About how many types of plums exist in nature to a common opinion is difficult to come. In some sources, an amount equal to 30 is indicated, in some even more than 40. This is primarily due to the fact that morphogenesis in the genus of plum continues to this day.
Culturally, plum is not at all a competitor to grapes and apricots cultivated by people since antiquity, however, by the use of its species diversity and its prevalence under natural conditions, it takes the lead when compared with the same and other fruit crops.
Types and varieties of plums
Home plum - a purely cultural species, domesticated on many continents. Wild seedlings of this plum alone can not meet in nature, but with the participation of man, this is possible. Describing this species, it is impossible not to mention the versatility of its fruits, which are also suitable for drying, which makes it stand out among others.
Dessert variety is a very popular variety of home plums. Volga plum a beauty with an early ripening and large red-purple fruits (34-50 grams), covered with a dense wax coating, sourish and sweet in taste. In terms of winter hardiness, the variety is in a position above the average, but in drought tolerance it is in a high position (dry weather is not terrible for the trees). It exhibits moderate susceptibility to the effects of pests (rare cases of gum cure and gray rot of fruits are recorded). Self-fertility - high, best pollinated by varieties of plums Zhiguli and early redhead.
Chinese plum - a rather unusual representative of the genus from the north and southeast of China. Rises above the ground by as much as 12 meters! It has a spherical crown, gray-brown bark of trunks and spherical fruits 2.5 cm in diameter, red, yellow or green in color, with not pronounced wax coating. The flesh of juicy plums has a melon flavor. Enters fructification from the age of 7 years, fruit ripening occurs in August-September. It has an average winter hardiness, the probability of germination is 67%.
Plum Pissardi (Red-leaved cherry plum)
It grows on the open slopes of mountains in the western part of Asia. In the decorative plan, this look is the most spectacular among all, standing out with a reddish shade of leaves and, what attracts attention in particular, large pink flowers that appear before the foliage blooms and at the end of flowering acquire a dark red hue. The height of the tree is 6 meters. Fruits abundantly, the color of the fruit - dark cherry red.
Plum varieties are usually classified according to the 2nd important characteristics - frost resistance and drought resistance. To frost-resistant varieties include, for example:
- early ripening, disease resistant, large-fruited variety Plum Alenushka (medium frost resistance),
- early ripening variety Plum Eurasia 21 with very tasty fruits, but poorly pollinated (high frost resistance),
- also early, with especially tasty fruits, a grade skoroplodny plum (very high frost resistance).
While resistance to cold manifests a considerable number of plum varieties, drought resistance in their ranks is a rarity. The taste of the fruit does not deteriorate to drought in the following varieties:
- foreign late-ripening, large-fruited, dessert variety plum stanley (or Stenley) with oval-round fruits (relative drought resistance),
- one of the most large-fruited (fruit weight - 60-100 grams), late-ripening industrial high-yielding variety plum president with, however, not the most delicious fruits.
It is always necessary to take into account these characteristics when choosing a variety for cultivation on the site, as the above-mentioned plum is skoroplodny, plum Eurasia 21, and peach plum Michurina, are essentially northern and in the southern regions not only do not boast of the sweetness of fruits, but can even lose their natural winter hardiness.
Altana Renklod Plum
Another thing is traditional foreign varieties, such as Altana Renklod Plum, which, with the observance of the rules of care, only once every five years may not yield a crop, or even more stable Plum Hungarian Azhanskaya with fruits excellent in taste.
The concepts of plums that have formed in the minds of many people imply round or oval fruit with stones, colored blue or purple. When the conversation begins to figure yellow plum, in the image most likely will appear cherry plum. But in reality, there are many yellow varieties of plums specifically (you can also recall the unique Chinese plum described above - there are yellow among the fruits of this species), and they are also different in taste and size.
An example would be white honey plumcalled so because it tastes honey, very sweet, but not cloying. By the way, the origin of the variety has Ukrainian roots. It is distinguished by unpretentiousness, 30-50 grams roundish, naturally, yellow fruits with a thin waxy whitish coating.
It is one of the most early ripening of all plum varieties (harvest can be started at the end of July), however, it is self-productive and requires the presence of a pollinator, the role of which can be performed by the Hungarian early and the Renklod Karbyshev. The tree reaches a height of 5 meters, gives a bountiful harvest, resistant to winter.
Another yellow plum with a slant to the golden color - yacht plum - the protagonist of this article, and it is about its cultivation will be discussed below. This hardy variety was bred by scientists breeders Kh. V. Enikeev and S. N. Satarovova. Positive results were achieved when crossing the Eurasia 21 plum and smolink varieties. The list of its advantages, without exaggeration, is impressive - taking into account the general high winter-resistance to the flower buds of this plum, there are almost no fears of returning cold spells, plus the tree withstands drought easily, plus is not affected by common diseases and pests.
A powerful, actively growing tree with a height of up to 5.5 meters enters the fruitful phase for 3-4 years of life, generously endowing the host with a crop from year to year. At the end of August, 45-50 kg of rounded, elongated, bright golden, sweet with encouraging sour fruit weighing 25-35 grams each can be collected from one such plum. However, the variety has one small drawback - in order to get a rich harvest in a year, pollinators (partially self-propelled) are desirable, which for the Yakhon plum are the plums of the Hungarian Moscow, the early ripening and the memory of Timiryazev.
It is a table variety designed for technical purposes, derived from the plum Eurasia 21 and the plum of the Volga beauty. Perfectly adapted for growing in the middle zone of the Russian Federation in small suburban areas. The height of the tree is above average, it is self-productive. Oval-round fruits have a maroon-lilac or reddish-purple hue with a thick waxy coating and a sweet taste with a sour taste.
Fruiting begins at the age of 3-4 years, fruit ripening occurs in August, at what is stable, annually. An etude can produce up to 20 kg of a crop from a tree, and its technical designation determines high rates of persistence in the refrigerator (up to 60 days) and transportability of harvested fruit. The variety has increased winter hardiness of both wood and flower buds, and relative drought resistance. As for the latter, it is worth noting the interesting fact that in hot weather its fruits acquire even greater sweetness.
Candy plum - ultra early, skoroplodnaya. Harvest ripening occurs at the end of July! At the same time, the fruits are very sweet in taste and look great. Their weight is 30-35 grams, and one tree can give up to 25 kg of plums. It is absolutely not necessary to put up with a low keeping rate, since the entire harvest is soon eaten.
The decorative taste of the plum is added to the excellent taste of the plum - the tree itself is relatively short (2.5 meters high) and fits into any garden exposition, decorating it initially with boiling white flowers (in spring during flowering), then red-maroon gray-coated fruits (in summer). All this goes to the accompaniment of openwork dark green foliage.
The frost resistance of the variety is high, as is, incidentally, the resistance to diseases / pests that are standard for plums. Self-infertility implies the settlement of a nearby reclacade of a collective farm, an early riverbank, or a colony-shaped plum, which, by the way, will be described below.
In North America rush, praise variety bluffy plumwhich we have affectionately called “supermarket dream". This title was awarded to him for the huge dimensions of the fruit - 70-75 grams. They have a dark purple color with subcutaneous points, very lezhki and transportable.
It is not difficult to guess that the taste qualities may suffer - it is so, but if you take into account the agrotechnical subtleties of the variety, it turns out that this plum ripens very late (at the end of September in Krasnodar) and gains sweetness in the last 7 days of maturation (then it becomes softer), so it is simply collected unripe, but with a presentation.
The yield of the variety is high, but in the conditions of the Russian Federation it will be such only in the southern regions. It would not be superfluous to clarify that bluffy is a Stanley plum, a president crossed with a plum.
Colonlike drain It has become widely demanded in the CIS today, mainly due to its compactness, which significantly simplifies fruit picking and care. Such plums do not have lateral branches, and the ripening of fruits occurs, respectively, on the main ones, literally plastered with fruits.
The size of the tree is small, but it bears excellent fruit, giving the summer resident 20 kg of plums annually (with proper care, of course) for 7-10 years. The advantages over other species and varieties should also include early ripeness, allowing you to enjoy the harvest after only 2 years from the moment of disembarkation. Colonic-shaped plums live for about 17 years.
Plum planting in the spring
To produce a successful plum planting, you need to choose early spring for work, while the trees are still in a state of winter recreation. The site should be well lit, and groundwater should not lie above 1.5 meters to the surface.
The width of the landing pit is about 1 meter, the depth is 0.5 meters; it is better to prepare it several months before disembarking. Plum sapling with straightened roots set vertically in the center of the hole, then sprinkled with turf ground mixed with mineral and organic fertilizers.
