Chickens are domesticated birds. To date, many breeds of egg and meat are bred. Birds are bred for the needs of the family and industrial cultivation in order to sell eggs and meat to the population. It is important to know the life expectancy of the chicken for a more rational management. What species are poultry, how to feed them correctly? How many chickens live at home, read the article.
Hens living in a natural environment, life is shortened by predators: ferrets, rats and Bole large forest dwellers. Difficulties arise with the extraction of feed, especially in winter. Nevertheless, the average life expectancy is a decent period - 15 years.
How long does a chicken live? Usually, poultry are kept on the farm for up to four years. After this time, they lose their productivity and they are allowed to meat. Depending on the direction of their life expectancy is different.
The life of chickens grown for meat is calculated in months. For these breeds, it is only two months. Exceptions are hens that are kept to incubate chicks. Their life expectancy is five years or more.
With age, the meat in chickens of this orientation becomes worse, which is why they are allowed to meat so early. In the conditions of the household, they live up to a year. This is influenced by the use of natural food for feeding.
At poultry farms and farms, special additives are introduced into the feed for chickens, which accelerate their growth. Therefore, at the age of one and a half months they reach a decent weight, their life ends there.
Domesticated birds can be found in every household. In the first year of life, their egg production is the highest. The performance of the hen can be maintained at a high level for a short time with proper feeding. But still, by the third year of life, the chicken begins to carry fewer eggs. Leave the bird in the yard or get meat out of it, the owner decides. Of course, chickens who have a good egg-setting instinct are not sent for meat. As a rule, these are excellent mothers, they are left on the farm for a long time as an incubator.
Farms do not need laying hens. Eggs are placed in an incubator to remove chickens. How many hens are laying hens? With home growing, their average lifespan is three years, sometimes four or even five. This is influenced by the fact that the requirements for domestic hens are less serious. How many hens are laying hens? On the chicken farm they live for a year and a half.
In chickens, it depends on many factors, some of which are listed below:
- The conditions in which chickens are raised: in the household or on an industrial scale.
- Breed of domestic birds. Scientists have shown that some chickens live longer than their relatives of other breeds for several years.
- Nutrition and content, which is rated level: low, medium, high. Life can be extended to chickens if they are fed properly and maintained in conditions that are characterized by high levels.
How do growing conditions affect lifespan?
The most important factor in how many chickens live is where they are kept. Growing birds at home, in the compound, the owner treats his pets more attentively and carefully than the workers at the poultry farm. How long does a chicken live? Poultry have a lifespan of twice as long as those kept on farms. The following factors have a positive effect on the life of chickens:
- If the chicken coop will be illuminated, including by artificial means, at least 14-16 hours a day.
- Provide chickens a place for walking.
- Provide birds with a spacious room in which they live.
- Equip the house with enough water troughs and feeders, place them correctly so that access to water and feed is unhindered.
- Maintain an optimal indoor temperature for chickens (20 o C) and humidity (50-70%).
- Install high-quality ventilation.
- Place sand and ash tanks in the hen house. Swimming in them, the chickens get rid of parasites.
- To decorate the walls and floor with soundproofing material so that the hens are not reached by loud noises from the street.
If you follow the rules of growing chickens and provide them with everything you need, life expectancy will increase. How long does a chicken live? In a farm, its optimal life is three years, if its purpose is toe eggs. In the household - up to nine years. Eggs such a chicken ceases to carry or lays very little. When it is allowed for meat, it will be tough. But often the owner is a pity to part with his pet.
Grain crops form the basis of the diet, but this is not enough, since the nutrition of poultry should be varied. If you feed a layer of balanced food, its life span will be at least five years, while productivity will decrease by only 15-20%. The better to feed the chicken? Feed must contain vitamins, carbohydrates and minerals. Bird feed includes the following products:
- Legumes - soybeans, peas and others.
- Grains - corn, wheat, oats.
- Greens - cabbage leaves, beets, stalks, young shoots.
- Sunflower seeds, especially in winter, are preferred by chickens.
- Shells, limestone pebbles, eggshells, previously crushed into crumb.
- The remains of meat, fish or flour from them.
The basis of food of the hens kept on poultry farms is mixed fodder. Its composition is, of course, balanced, but not diverse. In the summer, it is very important to allow chickens to move freely. Since they belong to weedy birds, they will find something to feast on walking in the garden or on the lawn. Therefore, in the summer season they should be fed once a day. During the period of winter cold, the frequency of feeding increases up to two times.
For feeding to be correct, it is important to calculate the rate of food consumption by one chicken per day.
- Whole or crushed grain - 50 g
- Additives from mineral components, salt - 6 g.
