June 7, 2011 admin
The invention of the movable hinged frame contributed to the emergence of a large number of various hive designs. In accordance with this, the size and shape of the framework changed. Used square, narrow, low and wide.
Naturally, it became necessary to find the best option for a promising hive. So there were several designs.
One of them was a multicase hive with a frame size of 435X230 mm. It is well established in all climatic conditions and is widely distributed throughout the world.
I will dwell on my own work experience with a multicase hive in various periods of the life of a bee family.
During this period, the volume of the hive should be the smallest so that the bees can spend the minimum amount of energy to conserve heat. Multicase hive of separate buildings, each with 10 frames, meets these requirements.
At this time, all families are housed in two buildings. On the day of the first intensive fly-over, I turn over the bottoms - I have reversible ones, put anti-mite nets and turn on the heating. Bees are quickly activated. Those families where there is little honey, I give Candi, others give it in subsequent examinations. I want to remind you that unsystematic and without the need for feeding leads to premature wear and aging of bees. This is due to the high energy consumption for the breakdown of sucrose.
The second time I look around the family at a temperature not lower than 12 ° C. I delete the damaged frames and the lower case, if it is without bees, if necessary, I insert frames with perga from the storeroom. I set out an outside warm drinking bowl of V.P. Larichev.
Depending on the weather, I turn off the heating at the end of April. At the same time I open the lower entrance. I start expanding families when there are eight frames of 5 brood in the nest.
At this time, first of all I create a compact nest, installing a dividing grid that separates the two lower bodies from the rest. This contributes to an increase in the laying of the uterus by reducing the number of transitions from the body to the body, as well as reducing energy consumption to maintain the optimum temperature and humidity in the smaller part of the nest where the brood breeds are located.
An important condition is the creation of a comfortable environment for the queen bee. Bees without brood, located in the lower body, in which the temperature is always slightly lower than in the upper one, cannot maintain a stable temperature in the second body. Therefore, down I move the sealed brood, which will suffer less from a possible drop in temperature than the open one.
After performing the above operations, it remains to ensure that the uterus is always provided with cells with empty cells. Under such conditions, the uterus of average quality will be able to increase the family by force of at least 5 kg, and the good one is much larger. Such families will be able to use honey collection with maximum efficiency.
No less important condition for increasing the medoproduktivnosti families is the presence of a large number of free combs in the case where the uterus works. This ensures uninterrupted acceptance of nectar by beehives. At the same time, I make sure that in the first store extension the cells are filled with no more than 3/4 of their volume with honey, and after all the cells in it are occupied with nectar, I place the second one with empty cells under the first one.
With the onset of a steady bribe, I bring the total area of letkov up to 80 cm2.
I don’t make folds in the cases, this eliminates the death of bees during the assembly of the hive, the assembly itself is simplified.
After the start of the whitewashing of the honeycomb frame with the wrinkles, I’m continuously substituting (until the end of the tune-up). Although the bees of the Carpathian breed in one building or store more than three frames do not put.
Bees begin to prepare for the winter, as soon as they make sufficient stocks of honey. Therefore, starting from the first of August, I perform the work in the following sequence: I remove store extensions with honey and immediately proceed to picking the nest. To do this, I rearrange the corpus so that all the frames with brood are in the lower one, and the low-copper ones and the two honey-peper ones in the upper frame are just eight frames in each body. It is imperative that on the same day I give sugar syrup (1: 1) or honey syta (up to four liters) in the evening on the basis that honey reserves in each family reach 25-30 kg.
Strong agitation of bees, caused by the selection of honey, in two or three hours will go into active work on the processing of top dressing.
This simultaneously activates the uterus. Families in warm weather, pollen and small amounts of nectar will increase a large number of winter-hardy bees.
The nest in the upper and lower cases I limit the insulated diaphragms. When preparing for the winter, exhaust ventilation will be organized through the slots in the ceiling from the side of the orifice plates.
Fig. 3. Beehive ceiling: 1 - aft opening (10 X200 mm), 2 - plywood, 3 - a vent, 4 - metal mesh, 5 - ceiling (17.5X63X520 mm).
Warm air, saturated with vapors, comes out at warm non-moisture-intensive diaphragms and does not condense. Then it passes through a 150 mm thick layer of moss laid on the ceiling, leaving its heat in it.
In early September, I close the lower notch and leave the upper open, as a result of which the flow of air into the brood part of the nest decreases, the uterus stops laying eggs.