The tamping of the soil is not desirable, as is the complete sleep of the root collar, which optimally ends a few centimeters from the soil surface. In the end, you should mulch the circle around the peat circle with peat or humus and pour the drain well, using a couple of buckets of water per seedling.
The sensitivity of a young tree to gusty winds and storms at this stage of its life can be reduced with the help of a support (it is recommended to install it on the north side).
Another very tasty and useful fruit berry plant is a peach. It can be grown during planting and care in the open field, if you follow the necessary rules of care. All the necessary recommendations for the cultivation and care of this plant can be found in this article.
Both waterlogging and drying of the soil are equally undesirable processes. That is why it is necessary to moisten the tree only when necessary, while maintaining a stable level of humidity.
On average, the intervals between irrigation procedures are 2-3 weeks, and over the summer the whole tree is supplied with 3-6 buckets of water.
Soil for plum
There is only one requirement for soil, but it is extremely important. The fact is that the sink likes neutral sandy or loamy soil and does not like heavy clay. The first characteristic is decisive, and therefore, with the growth of a tree, soil testing for acidity is constantly carried out.
In the general case, the acidity of the soil is normalized by adding slaked lime once in 4-6 years (for digging, 300-400 grams per square meter to light formulations, 2 times more to heavy ones). For soil prone to acidification, this procedure is performed as soon as the need arises.
Only plums whose age has not exceeded 4-5 years can be transplanted. In adults, the root system grows so much that digging up a tree can cause irreparable harm to it. Any injuries affect the plum very badly, which must be taken into account when transferring it to a new place, following both the roots and the branches. The first is better to "dress" in the bag, and the second gently tied with ropes.
Starting a transplant, first of all, you should moisten a young tree well (4-5 buckets of water will be enough) - it will be easier to dig it out. After that, the tree is digging along a radius of 70 cm from the trunk to obtain a cone-shaped piece of land with roots.
With extreme caution, it is pulled out of the ground and transplanted to another site according to the rules of landing described a little earlier. Based on the recommendations regarding plum planting, the required period for transplantation is a spring wound.
Top dressing plums
The soil needs to be decorated in a specific order. In the first year, additional feeding is not required, the second year nitrogen-containing supplements are introduced 2 times (in the first and last days of June).
But in the third year and further (starting from the fruitful age) - nitrogenous (the last days of April), nitrophoska (June), phosphorus-potassium (August and after harvest).
Pruning spring plum
One of the most important points in the care - pruning pruning. It begins in the spring with the formation of a crown in the height of a trunk at 27-40 cm. The crown is left with 5-7 good branches, which are shortened for the first time, in order to prevent their wrong growth.
Following the onset of the fruiting phase, the conductor is cut above the upper lateral shoots, thereby contributing to good crown illumination.
Sanitary and thinning pruning with complete removal of damaged branches, shoots and stems growing in the direction of the trunk and interfering with each other is performed as necessary.
Plum in winter
At the initial stages of development, as well as in the presence of severe winters, plum shelter is required. They can serve as a cover of peat or fallen leaves.
The snow mound, scribbled in the zone of the near-barrel circle, is also a good shelter option, plus will provide the tree with moisture in early spring.
Plums can be propagated by applying bones, shoots, green or root cuttings and inoculation. Of all the vegetative methods, which, by the way, are much more reliable than seed, the most popular today is green cutting, which is distinguished by a high survival rate of young. But far from all varieties of plums can be rooted in this way (varieties are well grafted with abundant formation of root shoots), which, in particular, applies to jahon plum - it is propagated either by grafting or budding.
As a stock, root shoots of the same red head cropped, planted next to pollination, are suitable. Graft grafting is performed step by step by cutting the stem of the stock, cutting the split to a depth of 3 cm in the central part of the slice, cutting the cutting from the bottom on both sides to form a wedge, inserting it into the inside of the split and wrapping the grafting area with polyethylene material.
In order to perform budding in the appliance (applicable in dry weather, when the bark is difficult to bend), a 7-centimeter (long) cut is made on the bark of the rootstock, catching a thin layer of wood. Shank the sharpened so that its lower part with an oblique cut of similar length immediately below the bud contains a ledge inserted into the stock under the bark of wood to wood.
Again, after the vaccination work has been carried out, the joint should be tied up using the same polyethylene and leaving the graft bud free. When 3 weeks have passed, the film needs to be removed. The top of the rootstock at the beginning of spring should be cut so that a 15-centimeter (long) spike remains above the bud.
Propagation of plums with green cuttings
Returning to the topic of green grafting, it should be clarified that the procedure should be carried out in June, with the active growth of shoots. The length of the cutting should be 30-40 cm, it is desirable that it be cut off in cloudy weather from a young plant.
Placing the cutting in the water, using a well-ground tool, level it from the bottom with passing removal of the bottom leaf to half of the stem. In this case, the location of the upper cut is set immediately after the 3rd sheet. Next, the bundle of cuttings for the night period is lowered with the lower ends into the solution of heteroauxin at a depth of 1.5 cm.
The whole process of rooting should take place in a mini-greenhouse, the arrangement of which should be taken care of in advance. Preparation of the substrate for germination consists of mixing peat and sand in equal proportions, sprinkling the mixture with a layer of sand on a thickness of 1 cm, watering and light compaction.
Садить черенки нужно, соблюдая угол в 45, глубину, равную длине от низа черенка до оставшегося от 1-го листа черешка, взаимное расстояние в 5-7 см и межрядовый 5-сантиметровый промежуток. После этого для них делают прозрачное прикрытие и перемещают в освещенное место с защитой от прямого солнечного света.
Watering is done using a spreader, fertilizing - after 30 days from the date of planting, using a solution of nitrogen fertilizer (30 grams per 10 liters of water). Following rooting, cover must be removed.
Further care is reduced to preserving the cuttings until spring, which involves digging them up in the last days of September, putting moistened moss on the roots, wrapping it in film and storing it somewhere in the shed. With the arrival of spring, they are sown again in the soil. Growing before landing on the site lasts 2 years.
Diseases and pests
The good health of the plum, and especially of the plum, saves it from many diseases of fruit trees. However, careless care and some varietal exemptions still weaken its protective mechanisms for certain external influences.
For example, gum therapy - one of the most common diseases among plum trees, but specifically the yacht drain is practically not affected by it. Its causes are shortcomings in care, such as mechanical damage to the trunk due to careless work with the tool, overworking in pruning, as well as natural factors such as cracking of the bark after temperature changes.
If you run this disease, the plum may die. To get rid of the disease, each build-up of solid resin found on the tree should be cleaned with a knife before opening the unaffected wood and sanitized the wound zones with copper sulphate (1%), then they should be patched with garden pitch.
On the other hand, plum aphid poses a serious danger to both other plums and yakhontovoy. These pests, densely dotting the foliage, suck the sap from the tree, which is fraught drying and leaf fall.
Having identified the parasites, it is necessary to take measures consisting in insecticidal processing (1 tablet of Intavir per 1 liter of water) and autumn cleaning of trunks from the old bark along with insects hibernating in it. In this case, whitewashing of boles and skeletal branches, as well as timely destruction of shoots (of course, in varieties that actively form it) is recommended as a preventive measure.
Marinated plum cooking recipe
Culinary recipes with plums abound. These include classic desserts, pastries and drinks. This fruit is well processed thermally and perfectly combined with meat.
You can start cooking delicious dishes with pickled plums, for which we take:
- 6.5 kg of plums
- 1 bag of cloves,
- 1 bag of cinnamon,
- 2.5 liters of water
- 1 kg of sugar
- half a liter of 9 percent vinegar.
We will wash the fruit, remove its stalks, blanch it in 80-degree water for 2-3 minutes and quickly cool it under running water.
Put the cloves with cinnamon on the bottoms of the cans and spread the fruit on them thickly, then pour the hot marinade over there, close them with lids and place them under a temperature of 90 ℃ (half-liter jars - 12-15 minutes, liter - 17-20, 3-liter 30-35).
Roll up, turn the bottom up and leave to cool in the air. These plums are just great for meat. The total mass of ingredients and marinade should be enough for 10 liter cans.
Plum jam recipe "Gumbo"
It is relatively easy to make plum jam called “Gumbo”. For this you need:
- 2 kg of plums
- finely chopped thin peel of 2 oranges,
- finely chopped thin skin of the 1st lemon,
- 1.5 kg of sugar
- 250 grams of finely chopped pitted raisins,
- 125 grams of finely chopped walnuts without shell.
