Bush amorpha grows wild throughout the United States, in northern Mexico and in some parts of Canada. This plant, undemanding to growing conditions. Therefore, it is well settled down in Europe and Asia. In some of these regions, the amorpha has become a familiar plant, forming dense wild thickets.
Features of the structure of amorpha:
- Bush amorpha has an oval crown and reaches a height of 1.5 to 4.5 m. It depends on the temperature regime in the growing region.
- The color of the trunk is dark gray. The bush consists of a large number of branches covered with hard white fibers. The bark is brown. The branches grow up.
- The leaves of the amorphs are large, about 30 cm. The leaf consists of ten pairs of rounded leaves, each reaching 4 cm in length and about 1.5 cm wide. Each of them is crowned with a spike, and dark punctate glands are noticeable on the surface of the leaf blade. Amorph leaves contain essential oils that can be felt after rubbing a leaf.
- Bloom amorph begins in mid-June. Brushes with flowers located on the tops of the shoots, grow vertically. The flowers are small, with short peduncles and scaly bracts. They have only one petal, a double-edged sail sail, which looks out from a bell. The flowers form the spike inflorescence. Coloring - different tones of purple. The stamens are yellow, clearly visible in the inflorescence. Brush length reaches 15 cm. Flowers have a vanilla smell.
- Fruits are beans up to 8 cm long and 2 cm wide. Each of them contains smooth seeds in the form of a bud, about 3 mm long. Their ripening time depends on the ambient temperature. Usually they turn brown for a month and a half: from the end of September to the beginning of November. After full maturity, the beans remain on the branch and can hang until the onset of spring.
Amorpha belongs to the legume family. The root system of the plant is branched. Like all representatives of legumes, nodules are located on shallow roots, which contribute to filling the soil with nitrogen. The form of a bush amorph has many different forms.
A shrub amorpha is undemanding to growing conditions, it is well tolerated by the wind, it withstands strong pollution of urban air. This is a pretty thermophilic plant. It can withstand temperatures down to -23 degrees.
The most resistant to the effects of low temperatures is the shrub and dwarf amorphus. The growing area of the amorphus passes south of the Petrograd-Novosibirsk-Khabarovsk line. With a strong decrease in temperature, annual shoots or even all branches freeze slightly. But the root remains, so by the end of the summer the plant is almost restored. It grows fast. New shoots have time to bloom and give fruit.
Demanding amorphs to light, therefore, in the wild, it often grows on lighted edges.
In the shadows ceases to bloom. Known amorphic attachment to water. It was there that thickets especially lush. Amorph grows well on any soil, be it salt marsh or sand. It is better if it is wet. It grows well on light sandy, loamy calcareous soils.
Reproduction and care
Propagate shrub amorpha:
Amorpha bush does not like replanting. Its roots are easily injured, because of what the plant is badly taken root in the new place. The easiest way to buy a ready seedling with a closed root system. It is better to plant seedlings and root processes in spring, before leafing.
When growing an amorph from seeds, the beans are placed in warm water for 12 hours. Then the water is drained, covered with a light substrate, periodically watered. Seeds germinate about 2 months. It is easier to first stratify them for 2 months at a temperature of up to 5 ° C, and then put on germination. Then the shoots will appear much faster. About 40 percent of seeds germinate. After the seedlings grow, they are transplanted into pots. The first winter the plants will spend in the basement or other cool room. Planted in a permanent place in the spring.
In June, cuttings are procured and rooted in the greenhouse, this method gives a good result, almost 90 percent of the cuttings successfully take root.
Shrub amorpha is very easy to clean. It is necessary to water it only the first year as required. In the future, watering is carried out only in very dry periods. Closer to the fall do not water, so that the shoots are woody and do not freeze over in winter. The first three years, the trunk circle mulch and cover for the winter with branches or other materials. In the future, it is enough to bend the branches to the ground for the winter period.
Amorpha gives in well to shaping a bush with pruning. This allows you to create bushes of the desired shape. Shrubby amorpha does not need fertilizing. Do not damage its pests, because they are deterred by the smell of leaves. Diseases of amorphism are not noticed by various diseases. This facilitates the cultivation of the plant.
Use of shrub amorphs
Shrub amorpha is well known for its medicinal properties. In its composition there are alcohol pinitol, flavonoids (mainly in fruits), amorphrutines, amino acids, peptides. Basically they use the property of flavonoids, which soothe the nervous system, and have a positive effect on the work of the heart. For the treatment of collecting flowers and beans. There are there vitamins, microelements. The leaves, fruits, flowers of the plant contain a small amount of essential oils and natural indigo paint. In China, the leaves are also used for treatment.
Gather recently blooming flowers and beans that have acquired a brown color.