The complex of these activities contributes to a good wintering, and in spring - to the intensive development of bee colonies.
Bees overwinter in my summer spots, wrapped with roofing felt and completely covered with snow. I do not do the increased subframe space.
Placing the nest in two buildings improves the wintering of the bees.
The current opinion that the horizontal gap between the corps serves as an obstacle to the movement of the club is erroneous. During the wintering period, the bees create for themselves such a regime in which they are in a cold stupor. Contribute to this horizontal transitions in hollows, and in the hive gap between the frames. Therefore, not the presence, but the absence of these slots leads to the deterioration of wintering.
Observing the behavior of bees, I found that regardless of the amount of honey on the framework and its location, bridges from bees are always created to move from the lower framework to the upper framework, and the death of families noted by beekeepers is possible for another reason: as shown in fig. 4 V.
This will not happen if the honey in the second tier reaches the lower bars of this framework (Fig. 4 A, B).
Thus, the multicase hive allows you to create optimal conditions for the maintenance of bees, the family quickly gaining strength in it. This design of the hive fits better than others in modern technology of beekeeping. Completion and preparation of nests for the winter are possible in a short time without the highly skilled beekeeper. In my opinion, the multicase hive has a single drawback - the laboriousness of disassembling the hives to inspect them, but it is easy to eliminate with the help of work mechanization.
This type of hive can be made independently. Usually, soft woods are taken for this, but the humidity should not exceed 8%.
The hive consists of 5–7 buildings (their number depends on the season). In each case there are 10 frames with dimensions of 435 × 230. This is due to the fact that the weight of such enclosures is small and it is easy to swap them. The body itself is made with dimensions 470 × 375 × 240 mm. The thickness of the hive walls themselves is up to 35 mm. The design includes the following parts: the case, honey extension, dividing grid, ceiling boards, under-cover, the lid itself, the bottom, the stand, and the arrival board.
The design of the multicase hive is close to the natural conditions in which the bees live. Therefore, their content in it enhances the immunity of bees, life expectancy and strength. A good ventilation system will help in hot weather. Warmly in winter is preserved better due to well-thought-out walls or various types of insulation that can be used by the beekeeper.
In winter, work with multicase hives is complicated due to low temperatures. Improperly prepared hive can lead to the death of bee colonies.
Only strong families leave for wintering. They must be on all 10 frames in the enclosure. If less is occupied, then families can be joined. A good selection of families is the key to a comfortable winter. Bees must be in multiple enclosures. In the upper body is laid carbohydrate food. Its required volume is up to 25 kg. Most often in the form of carbohydrate feed give ordinary honey. At the same time, the feeding with sugar syrup will provide the bees with a good supply of food. When preparing top dressing, you need to remember about such rules:
- sugar syrup should not be too concentrated
- late feeding can lead to rapid aging of bees,
- citric acid or acetic acid can be added to the syrup.
Invert is considered the best feeding. This is a mixture of sugar syrup and honey. In this case, 40 g of honey is added to 1 kg of syrup.
A spacious building is not a guarantee of a good wintering. It is better to choose a small body.
Beekeeping in multicase hives obliges to take care of weak families. In winter, the temperature inside the club can reach 22 ° C. But in order for weak bees not to become too depleted when generating heat, they need to be combined.
So, the club must be located under the part of the hive with food.
Well-conducted work with multicore hives before winter will ensure large growth of families in the spring. This is due to the ability to expand the nest.
To expand the nest, you will need to swap the enclosures — the top one with the bottom one, respectively, since the top one is filled with rasplod. Spring inspection when rearranging allows you to determine the state of the bees. Even strong families can weaken, so in the spring they can be combined. It is necessary to take into account the causes of exhaustion of bees (diseases or such external factors as mice). The expansion procedure is performed twice.
You can also cut the nest - put the top of the hive on the bottom, and remove the bottom.
In spring, it is necessary to ventilate the multi-body hive due to the large amount of condensate. Humidity can be reduced with the expansion of the inlet.
In June and early July, bee families prepare for a bribe.
The uterus is separated for worming with the help of the mesh in the lower case. In the second half of June, the lower and building buildings change places. This is necessary for brood, because the building is located in the building case. Other enclosures should be separated using a grid. Frames printed brood set near the grid.
So, multi-hive will have the following sequence:
- Housing with honey.
- Printed brood.
- Open brood.
- The construction part of the hive.