In a large saucepan lay out both the rind, plums, sugar, raisins and squeeze over the juices of lemon and orange. On a quiet fire, the mixed ingredients must be boiled for about half an hour, until everything thickens and the plums are softened.
Next, add the nuts, stir the boiling mixture for another 10 minutes (the fire is slow), and its density will become more pronounced. The finished jam can be poured into warm sterilized jars and corked.
Homemade Plum Wine
Plum wine, like grape wine, is very different depending on the color, in this case, the fruit. So from blue and purple plums you can get a thick red-ruby wine, and white and yellow (like a yacht plum) are suitable for light, almost white.
In any case, you need to stock up on ripe or even slightly overripe fruits, of course, they must be fresh, not spoiled and not moldy. In this case, it is better to let them “lie” in the sun for 2 days. It is not necessary to wash homemade fruits, because they will ferment even more intensively, but you should wash the stores.
So, to prepare a homemade plum wine, we take fruits, stoned, for a total weight of 6 kg, cut and lightly tamp, pour 2-3 liters of vodka on top, insist for 3 weeks, then merge into another vessel.
To the remaining pulp, just above its level, we add highly heated water, let it cool, filter and squeeze. The resulting liquid is mixed with sugar in equal proportions. Combine the syrup with vodka tincture, close with a water seal and leave the wine in this condition until it is finished fermenting.
Systematically carried out pruning, removing dry, intersecting branches. Plum crown should be shaped as a bowl. Then the light will fall on each branch, and the plum will give a good harvest. The first 2 years plum sapling can not feed. When the tree begins to bear fruit, additional feedings will be needed, otherwise the crop will be weak.
Harvesting and storage
Fruits do not ripen at the same time, they are collected in 2 or 3 approaches, focusing on the degree of maturity. Fruits are torn from the branches, and laid in boxes lined with paper in one layer. Store in a cool, dark room with an air temperature of around 0 ° C and humidity of 85% up to 2 months.
Harvest must be collected in dry weather. Over-grown or cracked fruits are immediately sent for processing - jam and preserves are made.
A description of the quality and taste of the fruit and requirements for cultivation will help you choose a good variety of home plums.
- 1. Listen to the article (soon)
- 2. Description
- 3. Landing
- 3.1. When to plant
- 3.2. Planting in the fall
- 3.3. How to plant in spring
- 4. Care
- 4.1. Spring care
- 4.2. Summer care
- 4.3. Autumn care
- 4.4. Treatment
- 4.5. Watering
- 4.6. Top dressing
- 4.7. Wintering
- 5. Trimming
- 5.1. When to trim
- 5.2. How to trim
- 5.3. Spring cropping
- 5.4. Pruning summer
- 5.5. Pruning in the fall
- 6. Reproduction
- 6.1. How to multiply plum
- 6.2. Reproduction by root suckers
- 6.3. Breeding stones
- 6.4. Reproduction green cuttings
- 6.5. Breeding root scapes
- 6.6. Graft
- 7. Diseases
- 8. Pests
- 9. How to deal with plum
- 10. Grades
- 11. Properties
Planting and maintenance of the plum (in short)
- Landing: in cool areas - in the spring, before the buds swell, in the warm - in the spring, and in the autumn, in the middle of September.
- Bloom: from the beginning of May.
- Lighting: bright sunshine.
- The soil: fertile, well-drained, neutral.
- Watering: for the growing season - 3-5 times. The soil needs to be wetted to a depth of 40 cm: 4 to 6 buckets of water are poured under young trees, and 10 buckets under fruit-bearing ones. In the dry autumn, podzimny irrigation is conducted.
- Top dressing: organic fertilizers are applied once every 3-4 years (10-12 kg per m²), mineral fertilizers once every 2-3 years: nitrogenous in spring, and potash and phosphate fertilizers in autumn. In the first and fourth year, 150 g of superphosphate and 50 g of potassium salt (in autumn), as well as 75 g of ammonium nitrate (in spring) are added to the near-stem circle for digging. In the fifth and eighth season, the amount of fertilizer is doubled.
- Pruning: usually in spring, before the start of sap flow, but it is also possible in summer, at the end of June, and in autumn, from mid to late September. The crown is formed within five years, usually giving it a rarefied-tiered form.
- Breeding: pits, shoots, root and green cuttings, grafting.
- Pests: hawthorn, cherry sprout moth, cherry slimy sawfly, peppered gruel, peppea scrubbed, downy silkworm, subcortical leafworm, fruit moth, unpaired silkworm, miner moth, red apple mite, brant, winter moth, western unpaired bark beetle, sapwood, pear trubkovert, internal moth and brown mite.
- Diseases: Affected klyasterosporiozom (perforated spotting) moniliosis (botrytis), bacterial blight (GUMMOSIS), rust, fruit rot, cherry leaf spot, sooty fungus, root cancer, marsupial disease, milky sheen, brown spot, witch's broom fungus blight, dwarfism, mosaic disease, smallpox and extinction of branches.
Plum tree - description
Plum is a tree up to 15 m high with an egg-shaped crown, the productive age of which is 10-15 years, but it can live up to a quarter of a century. Short varieties begin to bear fruit in the second or third year after planting, late-fruiting varieties only in the sixth or seventh. The plum root system is pivotal, most of the roots lie at a depth of 20-40 cm. The plum leaves are simple, short-petiolate, alternate, obovate or elliptical in shape, with serrate or burllate edges, pubescent from the bottom of the leaf plate. The length of the leaves is from 4 to 10 cm, width from 2 to 5. Flower buds give from one to three white flowers with a diameter of 1.5-2 cm. The plum fruit is purple, yellow, light green, red, or blue-black with bluish bloom drupe with flattened and pointed on both sides of the bone. The shape of the fruit can be round or elongated. Fruit trees Cherry, sweet cherry, a bird cherry, almonds, an apricot and a peach also belong to the genus Plum.
When plant plum.
In regions with a cool climate, plums are planted in spring, in April, before buds begin to open. In a warmer area, the plum can be planted in the fall, in mid-September, so that it can take root before frost. But if you have plum saplings later, in October or November, prikopite them in the garden until spring and cover it with frost frosts, laying it with needles up so that mice do not sneak in to the seedlings. When it snows, throw a snowdrift on a tree. In the spring, as soon as buds start to bloom, dig out the seedlings and plant them in a pit prepared from autumn.
Planting plums in the fall.
If you have mild winters in your area, you can plant trees in the fall, but you need to prepare a site for planting in advance. Even if you purchased a sapling of a self-fruited plum, it is still desirable that a pair of plums of another variety grow next to it - such a neighborhood contributes to consistently high fruiting.
The pit under the plum is prepared two weeks before planting. Plum grows on any soil other than acidic, but the groundwater in the area should lie no higher than a 1.5-meter depth. Choose a sunny, draughty and cold-winding place for plum trees from the south, south-west or west. Dig the area to the depth of the bayonet and, if the soil is acidic, put a deoxidizer under digging - dolomite flour or ash at the rate of 600-800 g per m². Then dig a hole with a depth of at least 60 cm and a diameter of about 70 cm, discarding the upper, fertile layer of soil in one direction, and the lower, infertile layer in the other. In the bottom of the pit in the center, drive in a planting stake so long that it rises above the surface of the site at least half a meter. At the bottom of the pit, pour a mound of fertile soil mixed in equal parts with humus or peat.
Now let's talk about the requirements for seedlings. It is considered a good seedling with a fresh, not over-dried root system. If the roots are lightly chapped, soak them in water for a few hours before planting. The bark of the plum must be free from damage and the stem must be in excellent condition. The trunk of a plum should not be split.
Planting plum in the fall is as follows: an annual sapling is set on an earthen mound, piled around the peg, gently straighten its roots and covered with soil from the topsoil mixed with organic fertilizers so that no voids remain. When planting, the root neck of the seedling should be 3-4 cm higher than the surface. After planting, water the seedling with two or three buckets of water, and when it is absorbed, the soil will settle and the root neck will be level with the surface of the lot, grind the tree circle with peat.
How to plant a plum in the spring.
Planting plums in the spring differs from the autumn only in that, besides organic matter, it is necessary to add to the fertile planting mixture the entire set of mineral fertilizers, including nitrogenous ones, which are not applied to the soil when it is planted in the autumn. The fertile soil layer is mixed with a 1: 1 ratio with humus or compost, 200-300 g of superphosphate, 40-60 g of potassium salt and 300-400 g of wood ash are added to it, mixed thoroughly and filled with seedling roots. Planted plums at a distance of 3-4 meters from each other. It is best to plant two plum trees of such varieties that bloom at about the same time. If cherry plum grows nearby, it will be enough as a pollinator. As we already wrote, they carry out spring planting before the start of sap flow.