- Meat and bone meal or minced - 50 g
- Juicy feed from raw or boiled vegetables - 70 g.
- Protein in an amount of not more than 20 g.
All food is divided in half and fed to chickens for two times: in the morning and evening.
The life of chickens broken brown
This breed of domestic birds is considered the largest, most popular and unpretentious. Layers are distinguished by early maturation and endurance. Their content is not expensive. The average lifespan is three years, since later they carry few eggs. For a long time brown chickens belonged to the meat direction because of the large size and the rapid increase in body weight.
This variety of hens belongs to meat breed. They are grown to produce meat related to dietary products. For feeding birds use special combined feed with a high content of useful substances. Chickens move a little, so they gain weight very quickly. Their life span is eight weeks. If they are grown not for meat, they live longer, but too much weight puts a lot of pressure on their legs and they will atrophy. Often for this reason the birds die.
Chinese silk chickens
This decorative breed can not be confused with any. The originality of their appearance gives a fluffy hairstyle and paws with five fingers, which have a clear separation. Chickens have an interesting feature: their bones are black, dark in color and in meat with skin. Bred birds of this breed are not for profit, but for beauty. How long does a chicken live? If you provide good care and a balanced diet, you can live five years or more.
Features of the life cycle of chicken
The life cycle of chickens depends on several factors.
The main ones are:
- Growing conditions - this can be a household or production scale.
- Breed feathered - even scientifically proven that a representative of one species can live for 3-4 years longer than a chicken of another breed.
- The third factor is the diet and level of content. The bird must be properly fed, and it must live in favorable conditions, then life will be longer.
How long will the hen live at home?
Living in a natural-type environment provides for predators and unstable food, since feed problems are often encountered. The average lifespan of a chicken is 15 years, the period is quite decent.In household farms chickens can live up to 4 years.
At home, laying hens are very common. Household farming is not a new aura of birds, but they live in it less in duration - from 2 to 4 years. The final decision remains for the owner, he decides how much the hen hen lives. In the third year of life, the number of eggs that such a hen can carry is significantly reduced.
It turns out the breed is not so and a hen. The owner can get the most eggs from a bird in the first year of life, then, if it is properly fed, this indicator can be maintained, but not for long. After the chicken has lived for three years, the farmer often decides to send her under the knife, since further maintenance is not practical.
The average life span of a hen in a home environment is 3 years.
The effect of growing conditions on age
Place of keeping is one of the determining factors in the issue of the life expectancy of a chicken. Home conditions include careful attention to the bird, the owner is loyal to his birds, unlike the employees of poultry farms.Chickens of laying hens rarely last longer than 1-1.5 years in poultry farms.
In artificial conditions, a chicken should pay for itself as quickly as possible, or rather, the cost of its maintenance. Such conditions adversely affect the habitat of chickens, life expectancy decreases sharply.
The main points that positively affect the indicators of the existence of birds:
- Artificial lighting for 14-16 hours.
- The presence of an area where chickens can walk.
- Sufficient area of the room where chickens live. Each bird must have its own space, in this case crowding is unacceptable.
- Capacities for water and feed should be several. They should be located at a distance from each other, so that the birds do not crowd and can eat or drink at any time.
- Ambient temperature (rooms where birds live) - 20 degrees.
- Humidity is moderate - no more than 70 percent and not less than 50 percent.
- High-quality ventilation system.
- The tanks, filled with ashes, the chickens “bathe” in them, this procedure allows to get rid of a large number of parasites.
- Partial sound insulation, birds should not hear too loud sounds, it is very scary.
- There should be an optimal number of females per male. It is important not to overload the rooster.
Important. In a farm, a chicken can live 3 years, which is the best time for it, if the main purpose is to lay eggs.
Meat breeds of chickens are more dependent on life expectancy, the older the individual, the less quality meat will be. It loses all its positive and dietary characteristics. It makes no sense to keep such breeds on the farm for a long time. Some poultry farmers may keep their feathered pets at home for 8-9 years.
How many lives a chicken without a head
The chicken is killed by cutting off the head, but even after that it still continues to move and run. It happens that the headless bird rushes around the yard. Without a head, she can still live, but for how long?
An interesting example is chicken Mike. They tried to kill him, but the wrong movement allowed to preserve the vital artery, although the bird had no heads. Headless Mike lived another 8 months. Therefore, it is better to finish the job started with one precise movement so that the bird does not suffer.