As folk remedies used amorph for the treatment of vegetative-vascular dystonia, diseases of the nervous system, tachycardia. To do this, prepare tinctures or decoctions, most often with other medicinal plants of similar action. To prepare the raw materials, the collected flowers or fruits are laid out in a thin layer on a thick cloth or cardboard in a ventilated place. Ensure that the sun does not fall on him. In wet weather, you can use the dryer, but the temperature in it should not exceed 50 degrees. It is very easy to find out that the beans are ready: if they break, the raw materials are ready. You can keep it for 2 years.
Use the fruits and flowers of the amorph to repel insects. It is enough to decompose fresh branches or inflorescences in places where there may be pests. Amorphus bush is used as an ornamental plant, especially in the southern regions. It forms picturesque thickets, can grow in group plantings. The amorph is beautiful from spring to autumn, especially during the flowering period.
More information can be found in the video:
Amorphus shrub - Amorpha fruticosa
The plant is a loose, light shrub. The leaves are emerald - green, complex - consist of oval leaves arranged in pairs. The underside of the leaf plates has a short gentle pubescence. In May, a shrub amorpha forms apical large inflorescences - up to 20 cm long, consisting of numerous, fragrant flowers - purple, with bright orange or yellow stamens. Flowering lasts until July. The plant contains small amounts of indigo blue pigment.
Amorph gray or greyish - Amorpha canescens
Deciduous shrub, one of the smallest representatives of the species, reaches a height of about 90 cm. Leaves and young shoots are covered with a thin down, because of which the plant from a distance appears silver-gray. Leaf blades are longer and slightly bent along the midrib compared to other species.
Height . Up to 4.5 meters in nature.
Amorph - home care
Temperature conditions . It tolerates a wide range of temperatures, but does not tolerate only frosts.
Growing Amorph - Lighting . Perhaps bright lighting, but can grow in partial shade.
Care . It tolerates pruning, even radical, which rejuvenates the plant. Pruning does not prevent flowering, as flower buds are laid on the shoots of the current year.
Soil for amorphs . Sandy, loamy, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in lean soil. There are no special requirements for soil pH.
Top dressing . During the growing season once every two weeks.
Purpose . As a houseplant most often use dwarf amorph, as its height does not exceed 50 cm.
Flowering time . From July to September, lasts about 3 weeks.
Air humidity . There are no special requirements; when grown in residential premises, an amorph does not need high humidity.
Amorph watering . Prefers dry or wet soil, easily tolerate drought.
Transfer . As you grow, you can prune the root system during transplantation.
Reproduction of amorphs . Seeds, often distributed self-sown. Amorph seeds are soaked for 12 hours in warm water and sown in early spring in a greenhouse. Germination usually occurs after 1 - 2 months at 20 ° C, for the first time plants bloom at the age of 3 years or more. Half-burst cuttings in the summer.
Pests and diseases . No serious problems with pests, there are some susceptibility to leaf spot, rust, powdery mildew.
Note, application of amorphs . Ground fruits are used as seasoning. The plant contains indigo pigment and can be used to produce a dye. The shrub is an excellent honey plant and during the flowering period it attracts bees, in addition, the flowers of amorphus contain large amounts of pollen. From fruits - beans receive sedative medicines. Amorpha is an excellent melliferous plant and, when grown on the street during flowering, attracts a lot of bees.
Amorpha shrub description and photo
Amorph plant conquers the ability to remain airy and light bush, despite the fact that it often reaches several meters in height. Its crown in outline resembles a beautiful lace consisting of symmetrical feathery, silky velvety leaves and beautiful flowers. It is this magical beauty that conquers most people who decide to build their garden, flowerbed or slope.
The ornamental shrub begins to bloom in the first half of summer in the form of unusually beautiful spikelets consisting of a variety of soft purple, white, blue, purple-blue, red flowers that resemble bells. In each species, they are differently collected in inflorescences in the form of spikelets or lush panicles. This distinguishes Amorph from other garden dwellers. But the gardeners' special love was presented by her endurance and unpretentiousness in care.
In nature, amorph can often be found in western Canada; it has captured almost the entire territory of the United States and northern Mexico. It is civilized in western Europe, the European part of the Russian Federation and Ukraine to decorate the roadsides of parks and to strengthen ravines and slopes.
The shrub has many branches that are pubescent at first, and later become bare. The bark has a brown or dark gray color. Young shoots are covered with short white, gray or silver hairs that disappear over time.
On the branches grow oblong-elliptical leaves up to four centimeters long and two centimeters wide, with both ends have a rounded shape, at the end there is a small spike, arranged in pairs on one stalk of the leaf, are collected in a large plumose leaf.