Care plum spring.
At the very beginning of spring, in order to attract birds to the garden that will help you fight harmful insects, hang up birdhouses in trees. In mid-March, you can begin pruning pruning. In April, the soil in pristvolny circles and aisles dig up with nitrogen fertilizers at the rate of 100-200 g of calcium nitrate or urea for young trees older than one year and 300-400 g for plums, which entered fruiting. When digging, try not to damage the roots of the tree: dig around the trunk itself no more than 5-10 cm. Plum in the spring needs preventive treatment from pests and pathogens that overwintered in the bark of trees or in the soil of the trunk circle. If the temperature drops to 1 ºC, smoke heaps will have to be burned at night, stopping smoking only two hours after sunrise. Dry spring plums watered at the rate of 3-6 buckets per tree. At the end of May, trees are fed with organic matter, and then the area is mulched with sawdust or peat. Pristvolnye circles are kept clean by regularly removing root shoots.
Care of the plum in the summer.
Plums in the summer, after flowering, need fertilizing with organic and mineral fertilizers in the same proportions as in the spring. In dry weather, watering is carried out. At the end of the summer, the plum begins to bear fruit, so be prepared to harvest and recycle the crop.
Care plum autumn.
In September, the collection of plums continues, and after that, as a preparation of trees for wintering, water recharge irrigation is carried out. If you keep the soil in the area under the black steam, it is necessary to dig it in tree trunks and between the rows, at the same time removing and burning the fallen leaves. Than to feed the plum, after harvesting, so that she can regain her strength and prepare for winter and for fruit bearing next year? For digging, organic and mineral fertilizers are applied for each tree, carrying out the last feeding in the current year. What it consists of, read the relevant section. The shtambas and bases of the skeletal branches are cleaned of dead bark, lichen and moss, they clean the wounds they have found, they are treated with a solution of copper or iron sulphate, and then with a garden cook. The shtamby and base of the branches are whitened with a solution of lime with the addition of copper sulfate, after which the plums are prepared for wintering.
The first preventive treatment of plums is carried out in the spring, before the start of sap flow - in late March or early April. Plums are treated with a solution of 700 g of urea in 10 liters of water. As a result, the pests and pathogens that survived the winter are destroyed, and the plants receive the first nitrogen fertilizer in the current year. But if you do not have time to process the trees with urea before bud break, you will have to use Fitoverm, Agravertin, Akarin, Iskra-bio or other drugs of similar action. After this treatment, spray trees with a solution of Ekoberin or Zircon to increase plant resistance to weather extremes and diseases. The same prophylactic treatments are carried out in October before preparing the plum for the winter.
Like any other garden trees, adult plum overwinter without shelter. It is only necessary to mulch the perennial circle with peat or humus. Young trees for the winter must either be tied with spruce leaves, or wrap with sacking. Do not use artificial covering material for the wrap, because the seedlings underneath it will be hidden.
When pruned plum.
Formation of pruning pruning is carried out most often in the spring, before the start of sap flow. The sparsely-layered form of the crown on a shtamba not less than 40 cm high is popular. They begin pruning from the second year after planting, since the plum grows intensively in the very first years of life. Krona is formed within five years.
How to cut the plum.
In the year of planting, the plum is not cut, and next spring, the lower tier of 5-7 skeletal branches is formed on it at equal distances from one another, directed in different directions with an angle of separation from the trunk of 45 º. They begin to form a longline, stepping up along the stem from the surface of the area 45-50 cm, and the branches that grow below this mark are removed. The branches above the trunk, which are at an angle of less than 40º, cannot be left either - they can break off during fruiting. Skeletal branches are shortened by a third of the length, and the rest are cut into a ring, leaving no hemp. The conductor is shortened so that the height of the one-year-old tree is 1.5-1.8 cm.
In the third year, the conductor is shortened 30-40 cm above the upper branch - this measure is necessary for the conductor to grow straight. The growth increments of the branches, stretched more than 60 cm, cut to a third or a quarter of the length, and the side shoots up to 15 cm on the kidney, oriented downwards. Second-order skeletal branches form at a distance of 50 cm from the trunk; the distance between second-order skeletal branches located on the first-order skeletal branch must be at least 30 cm.
In the fourth year, the conductor is cut so that it is longer than the skeletal branches by 6 buds. Conductor pruning is carried out until it reaches a height of 2.5 m, after which a new growth is removed only annually. Responsibly refer to the formation of the apex, in time removing all incorrectly growing shoots: the plum crown should have a pyramidal shape, therefore with the introduction into fruiting the conductor is cut to the level of the upper lateral skeletal branch. Last year's growths are shortened to stimulate the development of new growth next year.
After four years, when the crown is generally formed, pruning stimulates the growth of new fruit branches, giving the bulk of the crop. Fruits are obtained on young fruit wood of two or three years of age. Four-year branches, which yielded a harvest last year, pruned. If this is done systematically, then the total anti-aging pruning of an aging tree will not have to be done.
Pruning is carried out with sharp tools, all sections are treated with garden pitch.
Pruning in the summer.
Since the young plum grows intensively and is prone to thickening of the crown, its formation is carried out as needed throughout the growing season. The best time for summer trim is the end of June. The lateral shoots of the youngest trees are shortened by 20 cm, premature shoots - by 15 cm. The center conductor is not cut in the summer. At this time, the branches are already clearly visible, frostbitten in winter - they are cut to healthy tissue. Remove and shoots, thickening crown.
Pruning in the fall.
Autumn sanitary pruning is carried out after the leaves fall off - from about mid-September. Remove dry, diseased and broken branches, shorten the center conductor, if it is too stretched out during the growing season. Then cut out the fast-growing shoots and competing shoots, thickening the crown. Cut branches and shoots must be burned. This pruning is relevant for areas with warm, mild winters; in cooler areas, pruning is better to move to spring.
How to multiply the plum.
Plum propagates under the seed, undergrowth, green or root cuttings and grafting, but the vegetative methods of reproduction are much simpler and more reliable than seed. We will tell you how to grow a plum stalk and from bones, how to use for the reproduction of plums root processes, and also we will acquaint with all the methods of plum inoculation - by the kidney, budding, cuttings, in cleft and behind the bark.
Reproduction plum root suckers.
This is the fastest and easiest way to propagate a crop that produces abundant root growth. Since you still have to remove the root offspring that litter the tree trunk, why not try to grow a new tree out of them? Select a developed scion at a distance from the plum, dig up its root and cut it off from the mother plant at a distance of 20 cm from the stem. Dig a process, and in order not to introduce the infection, treat the root section with a garden pitch and plant the process in a permanent place. If there are no large, developed offspring of the plum yet, and you have dug up a thin sprig, plant it for a year to grow.
Reproduction of plum stones.
This method may be useful to you to grow stock for varietal inoculation. The bone is wrapped in gauze or cloth and placed in a refrigerator from mid-autumn to early March for stratification. In March, the bone is put in a pot. When it germinates, they take care of it, as they usually care for seedlings - they water and feed them. In the autumn, when the seedling grows up, it is planted for growing in a greenhouse or shkolka, and in a year it will be ready for planting in a permanent place and for inoculation of a varietal plum.
Reproduction plum green cuttings.
This method of reproduction has recently become increasingly popular among amateur gardeners, because it gives fast results and is distinguished by a high rate of growth of young plants. However, not all varieties of plums are able to take root, and you need to choose for grafting those that are prone to form abundant root shoots. The cuttings are carried out in June, during the period of active growth of shoots. Cuttings 30–40 cm long are taken on a cloudy day from young plants, placed in water, the lower part of the shoot is trimmed with a sharp instrument, removing the lower leaf and leaving only half of the stem, and the upper cut on the handle is made immediately above the third leaf. After this, the cuttings are tied up and their lower ends are lowered by 1.5 cm into the Heteroauxin solution. Since rooting should occur in greenhouse conditions, build a mini-greenhouse for cuttings. Place the mixture of peat in half with sand in the tank, pour a 1 cm thick layer of sand on top, pour the substrate and lightly compact it. Cuttings are deepened to the petiole of the removed leaf at an angle of 45 º at a distance of 5-7 cm from each other, the gap between the rows is kept within 5 cm. The planted cuttings are covered with a transparent dome and placed in a bright place, shading if necessary from direct sunlight. Watering the cuttings through a divider, a month after planting, fertilize with a solution of 30 g of nitrogen fertilizer in 10 liters of water or a weak slurry solution. As soon as the cuttings take root, the dome is removed. To save the cuttings until spring, they are dug out at the end of September, they are lined with wet moss, wrapped in plastic and stored in a shed or laid in a trench dug in the garden, and covered with sawdust, moss or fallen leaves. In the spring, cuttings are planted in the ground and grow for two years before planting in a permanent place.
