten. Older need to boil.

Leaves, stems and buds can be used as spinach, pre-blanched.

Roots are cooked like vegetables. They are first boiled for a few minutes and then served with olive oil. You can fry, pre-boil.

Flower buds marinate instead of capers.

Interesting Facts

In the Middle Ages, many beggars on the street with a chistyka juice lubricated their skin, which caused ulcers.

In Wales, the scurly blooming determines the time for sowing.

Roots and bulbs hung in the barns. So people believed that milk would be fatter.

The remains of charred roots and bulbs are found during excavations dating back to the Mesozoic period.

Contraindications and side effects

All parts of the plant are poisonous. Toxins are unstable and easily destroyed when heated or dried.

Juice may cause skin irritation. Therefore, care must be taken when harvesting raw materials.

Despite the fact that toxic substances are destroyed when heated, in some people it can cause an allergic reaction. It is manifested not only by redness and irritation, but also by respiratory failure, constriction in the chest, and swelling of the throat.

When applied externally, skin irritation is possible.

It can not be used by people with liver disease, during pregnancy, young children.

Excess dosages may cause vomiting.

Collecting and harvesting

For therapeutic purposes, you can only harvest the above-ground part or dig up the whole plant along with the tubers. Leaves are harvested during budding or flowering. Tubers are dug in early spring or autumn.

Dried in a ventilated room in the air. Store in paper bags, cardboard boxes or pouches.

Shelf life is 12 months.

Nature gives us a lot of useful plants. But we must remember that it is poisonous. The older he gets, the more toxic substances accumulate in him.

Stock Foto Chistyaka spring

Spring purist grows in meadows, forest edges, in damp, shady places, along rivers, streams, in ravines and among shrubs in many parts of the European part of the country. in the Urals, in Western and Eastern Siberia, in the Caucasus and in Central Asia. The chemical composition is studied a little.

Description and useful properties Chistyaka spring

The leaves contain up to 190 mg% of vitamin C, 5 mg / o carotene, 0.02 / o essential oil, 0.73 / o triterpene saponins, alkaloids. Protoanemonin was found in the fresh plant and anemonin in the dry plant. In root tubers 13.5 / o of starch and up to 10% of sugars, up to 1.8 / o of saponins, vitamin C.

At different periods of growth, the plant can be both edible and poisonous. So, before the flowering begins, in early spring, you can prepare salads from a scouter, after boiling it in salt water. Boiled purse is used to make pastes, put in green borscht, soups, botvinis, pickled, salted and dried.

Somewhat later, during the period of flowering and seed formation, poisonous alkaloids chelidonine and choleritrin appear in the plant. Hence the different names of cleaningsalad bowl, kurolep, gill, spring cleanser and cleansing butteri.e. poisonous.

Tubers are most often consumed after flowering plants, although they can be collected in early spring. Of these, soups are boiled, boiled used in salads and vinaigrettes.

For winter use, they are boiled and, in this form, salted in a concentrated salt solution. Unblown flower buds are marinated and used as capers.

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