Amorph is not limited to decorative talents. The shrub is included in the list of valuable medicinal plants, which are widely used on an industrial scale for the production of nutrients and the production of drugs and derivatives.
The seeds of the plant are composed of glycosides related to rotenoids. The beans also contain amorphine (arabized, d-glucose, amorphygenin) - a substance that has a relaxing and soothing effect, amorphygenol and dehydroamorphygenin. Fruits are high in fatty oil. Substances contained in the beans have a neutrophic and sedative effect on the human body.
After research, scientists found that amorphine has a sedative effect on the nervous system, and it has a positive effect on low-frequency rhythms in the brain and circulatory system. Framatin tablets are produced from amorphine. These tablets have been used in the treatment of neurosis, the autonomic, cardiovascular system, paroxysmal tachycardia. Take orally one tablet after a meal up to three times. After ten days of reception, you need to take a break for three days, then resume reception.
The beans are gathered in August or September. Inside the bean are one or two seeds. If they are properly dried, they can be stored for up to two years, after which they lose their effectiveness. Fruits should be dried in a dryer at a temperature not exceeding 50 degrees or in a well-ventilated area.
Amorpha shrub photo description
Not only fruits have medicinal properties. From flowers, as well as from beans, prepare broths at a neurotic state. For the drug you need a navy spoonful of seeds and the same number of flowers that need to be poured with hot water (glass) and boiled for about ten minutes over low heat. Broth should be filtered from the remnants of fruits and flowers. Take chilled, 50 ml for half an hour before meals. Use the drug, do not abuse to avoid overdose.
A shrub amorpha is one of the basic shrubs in a modern design, allowing it to be used as a solitaire (single element). She can become a giant, standing out in the group of more squat garden pets.
Often, the amorphs do not grow more than two meters, but this is good, because it turns out not too massive, but on the contrary, a light and airy element for the decoration of any section in the garden.
Use shrubby amorpha to create a second tier of the landscape. Or create a forest plantation. The amorph is well developed root system, they create a huge number of root shoots. By holding loose sandy soils on the slopes and ravines, these beauties become a powerful reinforcement of a crumbling soil.
These beauties have a dense, dense crown, foliage and unusual inflorescences of which resemble a complex ornament. The leaves are velvety to the touch and very pleasant, richly exude essential oils when rubbed.
In the first half of the summer, the flowering of the amorphus begins more than unusual. Protruding ears of small multicolored bells, painted from red to deep purple in color, give playfulness and audacity to an already beautiful crown. Amorfa pleases its owners with a riot of colors for about 25 days in May-June.
In August and September, on the places where there were stunning flowers, fruits develop in the form of smooth, shiny brown beans, the size and color of which are somewhat different, depending on the subspecies. This is no less a delightful decoration of the garden and, if they are not collected, they will hold out on the plant until spring itself, gradually falling off, and even can sprout.
Amorph photo and description of species
Amorpha semi-shrub photo
There are 15 species in the genus amorphous shrub and semi-shrub. Almost all are attractive, beautiful and unusual. But not all of them are used in landscape design in regions with severe winters, although this is erroneous. The most popular of them, we now consider.
Amorpha shrub photo and description
Shrub with shoots directed upwards, in the form of twigs, which are covered with abundant leaves, reaches three meters in height and grows even in those regions where there are very severe winters. it Amorpha frutikosa or shrub amorpha. The leaves, consisting of an odd number of small elliptical leaves, are rather dense.
If you grind the leaf, it will liberally release essential oils. This species has been blooming for almost a month since mid-June. It produces large inflorescences quite magnificently and plentifully. Fruit ripening in warm weather occurs in September.
This species has several subspecies, which have different leaf shapes and different color of flower spikelets:
- If you like white flowers, plant albiflora white flowers, it will leave a lasting impression.
- Weeping branches in the Pendula variety.
- Prefer blue flowers - plant Coerulea.
- Angustifolia. It has narrow leaves.
- Crispa - curly.
- Emarginata is covered with small oval-shaped leaves with a small notch at the top.
- Lewisii will give large flowers in spring.
The next species grows only 50 centimeters high, in favorable conditions a meter high can grow. For this she was called Amorphus dwarf. This baby produces olive-green annual shoots. The leaves are also collected on the petioles first in pairs and one at the end. Purple flowers abundantly crown a bush in May-June. Fruits brings in August.
Among this variety, you can choose a plant in size and color, which will certainly fit into your designed design.
Do not be afraid of low winter hardiness of other types of amorphus. These amazing shrubs bloom on annual shoots, so they quickly recover after wintering. If you properly prepare for the winter, then even the most effete species of amorphous will survive the cold of the middle zone. У нас встречаются еще несколько видов, которые прекрасно растут и при надлежащем уходе в зимний период прекрасно себя чувствуют.