Reproduction of plum root scapes.
Root cuttings are cut in spring or autumn from a seedling at least one meter away from the mother tree. First, dig the shoots together with the roots, and then cut cuttings up to 15 cm long and about 1.5 cm in diameter. If it is autumn, fold the cuttings into a box, sand them and store at 0-2 ºC until spring. Root cuttings are planted at the beginning of May in the same pattern as the green ones: at an inclination, at a distance of up to 10 cm from each other and under a transparent cap. All further actions are carried out in the same way as in reproduction of plums with green cuttings.
Reproduction of plum grafting.
For the implementation of reproduction plum method of grafting requires two components - a graft and a stock. The stock can be grown from the stone itself, or you can use in this capacity the root scion of an adult plum, which is dug, separated from the mother plant and deposited. As a raw material for the rootstock, you can use root shoots of plum varieties such as Skorospelka Krasnaya, Moskovskaya, Renklod kolkhoz, Ugorka, Eurasia 21 - they are winter-hardy enough. Varietal grafts can be grafted onto the cherry plum, dwarf, blackthorn, or felt cherry.
Vaccination kidney. The stock is watered abundantly to enhance sap flow, which makes it easy to separate the bark from the wood. Shtambik wipe with a damp cloth or sponge, and remove all leaves with a graft, leaving only the remnants of petioles half a centimeter long. On the stock 4 cm above the root collar, a T-shaped incision is made with a scooping knife, and the cut bark is bent down. From a varietal graft, a kidney with a strip of bark 3 cm long and half a centimeter wide is cut, it is inserted into a T-shaped incision of wood against wood, the bark is pressed tightly and tied with an inoculum, an adhesive tape or a piece of polyethylene, without closing the bud with a film.
Budding in priklad. If the weather is dry and the bark is badly bent down, use the method of budding in the bed. On the stock, a 7 cm bark incision is made with the capture of a thin layer of wood. In cuttings, they make an oblique lower section of the same length as on the stock, but with a ledge just below the kidney, which is inserted under the bark of the stock tree with wood to the wood, after which they tie a place of grafting with a scoop film or polyethylene so that the graft bud remains open. Three weeks later, the film is removed, and the upper part of the stock is cut or cut off in early spring, leaving a thorn about 15 cm long above the kidney. One budding can be done by placing one kidney 4 cm above the surface of the site and the second 7 cm above the first.
Vaccination by cuttings. In the summer or spring, plum is grafted. Make a slanting cut on the stock with a length of 2.5 and a depth of 1.5 cm, capturing the wood. On a fresh varietal handle, make an oblique cut of the same length and insert it into the slot on the stock cut to the outgoing part of the split. Wrap the vaccination site with a peeler film and monitor the condition of the cutting: when you are sure that it will take root, you can remove the film.
Graft Splitting Cut down the stem of the stock, cut 3 cm deep in the center of the slice, make two lower cuts on the handle to make a wedge, insert this wedge into the stock splitting and wrap the inoculation area with plastic and polyethylene.
Vaccination for the bark. In the period of active sap flow, when the bark lags well behind the wood, two or three bark sections are made from the bottom of the rootstock cut down, bark is bent in these places and a cut varietal cutting with three buds is cut to the rootstock in each section and then Vaccinations are fixed with tape, tape or tape.
The method of "splitting" and "behind the bark" suggests the possibility of grafting several scions on one stock - the number of grafted cuttings to be grafted depends on the thickness of the stock. The film is removed in a month.
Unfortunately, there are many illnesses that can affect the plum tree. Some diseases are common to all stone trees, and some more often plums are sick. A plum in the garden is affected by a cholesterol or a perforated spot, moniliosis or gray rot, gommozom or cometetsecheniyu, rust, fruit rot, coccomycosis, black fungus, root cancer, marsupial disease and milky luster.
Klesterosporiosis - A fungal disease that can strike leaves and branches, and flowering plum risks kidney and flowers. The disease begins with the appearance of brown spots on the leaves of the plum with a darker border, turning first into ulcers, and then into holes. Fruits are affected to the very bone and become ugly. The disease is progressing in rainy weather.
Control measures. Regularly thin out crown, not allowing its thickening. In the autumn, after leaf fall, remove and burn all the leaves, and dig the soil in the area. Remove and destroy all affected parts of the plant. 2-3 weeks after flowering, process the plum with a one-percent solution of Bordeaux mixture or copper oxychloride solution at the rate of 30-40 g per 10 l of water.
Monilioz - also a fungal disease affecting flowers, fruits, leaves, ovaries and branches of fruit trees. Fruits become brown and soft, they form gray pillows with fungal spores. The disease becomes more active in the spring, it develops especially rapidly in rainy weather.
Control measures. Collect and destroy all the affected fruits, remove dead branches. Before flowering, treat the trees with Nitrafen, iron or copper sulphate, or one-percent Bordeaux liquid. Immediately after flowering, conduct a second treatment with Bordeaux liquid or a solution of such preparations as Ftalan, Kuprozan, Captan, copper chloroxide or other fungicides.
Gommoz (gum treatment) may appear on any bone tree. The affected plant begins to secrete a colorless or yellowish drying resin from wounds on the bark. The gum-flowing branches dry out and die. This phenomenon arises from sunburn, damage to the bark and wood, as well as from excess moisture and nitrogen in the soil. Gum curing is most dangerous in the cold season, and more often it affects trees weakened by excessive pruning or pests. The bark, impregnated with gum, becomes a favorable environment for the development of bacteria that cause cancer of the stem and branches. With a strong gum discharge plum dries and dies.
Control measures. Do not allow mechanical damage to the trunk and plum branches, and if they appear, immediately clean the wound and disinfect it with a one-percent solution of copper sulfate, and then treat it with petralatum. Strongly affected branches are best to cut. The dead bark on the trunk is scraped off, and the wound under it is rubbed three times with an interval of 10 minutes with horse sorrel leaves, and then covered with garden pitch.
Rust - also a fungal disease. It infects plum leaves and is especially active in July: on the upper side of the leaf plate there are convex spots of red or brown color, gradually increasing in size. Sick trees become weak, their winter hardiness decreases, and leaves fall prematurely.
Control measures. Remove fallen leaves from the site in a timely manner; before flowering, treat the plum with a solution of 40 g of copper oxychloride in 5 liters of water, spending 3 liters per tree. After harvesting, the affected plum is treated with one percent bordeaux liquid.
Fruit Rot affects both stone fruit and seed trees - cherry, sweet cherry, apricot, quince, peach, apple, pear and others. The first signs of the disease can be seen in mid-July, when the fruit is poured: first, brown spots appear on them, which gradually increase, then grayish pads with fungal spores appear on the fruits, concentrating in circles.
Control measures. Affected fruits are collected and destroyed, but try not to touch healthy fruits, so as not to transfer pathogens to them. Process plum with one percent bordeaux liquid.
Coccomycosis - one of the most dangerous fungal diseases affecting not only the leaves, but sometimes fruits and young shoots. In the middle of summer, red-brown or purple-violet specks can be found on the surface of leaves, which grow over time, merging with each other. On the underside of the diseased leaves, a light pink bloom is formed from the spores of the fungus. As a result of the disease, the plum's cold resistance decreases, the leaves turn yellow, turn brown and fall off, and the fruits stop developing, become watery, and then dry out.
Control measures. Destroy the fallen leaves, dug up the soil in the fall, after harvesting, treat the plum with a solution of 30-40 g of copper oxychloride in 10 liters of water or one-percent Bordeaux liquid.
Black fungus manifested by black bloom on plum leaves. It can be easily erased. This plaque impedes the access of light and oxygen to plant cells, which complicates the process of photosynthesis.
Control measures. Find out the cause of blackening. It may be excessive soil moisture or crown thickening. Eliminate the cause, and only then treat the drain with a copper-soap solution (5 g of copper sulphate and 150 g of soap in 10 liters of water). Copper sulphate can be replaced by Bordeaux mixture or copper oxychloride.