How many years has the chicken lived
From a biological point of view, a hen lives on average 4-5 years. However, deviations are possible both upwards - such birds are called record holders-long-livers, and downwards, if chickens are raised for meat. Below we consider the life of birds in the conditions of industrial and domestic content:
- On an industrial scale. On large farms and poultry farms grow meat and egg breeds of chickens. In the first case, the bird contains from a couple of honeydews to one-year-olds, since the older the birds become, the worse the meat quality will be: it loses its dietary properties, becomes rigid. Laying hens live on farms for a maximum of 3 years. In egg breeds, the peak of productivity is 1-2 years of life, starting from the third year the amount of production is rapidly declining. Therefore, it does not make sense to keep egg chickens longer than 3 years. Poultry farms often have unsatisfactory housing conditions in order to reduce production costs and the final cost of production. Therefore, birds can be kept cramped, without the ability to move, their appearance and health, especially the reproductive system, deteriorate. Such birds go to slaughter very early.
- Home In a small private farm, the life span of a bird will depend on the conditions created for it and the will of the owner himself. Most often, after several years of life, when the peak of the egg production passes, the chicken is allowed for meat. Adverse external conditions (weather or the attack of predatory animals) can shorten the life span of a domestic chicken.
Proper nutritionIn case of violation of the rules of fodder content, the health of birds can be shaken already in the initial period of life, while chickens barely live to the age of one year. If you follow all the principles of a balanced diet, chickens live to 5-6 years. The diet of domestic chickens should be 60% leguminous - this is the basis of nutrition, this includes wheat, oats, peas, corn. Be sure that the birds should receive greens, vegetables, dairy products.
For full development and good health it is necessary to include mineral supplements. In industrial conditions it is recommended to use ready-made feed.
Deficiency of micro-macroelements, in particular, calcium, at first negatively affects the productivity of chickens, and then on their health and longevity. Irregular feeding, overfeeding, abrupt feed changes also reduce the life of chickens.
Conditions of detention
The level of comfort of birds depends on the following aspects in the content:
- there is enough space in the hen house,
- maintaining a comfortable temperature, especially in winter,
- availability of backlight if necessary
- regular cleaning, ventilation and disinfection of the chicken coop,
- the presence of a spacious yard for walking, which is especially important for mobile breeds of chickens.
The average life expectancy of different breeds is a fairly conventional concept, since even the longest-lived breed can be destroyed by improper maintenance or feeding. Conversely, chickens that have a short life span from a biological point of view can exist for a very long time under favorable conditions.
General trends for different breeds are as follows:
- egg breeds (leggorn, brekel, broken brown, russian white and crested, minorca, etc.) can live up to 8 years, but most often they are kept up to 2-4 years,
- meat breeds (broiler chickens, orpington, brahma, etc.) usually go for slaughter at the age of 8 weeks, they have a short life span, because the muscle mass exerts a strong load on the legs, which can cause the chickens to die and die their own death,
- egg and meat breeds (Amrox, Australorp, Wyandot, Hercules, Delirium, and others) - universal, hardy and unpretentious in keeping birds, their natural lifespan is the same as that of egg breeds, after a drop in egg production, they go to slaughter for valuable and nutritious meat.
How many years can keep chickens at home
You can keep egg, meat and hybrid chickens in your home yard. Separate attention is also worthy of male birds and ornamental species.
- Layers. Reducing chicken egg production occurs after 1.5-2 years of life. If in the first year of life 100% return could be obtained from the birds, then with each subsequent year productivity will fall by 10-15%. On average, laying hens at home hold up to 3, maximum up to 4 years.
- Broiler Chickens In the industrial cultivation of broilers practically do not contain after reaching the maximum weight, which usually occurs in about 2 months. In domestic conditions, the age of chickens can reach from several months to 1 year.
- Meat-egg breeds. Сегодня эта группа птиц набирает все большую популярность. Together with high productivity, they have a well-developed muscular system. Such individuals usually contain up to 1.5-2 years of life.
- Roosters The main purpose of the rooster is to maintain the productivity of chickens and get young. As soon as the period of active fertilization of females ends, the rooster starts up for slaughter. The average lifespan is 4 years.
- Decorative species. They can live up to several decades, since they do not consume the resources of the body as rapidly as the egg species.
Record holder long-livers
The oldest chicken on the planet is recognized as an individual who has lived to 14 years. This record is listed in the Guinness Book. There is also a lot of information about other avian long-livers, but these facts are not documented. So, there are allegations about the death of birds at the age of 18, 20 and more years. However, there is no scientific explanation and evidence for such cases.
How much chicken lives without a head
Most likely, the reason for this unusual question is a case from the past, when a decapitated rooster from a small American town lived for a year and a half, while becoming a star in the whole country and decently enriching its owners. It all happened in 1945. After the research, it became clear that the life of the rooster was saved by a blood clot, which blocked the jugular vein and prevented fatal bleeding.