Thus, the bees will be distracted from swarming, as the building building is located under the brood.
Summer ventilation is also solved by the expansion of the entrance.
After the last bribe, preparations for the winter period take place, and there are no major additions to the maintenance of the multi-body hive. Of course, the hygiene of the hive is checked, inspection of the bees, and excess cases are removed. In autumn, only intensive feeding of bees can occur. It is carried out in early September. Do not forget about the above rules feeding.
Advantages of the method
The main advantages of this method is the increase in families and the amount of honey. It is worth noting the advantages of the content, as there is a field for imagination and knowledge of the beekeeper. The multi-hive beehive and those methods of apiculture that are used are good for both private and industrial apiaries.
Thus, the natural conditions created by the simple construction of the hive will provide comfort to the bees in winter and good shelter from high temperatures in summer. The main thing is a well-organized wintering. Then the bees throughout the year will be healthy and produce more honey.
What are the advantages of multiple hives?
Experienced beekeepers prefer to keep bees in multicase hives.
- Due to this content, insects can survive the winter without large losses.
- There is a possibility of convenient expansion of the family of bees.
- Apiary takes much less, with a larger number of families.
- The small weight and size of the hulls makes it possible to transport or transport them over long distances.
- Swapping the corps, the beekeeper provokes the bees to be actively built up, as a result of which the bees fill the gaps of the new “home” with honeycombs in a matter of days.
- Keeping bees in multicase hives allows the orphan bees to be moved into strong families.
Of course, hope that the apiary will not exist by itself. Yes, it will be more convenient for the bees, but from time to time the beekeeper will still have to interfere in their usual way of life.
What is the design of multihull hive?
The multi-hive hive has a complex structure, due to which the apiary works almost smoothly. If you wish, you can build it yourself, there are a lot of videos of this kind on the Internet, but first you need to understand what this structure is?
The body is made and light material so that the beekeeper, if necessary, could freely mix evidence from place to place. And in order to be comfortable to wear, handles are made on two opposite sides on the case walls. The approximate dimensions of the corpus are 37x45x34 cm, although the values can vary greatly depending on the number of bees in the family, their variety and method of keeping. There are many slots inside the case into which overlaps and frames will later be inserted.
Multicase hive design
Inside the case there are gapless boxes, and round cages are made on each side, with a diameter of 25 mm.
The bottom is usually removable. The reason is that only a removable bottom allows over time to transfer evidence to another, thus making an additional "floor". The roof is usually flat, but it depends on the personal preferences of the beekeeper. A special liner is also created, which can also be used as a link between the “floors”.
What are the features of the content?
In the spring, summer, and autumn, the content of bees in multicase hives is almost the same as in simple, one-storeyed ones, but in winter there are some changes in the usual way of life of insects. Thus, it is recommended that bees with strong families be left in hives for detached hives for the winter. For them, wintering will not be a problem. Weak families are recommended to exhibit against each other - this multiplies their chances of survival several times.
Installing hives in multi-corps structures should be carried out according to a special scheme. At the very bottom is a casing with broods and bees, and above are placed feed frames with sealed honey and pollen. As far as eating the stocks for the winter, the bees will move to the upper "floor", therefore, even a long winter will not become a problem for them. As the bees move to the top, the lower beehives are not removed, they must remain in the "high-rise building" until spring comes. Then they are cleaned, cleaned and put into circulation again.
In the spring there is a revision of the hives. They are recommended to be cleaned, to check the integrity of the uterus, and then to plan seasonal work, as usual. If any family has not survived the winter, the surviving individuals are settled in other families.
How to expand the family?
Hive Expansion Scheme
To form a larger family, the uterus must lay eggs. The content of bees in multi-hives allows it to provoke it by moving the hive with it to the very bottom of the multi-storey building. Following instincts, she will begin to climb up and take up the new brood. This is done in early May, when the weather is warm.
A brood of eggs will appear to the flowering of acacia, and at this time, in order to prevent swarming, it is necessary to put another one between the occupied housing - a new one. Due to the fact that there is a lot of space in the body, the uterus may not worry about the amount of space, especially since the beekeeper updates it all the time. As a result, the family of bees can grow very quickly.
But it is not always necessary to expand the family. In dry periods and in rainy seasons, there is no sense in a large family of bees; they cannot provide themselves or the beekeeper; therefore, the breeding time of bees needs to be controlled and regulated, and when it is necessary to restrain the expansion of the family and not to provoke it.