Marsupial disease also caused by fungus. It manifests itself after the flowering of the plum, striking and disfiguring its fruits: they grow, do not form bones, are covered with a powdery wax coating containing fungal spores.
Control measures. Timely cut the fungus-affected branches so that the disease does not spread to the healthy parts of the plum. Sick the fruit to collect and burn. During the period when the plum buds are of a pinkish hue and immediately after flowering, treat the tree with one-percent Bordeaux mixture.
Root cancer manifested by growths on the roots and root neck of the plum, caused by bacteria living in the soil that have penetrated the roots through cracks and wounds. Adult plum stops growing, seedlings do not survive and die. The disease is progressing in drought, especially in neutral and slightly alkaline soil.
Control measures. Do not plant seedlings in areas where previously infected plants have been found. Garden tools handle a solution of formalin or chloramine. If growths on the roots are found, remove them, and disinfect the root system with a one-percent solution of copper sulfate.
Milky luster - a widespread dangerous disease that affects many fruit crops and leads to the death of trees. The leaves of the affected plant become silvery white, holes are formed in them, the leaf tissue dies, the bark of the tree darkens. Most often, the disease destroys young trees, frostbitten in winter.
Control measures. In preparing the garden for the winter process with a solution of lime strands and bases of skeletal branches. In early spring, spend preventive treatment of trees against fungal diseases with urea - this will simultaneously enhance the plum's immunity to diseases and feed the plant with nitrogen. Remove affected branches and shoots and burn them.
In addition to the diseases described above, the plum can suffer from brown spot, witch broom, mushroom burn, dwarfism, mosaic disease, smallpox, and the death of the branches.
Врагов среди насекомых у сливовых деревьев тоже предостаточно. The most active among them are the hawthorn, the cherry sprout moth, the cherry slimy sawfly, the goldtail beetle, the plum tree and the apple tree moth, the ringed silkworm, the plum pollinated aphid and the apple tree worm.
Apple treeworm it spreads along the bark of trees, sticks to shoots and young branches and freezes, becoming covered with a shield. The trees occupied by the shields are depleted and die.
Control measures. During the period of dormant buds, treat the trees and soil in pristvolny circles with Nitrafen (200-300 g per 10 l of water), and immediately after flowering the plum should be treated with a ten-percent solution of Karbofos.
Plum pollinated aphid very common in gardens. It damages thorns, peaches, almonds, apricots and plums, lives in huge colonies, covering the underside of leaves with a thick layer, causing them to roll and dry, and the affected fruits begin to rot. In addition, aphids excrement is a favorable environment for black fungus.
Control measures. The treatment of plums from aphids of this type is as follows: in early spring trees are treated with Nitrafen, and at the time of budding and after flowering, with a ten percent solution of Karbofos or Benzophosphate. Make sure that the root growth does not grow around the tree.
Codling moth. The caterpillars of this butterfly feed on the fruits, eating away the seeds, and the moves done disguises food waste glued together with cobwebs.
Control measures. Collect and destroy prematurely fallen fruits, clean and disinfect the bark, two weeks after flowering, treat the tree with a two percent solution of Chlorophos or a three percent solution of Malathion.
Hawthorn - a large butterfly with a wingspan of about 7 cm. Its caterpillar covered with dense hair reaches a length of 45 cm and is decorated on the back with two yellow-brown stripes that stand out against a black background. It feeds on the upper side of the plum leaves, as well as its buds and flowers, baring the branches, and sometimes the tree completely.
Control measures. Remove from the trees and destroy the nests of the hawthorn, collect and destroy caterpillars. In late April or early May, when the caterpillars emerge from the nests, and in the summer after flowering, process the plum with a one-percent solution of Aktellik, Corsair or Ambush.
Cherry shoots moth damages bone crops. Its caterpillar eats away the plum buds, buds and rosettes of leaves, makes moves in the green shoots.
Control measures. Loosen and dig the soil on the plot regularly. Before the start of sap flow, treat the trees and the soil beneath them with a two to three percent solution of Nitrafen, and during the period of swelling of the buds, spray the plum with a ten percent solution of Karbofos.
Cherry slimy sawfly - a widespread pest that damages trees such as cherries, cherries, quinces, pears, plums and hawthorn. Sawfly larvae, gnawing leaves from the upper side, are dangerous.
Control measures. It is necessary to loosen and dig up the soil at the site, and in the case of mass occupation of plums by sawflies, it is best to treat it with a ten percent solution of Karbofos or Trichlormetaphos-3.
Plum moth dangerous not only for plums, but also for peach, apricot, blackthorn and cherry plum. One butterfly lays up to 40 eggs in green fruit, and the caterpillars that emerge from them eat away the flesh of the fruits, come out of them, and crawl to the wintering grounds. On the spoiled fruit gum drops appear, they get a violet shade and fall off.
Control measures. Caterpillars need to be collected manually, and plums in the period of the emergence of caterpillars, and then after another two weeks are treated with a ten percent solution of benzophosphate or karbofos.
Ringed silkworm - night butterfly. Its caterpillar eats leaves and buds of trees, weaving spider nests in forks.
Control measures. Remove all winter nests from the plum tree, destroy the egg-laying, and during the budding period and at the moment when the caterpillars appear, treat the tree with infusions of pharmaceutical chamomile, tobacco or wormwood. Of biological products, good results are obtained by treating trees with Antobacterin or Dendrobacellin in accordance with the instructions.
Zlatoguzka - a white butterfly with a wingspan of up to 5 cm. Its greenish caterpillars feed on the flesh of the leaves from the upper side of the plate and, using a web, twist nests from the remains of the leaves, in which they hibernate.
Control measures. Winter nests are destroyed, and trees are treated with a three percent Karbofos solution before flowering.
In addition to the described pests, from time to time the plum has to be rescued from the apple-plantain aphid, apple glass, black plum sawfly, fruit striped moth, plum gall mite, moth peeled, downy silkworm, subsharp leafworm, fruit moth, unpaired silkworm, mining moth, apple mite, goose, winter moth, western unpaired bark beetle, sapwood, pear trumpet worm, oriental moth and brown fruit mite. Before you treat the plum from pests, try to determine which insect you are dealing with.
How to deal with plum
Growth - the desire of the tree to preserve itself, which is quite natural for any living organism. Most often, the growth of shoots is activated with injuries - damage to the bark or felling of branches. Another reason for the abundant growth of basal shoots may be the mismatch of rootstock and scion. In any case, the intensive growth of root shoots is a sign of plum ill health. Growth spoils the aesthetics of the garden, weakens the tree and reduces its ability to produce a high yield, so it must be removed. Determine and eliminate the cause of the appendages, otherwise the growth of the shoots will not stop.
The easiest way is to cut the processes with a sheath, but before cutting the process, it must be excavated to the very root and cut off at the place where it leaves the root of the mother plant, after which the hole should be covered with earth and stamped.
Gardeners are sometimes very superstitious, and here is what recommendation we found on one forum: so that root growth never grows again, it should only be destroyed on such days: April 3, June 22, and July 30. Take advantage of this recommendation and share with us the results.
Varieties of plums
In our gardens, there are growing varieties and hybrids of four types of plum - homemade plums, prickly plums (thorns), American (including Canadian) plums and Chinese plums. But more often gardeners prefer home-grown plum varieties, which are also divided into four subspecies: deciduous, greengrass, mirabelle and Hungarian.
In terms of ripening varieties plums are divided into early, mid-ripening and late. There are also among the varieties also winter-hardy and insect-resistant varieties, drought-resistant and moisture-loving, self-fertile and self-fruitful.
Early varieties of plums.
Early varieties include plums ripening from the end of July to the end of the first decade of August. They represent:
- – July rose - early ripe, winter-hardy, disease-resistant, partially self-fertile variety with ovate yellow fruits up to 35 g, with a weight of low sugar content of medium sugar content. The stone in the fruit of this variety is not completely separated from the pulp,
- – Oh yeah - skoroplodny, productive, winter-hardy variety of the Ukrainian selection, steady against fungal diseases, with large oval fruits of violet-brown color with gentle yellow pulp of sour-sweet spicy taste. The bone is small, it separates well. The best pollinators for Oda are varieties Hungarian, Kirk, Catherine,
- – Opal - self-fruited high-yielding dried fruit variety with rounded red fruits with dark orange dense, juicy and sweet pulp. The bone is not completely separated,
- – Record - quite winter-hardy, high-yielding, partially self-fertile variety with oval-elongated blue-violet fruits weighing up to 30 g with yellowish green juicy, dense and fragrant pulp. The taste is one of the best varieties of plums. Suitable pollinators for the Record Rapid Red and Hungarian,
- – Alenushka - self-infertile, disease-resistant, winter-hardy enough plum capable of carrying cold up to -25 ºC. Fruits weighing up to 35 g round-oval, dark red color. The flesh is orange, juicy, crisp. Stone does not separate,
- – Renklod Karbysheva - a self-infertile variety of Ukrainian selection obtained from the varieties Peach and Jefferson, pollinators for which can be trees of the varieties Hungarian Donetsk, Hungarian Early Donetsk, Renklod early. Fruits weighing up to 50 g are rounded, purple with a bluish bloom, the flesh is dark yellow, fragrant, juicy, sweet with a slight sourness.
