Updated on 10/22/2014 By elektrod
The Uzbek fawn breed was bred on the beautiful lands of Uzbekistan, thanks to the careful selection of local turkeys and the considerable efforts of the eminent poultry farmer N. Zolotukhin. The birds are perfectly adapted to the growing conditions in Asia. Received widespread in Uzbekistan, Tatarstan and the North Caucasus. However, there are a number of drawbacks, which include the slow growth of turkeys, low egg production, as well as the relatively low quality of the meat produced.
The breed is unpretentious neither to the conditions and place of detention, nor to feeding. By type, they are medium-sized turkeys. They have an average body, rather large species. The head is also of medium size, from the side it seems a bit narrow. The neck has a long and elongated appearance. Legs are of medium length. The plumage is red-brown or as it is also called - fawn color. He looks very beautiful. This appearance helps the bird to become a decoration of the yard when breeding at home.
In size, the adult turkey of the Uzbek fawn breed is inferior to the representatives of the white and bronze breeds. The live weight of males is about 10 kilograms, and females about 5 kilograms. Juveniles at 16 weeks of age have an average weight of about 4 kilograms. But at such an early age is not subject to slaughter, so it is necessary to nurture the bird until reaching adulthood.
Egg production is quite low, for 1 cycle the number of eggs does not exceed 65 pieces. Only 68 percent of these are deductible. But due to the fact that the birds have a high survival rate, are unpretentious to the content, they are able to feed themselves without special expenses, almost all the brood of young stock can be raised to adulthood.
Some turkeys can fly well and can sit on rooftops and trees for a long time. In the summer they must be kept under canopies in special pens. When using the paddock, you can save up to 50 percent of cash on feeding. In winter, birds are kept in warm and comfortable rooms, for example, in polycarbanate greenhouses. It is necessary to develop a system of proper nutrition, so that in the cold season, together with food, individuals will receive a sufficient amount of nutrients to ensure their normal growth and development. Nutrition should be carried out on a specific schedule using a variety of biological additives.
North Caucasian Bronze
The local breed, divorced in the Caucasus until the second half of the twentieth century, was distinguished by a very low live weight (3.5 kg). However, she could survive in very extreme conditions. After the Second World War, it was decided to increase the meat mass of local turkeys. Local turkeys were crossed with American meat turkeys: bronze wide chest.
Bronze wide-breasted has a significantly greater body mass and higher egg production.
As a result of breeding work in 1956, a new breed of turkeys was registered - the North Caucasian Bronze.
In the North Caucasian bronze there are two lines:
- Easy Adult turkeys weigh 11 kg, turkeys -6. The slaughter weight of turkeys of this line is more than 4 and 3.5 kg, respectively,
- Heavy The weight of adult turkeys is 18, turkeys 8 kg. Slaughter weight in 4 months 5 and 4 kg.
Under favorable conditions, both lines become sexually mature at 8-8.5 months, while unfavorable at 8.5-9 months. The egg production of turkeys is 70 eggs per year with fertilization of about 82% and hatchability of poults from fertilized eggs up to 90%.
The birds start to sweep at about 9 months, the laying period lasts about 5 months.
The North Caucasian bronze is distinguished by its high viability and can be divorced not only in the south of Russia and in Central Asia, but also in other regions with a temperate or continental hot climate.
From the local turkey breed, the North Caucasian bronze inherited a high resistance to infections, which is very important for the owner of a personal estate. Unfortunately, the population of the North Caucasian bronze is declining due to the introduction of broiler breeds of turkeys.
Breed is easy. Bred in the 50s of the last century by crossing local turkey breeds with bronze wide chest. At first the breed was called “Kuban black”. Turkeys of this breed have a pure black plumage without brown feathers, like in bronze varieties, but also with a green tint.
Adult turkeys weigh up to 11 kg, turkeys to 6. In principle, this breed gives a good slaughter meat yield (60%). For comparison: turkey meat breeds give a slaughter yield of 80%. At four months, young animals weigh up to 4 kg, but few people score at this age. Usually grow to adulthood.
Turkeys are good chicks, however, with average egg production: 80 eggs per year. The hatchability of poults from the egg is 80%.