In order to maintain life, the farmer was forced to feed and water the bird, delivering food directly into the esophagus, as well as pumping out the mucus with a syringe so that the birds do not suffocate. All vital functions continued to control the spinal cord. However, after 18 months, the cock still suffocated and died.In general, the owners at private farmsteads can observe the situation when, after decapitation, the bird continues to run for a while, flapping its wings, making chaotic movements. On average, this lasts up to 15–20 seconds and only happens if the spinal cord is not injured while cutting off the head. For a short time, he is able to control the body if no signals are coming from the brain. The lifespan of a headless chicken depends on the location of the blow with an ax, the speed and amount of blood loss, and the anatomical features of the feathered one.
The physiological life expectancy of chickens and their actual life in households and on poultry farms differ significantly. Usually chickens are kept up to the maximum possible weight gain (meat breeds) or to the peak of egg productivity, after which they are sent for slaughter. The lifetime of the birds largely depends on the conditions provided by the person.
How long does a chicken meat live?
As we have already noted, broilers live for a relatively short time. The fact is that the specificity of meat of any animal, and especially poultry, is that the younger the individual, the more juicy and tender meat. With age, the chicken muscle fibers cease to be so elastic, the fat layer becomes not so tender, but on the contrary - old and with an unpleasant aftertaste.
Since the main purpose of breeding broiler breeds is to produce meat, they will not be allowed to live for long. Especially on an industrial scale, where the chicken is fed with growth enhancers and other nutritional supplements that activate muscle gain. On average, the life span of a meat bird is up to two months, there are breeds that are ready for slaughter from the fortieth day of life, but mostly the chicken is killed at about 50 days of life.
At home, for their own breeding, broilers are rarely used, and they prefer to choose mixed birds for simultaneous incubation of eggs and subsequent production of meat. The lifespan of such an individual is up to five years - much longer than that of a standard broiler at a poultry farm, and a little more than an industrial layer.
Length of life
If the life span of the meat breed is provided in advance by the breeders, the hen should rely on its productivity. As experienced poultry farmers say, the chicken is most active in terms of hatching eggs in the first couple of years of its life - this is the minimum threshold that the hen should "serve" the hen at the poultry farm. Often after this, she slowly loses her productivity. The average decline in activity does not exceed 15% annually, but there are individuals that show excellent results even in the third year of life.
It is in the interests of the owners of the poultry farms to secure for themselves such a livestock that will be distinguished by maximum productivity. Rare specimens of three-year-old chickens that produce a good number of eggs are given no more than ten percent of the total population. The bulk of the birds are young chickens, one or one and a half years old. Up to one third of individuals aged two years is an average for a hen.
Since the meat of such chickens is not sufficiently adapted for human consumption — it is quite tough and low-fat, unlike broilers, it is pointless to spend money on keeping a hen that does not fulfill its main function. Therefore, three years for a carrier bird is almost always the limit.
The living conditions of the birds significantly affect the lifespan. It is important to ensure quality accommodation, chickens should not be in cramped, be sure to - free space for walking. Accessibility should be trough and drinker with water. To maintain the health of the skin and feathers, they put a container with ashes, where feathers clean feathers in their spare time, protecting them from parasites.
The hen house should be light for at least fifteen hours every day. It is important to protect birds from excessive drafts and sudden changes in temperature - this adversely affects life expectancy and overall health. When warming a chicken coop, it is worth paying attention to the humidity of the air; the water content in the air for birds should be no less than forty percent.
Video "Errors in the construction of the chicken coop and breeding chickens"
In the video you can find out the main errors in the breeding of chickens and the arrangement of the chicken coop. Useful novice poultry farmers.
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How many live chickens breed
The question of years of life of hens of meat breeds is not
It is altogether. Since their age cannot be calculated in years or months, because they grow only 60 days.
To keep them longer irrational, they stop gaining weight, and the taste of their meat begins to deteriorate.
Only as a laying hen make an exception to chicks that incubate. In poultry houses they linger for 5 years or more.
On the timing of the life of poultry affects its functional significance. Birds of decorative breeds contain the longest of all, because they are driven not for the sake of productive characteristics, but because of unusual beauty.. Therefore, of all poultry, only they can boast of longevity.
In this regard, beautiful chickens, who live to be 17 years old and even more, turn out to be the luckiest ones among the layers and fowl. But in recent years, breeding among the populations of ornamental chickens has had a bad effect on their immunity, so they are poorly protected from infections and began to get sick more often.
Due to the cellular content and sedentary lifestyle - one of their features, the lifespan is constantly decreasing.