Одной из самых крупных представительниц своего рода является Аморфа метельчатая. Этот вид заслужил свое название благодаря строению соцветия. It is similar to bush amorphous. Reaches a height of 4 meters.
The leaves are also pinnate, consisting of an odd number of oval, pubescent leaves. The flowers in the tassels of purple-blue color, have the appearance of a lush panicle, perfectly dilute the lush green and create a light and airy texture to the plant. This species perfectly tolerates cold frosty winter and hot dry summer. Resistant to diseases, pests. Grows in all types of soil, except marsh. Lives up to thirty - forty years.
Amorpha naked looks more elegant than the above species. And at all it does not correspond to its name. Just because her crown in girth is two times smaller than its height, it received this offensive name. Slender amorphs are elegant, used in gardening as a single planting, and tape. Shoots, bare or slightly hairy, have a purple tint. Slender amorpha is also very beautiful, luxuriantly and unusually blooms.
There are practically no difficulties in growing amorphous. It is believed that it does not require special conditions of cultivation and can beautify any place. The plant really showed itself to be very tenacious. It is not necessary to pick up the soil for a long time, for all types of amorphs, any other than marshy can approach, but it must pass air and moisture, it is very important to lay drainage during planting.
Amorph is very light-loving, but a shady place for her is not a deadly fact. Although, of course, it will feel better in a well-lit area. Choosing a landing site, it is worth well to think about the design of the green corner. Amorpha does not like moving. The plant is likely to die if you try to move it to another location. So it is better to immediately determine the place of its permanent habitat. This is probably the biggest drawback of the plant.
But a huge plus demonstrates shrubs in the requirements for care. Amorpha shrub cultivation provides for the most ordinary: planted and forgotten. Care for her is practically not required and is perfect for lazy people. It tolerates drought. It is quite enough for a couple of waterings for the entire season, in the period of prolonged lack of rain. But of course he will not give up the life-giving moisture. Daily watering is not required. At the same time, a bush amorph is a great honey plant, attracts bees with an amazing smell.
Feeding it, too, may not be needed at all, if it was placed at least in the middle soil according to the characteristics. Fertile soil for amorphs is not at all mandatory, which is also an excellent plant quality. However, if you planted a shrub in depleted soil, you can feed after five years of growth: once a year with mineral or organic fertilizers.
Sanitary pruning is a must in the care of amorphous. Here lazy a little bit unlucky. Annually in the spring, be sure to trim dead, dry and damaged shoots.
If you notice poor flowering and depressed growth in your ward, you need to apply a rejuvenating pruning cardinally, right under the root. They are not afraid. Amorpha has a high ability to regenerate, in the same year she will have time to recover and then again will delight in flowering.
To control the growth may need to remove excess rhizomes.
Amorpha semi-shrubs in the photo
For wintering the plant must be prepared carefully, in which case it delivers some trouble. In our area and in the middle climate zone, the temperature drops below 20 degrees. The shoots are freezing, and the rhizome of the amorpha can not survive our harsh winter. The soil should be abundantly covered with peat and foliage, then gently bend down the upper shoots to the ground and also carefully sprinkled with foliage and spruce branches.
All species and subspecies of amorphism are very resistant to various diseases, and even pests are not afraid of it. It makes no sense to engage in the prevention of all kinds of fungal infections and the fight against aphids.
If you decide to propagate your favorite plant, there will also be no particular difficulties:
- The plant itself gives shoots from the root
- beautifully rooted shoots
- the seeds also sprout fine.
For better germination, seeds can be soaked in warm water for 10-12 hours, after which they can be planted in loose, prepared in advance, nutritious soil. This should be done only in the spring. It is necessary to grow up saplings in the soil closed by a polyethylene film or glass, maintaining the temperature approached to twenty degrees.
When several leaves appear, each plant must be dived and transplanted into separate containers for further strengthening. Only a year later, when the plant gets stronger and the soil warms up in the open ground, they can be planted in a garden or other chosen place. It must be remembered that transplanted amorph again will not work.
When trying to plant a plant with the help of a shoot, it is necessary to choose an adult, matured plant, pick a suitable basal shoot on it and carefully, trying not to damage the main plant, to separate it. Choose a necessarily strong plant to avoid its death. Then, without intermediate transplants, land in a permanent place and maintain soil moisture until the plant is rooted and grows.
You can also use the cutting method. In June, we cut cuttings, rooting as usual, covering with a can or other device, maintain the humidity. For the winter we put in a dry, dark, not hot room. In the spring we plant as soon as the soil warms up to the desired temperature.