Plant ficus microcarp is a miniature tree, which is also called bonsai. Bonsai is the art of growing miniature trees in a residential environment that looks very similar to their large relatives.
This ficus grows fruits, which is how it differs from other miniature trees. However, in indoor conditions, this plant practically does not bloom, and therefore you can hardly see its fruits.
In nature, ficus mikkarpa is found in tropical forests of China, Asia and Australia, but only in well-lit places. Under room conditions, to grow this plant is not so difficult, but if this does not take into account a number of important points, the plant will simply die.
The special beauty of such a ficus is the flight, rising above the soil, of the roots, which can form various fanciful forms. And also he has a spectacular very lush crown.
This species was called microcarp because of its miniature fruit. So, from the Greek mikros karpos literally translated as a small fruit.
Description ficus mikrokarpy
In nature, it can grow up to 20-25 meters in height. When grown in indoor conditions, it rarely grows higher than 2-3 meters. As a rule, in natural conditions this plant is an epiphyte (it grows on another tree).
Solid smooth short branch leaves have a wide oval-lanceolate shape with curved tips. On examination, it may appear that the leaves are waxed. Green or dark green foliage and brown bark. In nature, it produces rather small fruits of a yellowish color, but as they mature they turn into burgundy. He does not like the scorching direct rays of the sun, and he is also adversely affected by low humidity.
Care for ficus mikkarpa at home
This miniature ornamental tree, which prefers high humidity and negatively reacting to drafts and sudden changes in temperature, can be grown in an apartment under certain conditions.
Do not be afraid if after buying or moving to another residence, the plant will fly around all the leaves. This is his natural reaction. Thus, the ficus is trying to acclimatize, while retaining as much as possible. After a few weeks everything will come back to normal. At this time, it should definitely be placed in a place with high humidity and spray the tree should be, as often as possible. Under such conditions, the new foliage will begin to grow after about a month.
You need moderate lighting, as well as mandatory shading from the direct rays of the sun. It grows well in the depths of the room in partial shade. It should not be often rearranged from one place to another. The fact is that the ficus can respond to this by dropping leaves. To at least partially avoid this, you can use the biostimulator Epin. His solution is moistened foliage.
For this tree, it is not the temperature that is most important, but the absence of an abrupt change in temperature (a difference of 5–7 degrees), as well as a draft. Most suitable temperature from 16 to 23 degrees. At temperatures above 25 degrees, the soil can quickly dry out and the humidity in the room drops significantly. In this case, the plant needs frequent and regular moistening of the foliage with a sprayer. Experienced growers are advised to purchase a humidifier. Dried water is poured into it, and the device should work for at least 10–12 hours, otherwise the foliage will fly around the plant. Reset foliage can occur in the event that the room will always be too cool.
Ficus microcarp needs high humidity all year round. To increase the humidity on hot days, spray leaves 1 or 2 times a day. The same should be done during the winter period, when you yourself can not regulate the temperature in the room. It is necessary to spray leaflets, but not the trunk. And they are recommended to wipe with a soft cloth moistened with clean water.
How to water
Watering should be moderate. Overflowing leads to the fact that rot forms on the roots, as a result of which the plant can die. Water the tree only after 2 or 3 centimeters in depth the substrate dries out. For this purpose, suitable rain, melt, as well as soft warm or room temperature water. If the water is cold, it can trigger foliar discharges. The liquid that is glass in the pan must be drained, since its stagnation in the soil may adversely affect the growth of the plant. There is no specific irrigation schedule, in each case it is individual.
Replant the plant infrequently, namely, 1 time in 3 years. The fact is that this plant reacts negatively to the transplant, and if its root system is damaged, then all the leaves can fly around. And the fact is that the trunk grows extremely slowly. During the transplantation, it is possible to either completely or partially replace the substrate with a new one. It is necessary to take with this pot, which in diameter will be a couple of centimeters more than the previous one. At the bottom you should definitely make a good drainage layer, which should consist of expanded clay mixed with charcoal. The earth needs loose water and breathable.
Needs regular fertilizers in spring and summer 1 time in 2 weeks. To do this, use organic and mineral fertilizers for ficuses (palm trees). And you can take a special fertilizer for bonsai. Fertilize before watering. Fertilizer can be dissolved in water for irrigation or for spraying the foliage of a plant. In winter, fertilizer should not be applied to the soil.
To form a lush crown, the tree should be systematically pruned throughout the year. In young plants, the trunk is necessarily trimmed to increase its thickness and thickness.