Bred it in the central and southern parts of Russia. The breed did not receive much distribution due to its too high adaptability to the hatching region. Its advantages include the ability of turkeys to live in unheated rooms before the cold. And to the disadvantages of greater mobility, because of which the breed requires a mandatory spacious range. Often Black Tikhoretsky used for breeding new turkeys.
The best breeds for broiler breeding are turkeys of the breed Big English company BYuT. More precisely, these are broiler numbering industrial crosses Big - 6, Big - 8, Big - 9.
Crosses are heavy type and do not differ in appearance. Their preference is given to the white plumage, so that the carcass has an attractive appearance. The turkey of these crosses already at 3 months reaches a weight of 5 kg, and it can be sent to slaughter. Adult turkeys can weigh up to 30 kg.
But keep in mind that these turkeys unpretentious can not be called. If it is not possible to provide them with high-quality feeding and maintenance, it is better to stop at less productive, but more unpretentious breeds. In addition, according to the owners Bigov, a large carcass is still very difficult to sell. They themselves prefer to slaughter turkeys weighing from 5 to 10 kg.
According to the characteristics of external parameters, Uzbek fawn turkeys belong to the medium, but very beautiful type of turkeys. The rather bright red-field plumage of birds creates such a graceful and memorable appearance of these individuals.
So, let's take a closer look at the description of pale turkeys. The birds have an average size of a tightly folded body, but the rich plumage creates a slightly increased volume, so that they seem rather large. Their neck is elongated and thin, the head is of medium size. Paws, like the beak is not large.
The adult female reaches a weight of 6-7 kilograms, and the weight of the males varies from 10 to 13 kilograms. Juveniles of 3.4-4 months of age reach 4-4.5 kilograms of live weight, but it is not recommended to kill them at this age, it is necessary to grow them to an adult state.
But, it is worth noting that with such low egg production rates, these birds are well adapted to different conditions of existence and their vitality is very high. Therefore, all the descended offspring is guaranteed to survive and be able to reach a mature age. The disadvantage of the breed is that they cannot differ in precocity and grow rather slowly.
The taste of meat is very good and the dietary performance is high, so when losing weight, as well as observing a healthy lifestyle, it is recommended to buy turkey meat, but preferably not in a store, but from a farm or household.
Maintenance and care
Fawn breed of turkeys, as previously noted, is not whimsical in the content, and should be cared for as well as other types of poultry.
It is important to know that the ability to fly is very well developed in turkeys, so walking them is recommended in canopies with canopies.
In the summer, you can save on the diet of feeding turkeys, if you protect for them a good territory for walking. Walking in the fresh air from spring to deep autumn turkeys can all day from morning to evening, eating insects and various herbs, so the need for additional feed they will be markedly reduced.
In order to avoid stale air in the house, it is necessary to take care of a good ventilation system in advance.
As litter on the floor in the house you can use sawdust, or straw. Before settling birds in a shed for wintering, all surfaces in the room should be treated with a disinfectant solution, in the form of chlorophos, or chloroform, in order to disinfect the shed and prevent the development of various diseases in individuals during the winter period.
Feeding turkeys at home should be of high quality, nutritious and very diverse, especially in the winter, when the birds are constantly indoors.
The stores have a huge selection of ready-made feed for turkeys, which can be given instead of crushed grain, as well as added a little to the wet mash.
It is important to remember that wet mashies should be cooked 15-20 minutes before feeding the birds, otherwise, they can sour and become unsuitable, and dry food should always be poured into a separate feeder.
To maintain the weight of the males, it is recommended to feed them before sunset with products such as:
- chopped carrots,
- sprouted grains of wheat, oats, or barley,
- peas, beans and other legumes:
- grain mineral supplements.
You can also add chopped root vegetables, silage, chopped carrots and grass meal to the diet.
Pale yellow turkeys consume a lot of fluids, so clean water should always be in the house. It is recommended to put water only in buckets or small tanks, since birds and other lighter containers will constantly be turned over.
In order to provide birds with access to vitamin C and carotene during the winter period, it is recommended to add pine needles and spruce needles to the composition of wet mashins, which must be crushed to the maximum.