Such early varieties of plum as Renklod early, Kuban early, Red ball, Golden ball, July Hungarian, Hungarian Vangenheim, Montfort, Early, Sapa, Skorospelka red, Ternoslyv summer, Kliman, Nadezhda, Zarechnaya early, Skoroplodnaya, Kyrgyz Superb, Sharovaya, Kuban comet, Early Pink, Morning and others.
Medium varieties of plums.
Mid-season varieties of plums ripen in the period from August 10 to September 10. These varieties include:
- – Gigantic - self-propelled drought-resistant variety of American selection. The fruits are large, dark purple, elongated. The greenish-yellow flesh is juicy, the taste is sweet and sour,
- – East Souvenir - fruitful, but not enough winter-hardy variety with large maroon heart-shaped fruits with dense, sweet flesh of spicy honey taste,
- – Hungarian Azhanskaya - French promising high-yielding variety resistant to fungal diseases, moisture-loving and partially self-bearing. Fruits are medium sized, egg-shaped, violet with a strong wax coating. The flesh is sweet, sour, tender. The bone separates well,
- – Romain - an unusual variety of plums with red leaves and red flesh of burgundy color of heart-shaped fruits. It has a slight almond flavor,
- – California - Chlorosis resistant high-yielding, partially self-fertile variety of American selection. Fruits with juicy, tasty pulp of average density. The bones are not completely separated.
Such mid-season varieties as Memory to Vavilov, Duche, Krasa Orlovschiny, Kuban legend, Hungarian Donetsk, Hungarian Belarusian, Bogatyrskaya, Vetraz, Svetlana Primorskaya, Voloshka and others are popular.
Late varieties of plums.
Of the late ripening varieties ripening from the second decade of September, the most in demand in amateur gardening are:
- – Stanley - winter hardy variety with dark purple fruits with a strong wax coating and a pronounced seam. The flesh is yellow, dense, medium juiciness. The bone separates well,
- – Lada - resistant to aphid and pinna moth, winter-hardy, self-infesting variety, which starts fruiting in the fifth year. Fruits are large - up to 31 g in weight, round-oval, blue with a touch. The flesh is yellowish-green, juicy and tender, with a sour-sweet taste,
- – Vicana - a variety of Estonian breeding, derived from Victoria and American plum varieties. Fruits up to 24 g in weight, burgundy in color with a strong wax coating, oval. The flesh is light yellow, sourish and sweet. The stone is easily separated
- – Tula black - quite winter-hardy, fruit rot resistant to a fruitless variety that requires the presence of Renklod kolkhoz, Renklod Tenkovskiy, Dubnovsky Ternosliv or Tambovskiy Ternosliv on the site of pollinating varieties. The fruits of this variety are egg-shaped, very dark blue, almost black, with a faint bloom. The flesh is oily, light yellow, sweet-sour. The bone separates well,
- – Hungarian Italian - a world-famous variety, unfortunately, striking by moths, sawflies and aphids, however its large, oval dark blue, almost black fruits with a bluish bloom and greenish juicy flesh have an excellent sweet taste with a slight sourness. In addition, the stone is easily separated from the pulp,
- – Hungarian large late - a self-fertile, productive winter-hardy and drought-resistant variety, rarely affected by fungal diseases, with oval reddish-purple fruits with a waxy coating weighing up to 40 g. The flesh is juicy, sour-sweet, tasty.
In addition to the described varieties, such late-ripening plums are popular: Vision, Abundant Seaside, Svetlana, Krasnoyasya, Canadian Vision, Hungarian Pulkovo, Valor, In Memory of Timiryazev, Golden Drop, Prunes 4-39 TSHA, Renklod Michurinsky, Anna Shpet, Winter Red, Winter White, Moscow Vengerka, Autumn Ternosliv, October Hungarian, Tambov Ternosliv, Dubovskiy Ternosliv, Memory of Finaev, Tern large-fruited and others.
As for such concepts as self-fertility or self-infertility, they are sufficiently conditional and inconstant, since the same variety of plums, depending on the agro-climatic zone and growing conditions, can be both self-fertile, and self-fruitless, and partially self-infertile. Moreover, the same tree may be self-bearing this year, and next year pollinators may be required for its fruiting. Partially self-fruitless varieties are those that can bear fruit independently, however, if there are pollinators on the site, their productivity increases significantly.
In addition to excellent taste, the fruits of plums have healing properties. They are saturated with vitamins, minerals and other substances necessary for the human body. The pulp contains proteins, carbohydrates, dietary fiber, free organic acids, potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, fluorine, provitamin A, vitamins B1, B2, B6, PP, C and E.
Fresh and dried fruits of plums have a mild laxative effect, therefore, they are recommended by doctors for intestinal atony and constipation. Plum, used in kidney disease and hypertension, cleanses the body of cholesterol. Potassium compounds contained in the fruit, have a diuretic effect, saving the body from edema and salt deposits. Useful plum with rheumatism, metabolic disorders, gout, kidney damage, heart disease. In addition, its fruits contribute to increased appetite and improve the secretion of gastric juice.
Characteristics of varieties of home plums
Out of 2000 varieties of home plums, every gardener can select his beloved and plant this precious gift from the 4th century BC in the garden.
Modern varieties of plums, depending on the external structure, color and quality indicators of the fruit are divided into 4 groups.
- Hungary, as a rule, have dark-colored fruits of medium size, elongated shape. Differ in high sugar content of fruits. The flesh is elastic, tender dessert taste. Most varieties are self-fertile, do not require pollinator satellites. The varieties tolerate well the cold winter of the southern regions, but are subject to freezing in long frosty periods.
- Rencodes - a group of varieties with green fruits of different shades with a rounded shape of juicy fruit. The flesh is sweet and so juicy that the fruits are not used for drying, unlike the Hungarians. In general, green vegetables are used fresh and for preparation of compotes and juices. When breeding plums of this class, be careful. They are self-productive and need pollinators. Differ in low winter hardiness. Due to weather conditions, they are rarely grown in the middle zone of the European part of Russia.
- Egg plums with the typical shape of a fruit resembling an egg. The color of the fruit is yellow in different shades, covered with a thick wax coating. Recently appeared varieties with blue fruits, other shades. The pulp of the fruit is moderately juicy, tender. Varieties are winter-hardy, self-fruited. Varieties are usually tall, which makes it difficult to care, and are not resistant to diseases.
- Mirabelle - a group of varieties differing in comparative small-fruited (similar to cherry plum). The taste of the fruit is sour and sour-sweet. In private gardening grown less often. Sour varieties are used in winter preparations instead of vinegar.
Starting from the 20th century, breeders, creating new varieties, use interspecific crossing (for example: plum with apricot, etc.), which allows to obtain low-growing hybrid crops with high frost resistance, resistance to summer droughts and high temperatures, with good quality and fruit type . Breeding varieties with new qualities allowed us to promote the culture not only in the territory of central Russia, but also in the northern regions.
Rules for the selection of plum varieties to give
When buying plum saplings for summer cottage, it is necessary to immediately find out from the seller the main indicators of the variety. They must be in the accompanying promotional note or in separate catalogs on the counter. It is possible in advance through the Internet to get acquainted with the varieties and then buy pre-selected. In order not to be deceived, you can not buy planting material on the sides of highways or on the market. It is best to buy in agrofirms where saplings are grown for sale.
When buying a seedling in the accompanying note should be indicated:
- name of the variety or hybrid,
- the need for pollinators,
- group of ripening (early, medium, late)
- start year of fruiting,
- frost resistance
- resistance to diseases and pests (how),
- separation of pulp from the bone.
It is enough to have one tree of different groups of ripening at the dacha to be provided with these fruits for fresh consumption all summer and preparations for the winter.