Can be propagated by cutting. For the cutting, it is necessary to cut off the top of the shoot and put it into the water for rooting. At the same time for pruning on the stalk it is necessary to select strong stems, which have fully developed fibers. Roots can be seen after 2 or 3 weeks. Then the plant is transplanted into the soil. It must be transplanted annually before it reaches the age of three or four. Then this procedure is carried out 1 time in 3 years.
Pests and diseases
A tree grown in indoor conditions is fairly resistant to diseases and pests. However, in case of impairment of care, it may be inhabited by an aphid, shieldcat or mealybug. And as a result of this, the leaves become faded, begin to turn black, blackish specks may form on them, or they fly around.
- It darkens the foliage and they form grayish spots - stagnation of moisture in the soil, resulting in rotting of the root system. The reason may be the remaining water in the pan.
- Twisted Dark Leaves - burns from the direct rays of the sun.
- Frequent abscission of all foliage - low humidity and poor watering. And another reason could be: drafts, moving, frequent rearrangement of a plant to new places, sudden changes in temperature, watering with cold water, lack of light.
- Spider mite settled on a tree - due to the dry air in the room. Harmful insects should be washed off with a moistened sponge, while it can be moistened in clean water or soapy water, into which alcohol should be poured (1 liter of alcohol per liter of water). It is necessary to change the soil.
Ficus Microcarpa in nature - an epiphyte tree that grows on larger trees. When it grows, it forms a lush crown and a long but weak root system. In nature, it fancifully hangs from tree branches, and it is very interesting to observe such a phenomenon. No less remarkable is the fact that, settling on other trees, this ficus grows up to twenty meters in height. If you grow it in indoor conditions, like a normal culture, it will grow to one and a half meters. However, lovers of technology bonsai often do not allow him to move in growth. In order for Microcarp to remain a miniature tree, he carefully and step by step expose the roots, with the concomitant pruning of the branches.
His trunk is overgrown with gray bark. It is very gentle and smooth, so it must be treated with care. This is a small-leaved variety of mulberry, but with skillful cultivation of the crown, you can get a lush and neat. In the period of flowering on the tree appear small flowers, more like berries. Their diameter is not more than a centimeter. The fruits are called syconiums and, of course, are not suitable for eating.
Sales on pots with such plants are often labeled "ginseng", which means "ginseng." So it is called because of the unusual shape and texture of the root, the growth of which experts have learned to stimulate the growth of hormonal drugs.
Shortly before the sale, such a ficus is transplanted, its trunk is cut off, cleaned and planted in a container. The root is left above the ground, with a light prikopy. Then they wait until the bark begins to appear on the roots. In addition, the growth of branches in the right direction is also stimulated - with the help of special means or vaccination. That is how the trees are prepared for sale and in this form they come to flower shops.
Location and lighting
This plant does not like strong and bright sunlight, but also feels uncomfortable in strong shadows. It immediately drops the leaves, begins to stretch, slows growth and completely loses its decorative appearance. It is best to put it on a window that faces west or east, keeping some distance between the glass and the ficus. Some owners of miniature bonsai do not understand that they cannot often be moved from place to place. Like any member of the ficus family, Mikrokarpa does not like constant place changes and can react with total leaf fall and completely “bald”.
Since this is a heat-loving culture that comes from the tropics, it should be provided with a room temperature of +25 to +30 o C in summer. vibrations and drafts.
Water procedures should be carried out, focusing on the condition of the top layer of soil. When it dries a couple of centimeters, you need to water the plant. You can not pour it, because it is fraught with rotting of the roots, which is often almost impossible to cure. For irrigation, it is recommended to apply separated, warmed by the sun water.
Fertilizers and fertilizers
The soil in the pot should be light, nutritious and slightly acidic. It can be made independently by taking two parts of turf land, one leaf soil, part of humus and part of coarse sand. In spring and summer, the plant is fed once every 14 days. As a rule, complex mineral compounds are used. Closer to the fall, the number of dressings is reduced to once every 30 days. Before feeding the plant, it must be watered, so as not to burn the root system.
Since bonsai grows very slowly, it should be replanted no more than once every two years. Transplantation is done in the first months of spring, since it is at this time that the roots take root best. New capacity should be more than five centimeters, but no more. It contains a drainage layer and a new ground. Then the tree is carefully removed from the old pot, the roots are cleaned from the ground and cut with a sharp object to ten centimeters. The plant is immersed in a new container, gradually sprinkling the roots with earth. In conclusion, the soil is slightly tamped and watered.
Cropping and crown formation
Ficus Microcarp requires regular formative pruning in order to maintain the decorativeness of its crown. To do this, you need to monitor the growth of shoots, and when up to ten pairs of leaves are formed on each of them, they are shortened so that no more than three pairs (six leaves) are left. The pruning activities are carried out in spring and summer, and the “wounds” left after it are washed from the juice and powdered with the help of fine activated carbon.