Agricultural cultivation of plum
Zoned plum varieties are most common in the European zone. Особенностью сливы является длительный период покоя, что позволяет культуре без ущерба переносить перепады температур от потепления к возвратным морозам и наоборот. Прохладное европейское лето, иногда с обильными дождями, не мешает культуре формировать качественные высокие урожаи вкусных плодов.At the same time, planting plum saplings and caring for them has features, the non-observance of which leads to the early death of the tree and the formation of tasteless fruits.
It is better to plant plum saplings in spring. Plum root system consists of skeletal branches 1-2 orders of magnitude, which mainly play the role of conductors and fibrous, overgrowing the main roots. They perform the suction function and are located in the upper 40 cm layer of soil. Plum saplings planted in April, during a long warm period, have time to develop the root system and adapt to the conditions of the growing area. When planting in autumn, they often freeze or dry out and do not bloom in spring.
Choosing a place to plum
Plums should not be planted in low places with close groundwater storage. If the water layer is at a loss of 1.4-1.5 m from the surface of the soil, the plum will die in the early stages, although it can produce more than 20-25 years in one place.
If the site is low, the groundwater is close, and there is no other place, then it is possible to prepare a bulk hill for the plum. Twine with willow rods an area with a diameter of up to 3 m and a height of up to 1.0 m. Add 10-15 cm of drainage from pebbles and rubble to drain excess water and fill it with a mixture of local typical soils of neutral acidity. Soils should be watery and breathable, light in composition. Heavy must be mixed with a large number of humus, high-moor peat and other ingredients.
On a flat or elevated surface, if the soil is clayey, heavy, it is necessary to fill the planting hole with a mixture of lightweight soil soils. Adding leaf soil, humus, riding peat, sandy soil and a sufficient amount of fertilizer. Such a soil pit should have a diameter of at least 1.0x1.0x1.0. The bottom and sides of the pit should separate the plum sapling from the heavy soil. Over time, the tree will take root wonderfully and will grow and bear fruit for a long time. Otherwise, the whole life of the plum will look depressed, and the fruits will lose their presentation.
To remove soil acidification, they need to prokladkovkat. The norm of lime is:
- on sod-podzolic soils 500-800 g square. m,
- on light soils that have been receiving only mineral nutrition for a long time (mineral fertilizers acidify the soil when they are applied for many years), 300-400 gm. m,
- on heavy soils (clay and loamy) from 0.8 to 1.0 kg / sq. m square.
Planting plum saplings
Planting pits, especially in low places or on artificial elevations, are prepared in the fall (see description above). If the place is chosen according to the culture requirements for the location, then when the snow melts, planting pits are dug out at a distance of 2.5-3.0 m. The depth and diameter of the pit should correspond to the seedling root system. The excavated soil (sometimes only the top layer) is mixed with 1-2 buckets of organic matter, 300-400 g of nitrophobia are added, mixed well. A center stake is driven into the center of the pit, to which the plum sapling is then tied. A part of the mixture is poured into a landing hole with a knoll. On top of the hill they spread the roots and fall asleep with the rest of the soil mixture. 0.5 buckets of water are poured, the soil is filled to the edge of the landing pit, compacted. It is important that the root neck is 3-5 cm higher than the soil level. A roller is formed around the perimeter of the landing pit and another 0.5-0.7 buckets of water are poured. After leaving the water, the soil surface is mulched with peat or any organic matter, except for needles or coniferous sawdust. A plum seedling is tied up through a figure eight to a support.
Feed plum saplings start after 3 years. Before the beginning of fruiting, humus or nitrophosphate is introduced in a year in the form of a solution - 25-35 g / tree during bud opening. With the onset of fruiting, the plum is fed twice during the growing season. In the spring at the end of April - the beginning of May, a groove is drilled along the edge of the crown, where nitrogen fertilizers of 30–40 g are introduced. Fertilizer is closed with soil loosening and watered. Watering necessarily mulch. The second dressing is carried out in September-October. 1-2 grooves are dug through 10–20 cm across the diameter of the crown or several holes, into which 0.3-0.5 buckets of humus are introduced (depending on the age of the tree) mixed with superphosphate and potassium or with nitrophosphate. Close up loosening. Pour water and mulch.
Stone fruit garden crops watered no more than 3-4 times during the growing season, but always a sufficient amount of water. Frequent, but shallow watering will prevent the tree from producing a decent crop.
For plums, the first watering is carried out before bud break, if the weather is dry and hot. If moisture is enough, watering should be noted. Excessive moisture adversely affects the culture.
The second watering is carried out in the phase of the beginning of the growth of the ovaries. Plum requires high humidity to preserve the ovaries. In dry weather there is a massive shedding of the ovaries.
The third watering is carried out 2-3 weeks before harvesting, not earlier. Fruits must be mature, ready for harvest. During ripening can not be watered. Fruits keep sour taste.
The last watering is carried out in the preparation of trees for the winter. It is carried out together with autumn fertilization.
Crown formation at plum
For each novice grower, the formation of the crown of a fruit tree or the above-ground mass of a shrub is a difficult, but quite doable job. It is necessary to be attentive and follow the recommendations. Pruning in order to form the plum crown should begin immediately from the first year, but do not rush and be careful.
When planting pruning seedlings do not do until March next year.
Home plum (Prunus domestica). © amandaemily
1 year - we spend spring and summer pruning.
Spring pruning performed during the awakening of the kidneys (they will begin to swell). From the level of the soil, we measure the height of the future trunk at 40-45 cm and in this segment we cut off all the side shoots into the ring. The central conductor is shortened at a height of 1.3-1.5 m to a well-developed kidney. If the side branches are long, shorten them by 1/3.
In late July, perform summer pruning pruning. We carry out pruning of all lateral branches growing from the central shoot 20-25 cm in length. If a branch of the second order appeared on the side branch, we cut it to 15 cm length. The kidney should be pointing down. The central conductor in the July pruning do not touch.
At year 2 we also have spring and summer pruning.
During the spring awakening of the kidneys, we cut off the regrown central conductor by 2/3 of the total length. To keep the central trunk straight, we trim the center stem to a bud located on the opposite side from last year's trim. Until the summer period, the plum tree continues to grow.
In late July, proceed to the formation of lateral branches. This year’s growth is again cut to 20 cm. The total length of the branch growing from the central trunk should be no more than 40-45 cm. These are branches of the first order. They have branches of the second order, which last year left a length of 15 cm. This July, cut their growth again by 15 cm. That is, the branches of the second order will have a total length of 30 cm. The extreme bud should be oriented downwards. The lower side branches of the first order can be carefully tied in the middle with a string, twisted down and tied to the lower part of the trunk. Do not forget to clean the shtamb from side shoots.
At year 3, we are still doing two trimming.
In the spring at the beginning of the swelling of the buds, we prune the central shoot to 1/2 the length of last year's growth and continue pruning it in subsequent years until the total height of the tree reaches 2.5 m in height.
In July, we cut the side shoots, again leaving, respectively, 20 and 15 cm increase in the previous year. Third-order branches that appear are also shortened by 13 cm, inspect the crown carefully and remove all the branches that grow inwards fully or partially on the outer bud.
In subsequent years, the focus is on the central plum shoot. Complete pruning growth of the previous year to stop the growth of the tree in height. We cut out all the branches thickening the crown (curves growing inwards, rubbing against each other, too bare, etc.). In July, we trim the lateral growths so that a broad base remains, and to the top of the branch we shorten, forming a generally pyramidal shape. If the upper branches are not strongly shortened, the shape of the crown will resemble a rounded-cup. Do not forget to cut the crown, removing the old bare branches and internal thickening.
About the beneficial properties of plums
Due to its chemical composition, plums have a beneficial effect on the human body. They are rich in macro- and microelements, including 100 g of dry mass contain more than 200 mg of potassium, 80 mg of copper, from 10 to 20 mg of calcium, sodium, phosphorus, etc. There are many vitamins in the pulp, including “E”, “C "," A "and others.
Plums contain a lot of malic, oxalic, citric, succinic and other organic acids, which, together with vitamins and microelements, are involved in the development of the cardiovascular and nervous systems when carrying a future child. Phytocoumarins, expanding blood vessels, prevent the formation of thrombophlebitis, and doctors refer to the anti-cyanian as a means to prevent the appearance of cancer cells. For prophylaxis 5-6 dried fruits per day are sufficient.
Substances contained in plum fruits strengthen the immune system, prevent atherosclerosis, regulate digestion, normalize the work of the heart, stimulate the formation of red blood cells and promote the removal of radioactive substances from the body. However, the fruits of plums have a number of contraindications. It is necessary to limit and sometimes stop using plums for gout, rheumatism and diabetes.