When you purchase a very small bonsai ficus Mikrokarpa, you should wait until he grows up to fifteen centimeters, and then carefully pin him the top. This will contribute to the growth of the side branches so that the crown of the tree looks more lush.
Ficus Microcarp breeding
You can multiply it in different ways: and seeds, and air layering. But the best thing to do is cutting: growing a layer is the easiest and most effective way to get a healthy plant with a good rooting ability. As a rule, shoots from tops, about ten centimeters long, are used for this purpose. It is also allowed to take and the material remaining after trimming.
Containers are prepared with nutrient soil and drainage, and before planting, the processes are kept in the root growth stimulator for 3-4 hours. After disembarking, the box is placed in a warm, preferably shaded place and monitor the process. Usually, rooting takes place in a month, after which all the foliage is cut and leave only one pair of leaves.
Two weeks later, the young seedlings of the ficus Mikrokarp need to feed, and after they get stronger and grow, they are seated in separate containers. At the same time, the diameter of each of them should not be more than ten centimeters.
Care in the first days after buying the plant
After the tree has been brought home from the store, you cannot immediately begin to transplant it. It is certainly necessary, since the store composition of the soil in which the plant is located, most often does not meet its needs. However, the ficus, which suffered stress in the form of a change of place, will need a period in order to adapt to new conditions.
If there are other plants in the house, it is recommended that the “novice” be isolated from them for two weeks and observe his behavior: are there any signs of fungal diseases or insects that could have been imperceptible during the purchase process. At the slightest sign of a lesion with a fungus or pest, the “patient” will need emergency treatment with appropriate preparations.
It is known that due to stress, Ficus Microcarp often sheds leaves, and if this happened after buying it, do not despair. It is important to find him a suitable permanent place in the house, organize regular and proper watering with the addition of a small amount of top dressing in the water and wait for new and fresh leaves to appear. After two weeks you can transplant to suitable soil.
Difficulties in care, diseases and pests
Most often, mikrokarpa home ficuses are attacked by spider mites and shchitovki. When a spider mite is affected, the foliage and trunk become covered with a sticky web. The tree languishes, and the foliage falls. If she began to stick to her hands, then she was attacked by a shield. Chemical insecticides will help to cope with any pest. It is recommended to pretreat the plant with a solution of ordinary soap. With a slight defeat insects can retreat, and if this does not happen - you need to turn to "chemistry".
Root rot due to improper watering often results in the death of the ficus Microcarp. It is urgently necessary to transplant it into another container, after removing the affected areas of the roots and treating them with an antifungal agent. If the defeat has not yet had time to acquire a total character, there is a chance that the tree will succeed.
Prevention of a dangerous disease is moderate watering and regular monitoring of the condition of the pan in the pot. The water that flows into it through the drainage holes must be drained in time so that it does not stagnate.
For small bonsai ficus Mikrokarp very important care and proper care. Then he will always look beautiful and healthy miniature tree, pleasing the owner with an unusual shape of the trunk and lush green crown.
FICUS MICROCARPA GINSENG:
After buying an already formed bonsai ficus, you need to constantly monitor its shape. In stores use special tools - retardants. They slow down the growth of the plant, do not let it drag up. With the end of their actions, growth will resume - the leaves will become larger, the branches will be pulled upwards. With a lack of nutrients, the ficus will begin to use the reserves deposited in the fleshy roots. This will reduce their size, compressing.
To ficus Mikkarpa retained its original appearance, regularly pruned shoots and roots. Pruning is carried out only in the summer! All regrown branches are cut off, leaving 2 pairs of leaves on them. This is a creative process. It is necessary to focus not only on the technology of pruning, but also the general appearance of the plant. Cut off primarily those shoots that violate the desired shape. For cutting use a sharp tool!
The plant is rarely sick. The only common problem is leaf fall.
If green leaves crumble:
- Changing the usual conditions.
- Sudden temperature fluctuations and drafts.
- Избыточные поливы с загниванием корней.
Если листья жухнут и опадают:
- Сухость почвы.
- Низкая влажность воздуха.
- Недостаток освещения.
- Дефицит питания.
Проблему решают корректировкой условий содержания и соблюдением правил ухода. Вредителями фикус практически не поражается. In rare cases, it may become infected by other plants with a mealy bug, shield, or thrips.
Ficus mikkarpa - amazing, unusual plant that will become a real decoration of your apartment.
Care immediately after purchase.
First you need to decide on the place where our tree will be placed. When choosing, one should take into account the properties and whims of the microcarp.
Immediately it is worth noting that the plant does not like permutations from one place to another.
Ficus moklame reacts poorly to drafts, dry air and very bright light. Therefore, place a new plant as far as possible from the radiators. Best suited rooms, where the windows overlook the south-western, western and northern sides.
Ficus with the form of Variegata It is best to place indoors with oriental and southeastern windows, since such a plant needs more light.
Microcarp needs to be sprayed. from the very first day of the acquisition, especially the ficus moklame, ginseng and bonsai. It is best to do this 2-3 times a day. It is not recommended to allow the soil to dry out. Check the substrate moisture often by dropping a finger into the ground to a depth of one centimeter.
A couple of weeks after purchase, the plant should transplant to a newer and more constant capacity. Do not forget to take care of the drainage, the layer of which must be at least 1/3 of the height of the pot. For drainage, you can use foam or expanded clay. The soil in the substrate should be loose and nutritious. Perfect ready-made land for ficuses, which you can buy in specialized flower shops. Leaving after transplantation is performed in the same way as for an ordinary microcarp plant.
If the ficus ginseng or moklame dropped foliage, then worry about it is not worth it. Most likely, this is just a reaction to the change of "place of residence".
How to make ficus bonsai at home
Type of roots and trunk - The first thing that attracts attention. The roots have the ability to thicken and bare, taking the form like oval kegs. Branches are thin, have small leaves of dark green color. The surface of the leaves is shiny, as if it was polished.
For some, the ficus may seem rude and ugly to the moklame, but in most cases plant is in great demand in flower shops. To give the ficus an attractive look, one should not only provide the plant with proper care at home, but also constantly form its crown. Ficus can give shape:
- bonsai tree
In order for his crown to be lush, moderately branched and healthy, it is necessary to make regular pruning of the twigs. Here are some important rules to follow:
- Use only decontaminated and sharp objects (scissors, knife).
- Cut off the tops that protrude from the main crown line.
- Cut along an oblique line, not evenly.
- Cut tops can be used for further rooting.
Make bonsai ficus is quite difficult at home, but not at all impossible. When forming a bonsaya, two conditions must be met:
- The plant must be at least 20 cm.
- The ficus should be planted in a wide, but not very deep pot.
Stages of formation of bonsaya:
- Cut the crown of the plant so that its appearance is flatter.
- We attach small weights to the twigs with the help of threads to give the plant a suitable look. This should be done in such a way that the twigs fall parallel to the ground.
- We hold the load in this state for about two weeks, and then remove it.
The branches of the ficus, in the period of their formation in this way, can shed their leaves. This is not a sign of illness or improper care, but only an adaptation to a new situation.
To give the plant even more colorful appearance, it is worth to load a ficus into a square-shaped pot, the style of which will be characteristic of bonsaya.
The plant mikrokarpa blooms, but this process does not carry any aesthetics. The flowers are small, gathered in a small inflorescence, which has a diameter of not more than 2 cm. These inflorescences are called syconium. Houseplant belongs to the category of decorative and deciduous, so its main beauty lies precisely in this.
Optimal conditions for growing in the house
Ficus mikkarpa quite simple in the care at home. He is not very whimsical, despite the exotic. Nevertheless, it has its own specifics that must be considered. First of all, it is lighting and temperature.
Microcarp prefers shading or diffused sunlight. Should be protected from direct sunlight. It is better to have away from the windows. You can provide artificial lighting or lighting. For this purpose, fluorescent lamps with a power of 15 W and a color temperature of 2800–3800 Kelvin (dawn / sunset) are suitable.
How to care for ficus mikkarpa
It should be noted that the plant still requires some attention to itself. Only the correct location in the house, coupled with the backlight, this type of plant is not limited. In order for the tree to start pleasing the eye, you will have to work a little. Care is pretty simple. Like all plants, microcarp needs proper watering, and its wonderful roots and twigs need proper molding and pruning. By simple manipulations, the tree will turn into an incredible look, pleasing to the eye.
It is necessary to water plentifully and often. Especially in the period of active growth (spring-summer season). It should be noted that the regularity and abundance of irrigation depend on the dryness of the air, the temperature of the room and the illumination. Need to focus on the plant and dry soil. An earthen clod in a pot should not dry out, however, and excessive humidity can lead to rotting of the roots and death of the plant. The earth must have time to dry at a depth of 2-3 centimeters.
Ficus Microcarp loves moist air. Therefore, it is necessary to spray the tree once or twice a day, depending on the dryness of the air. Otherwise, the plant will look sluggish and will be sensitive to diseases, will not be able to resist pests. In addition to spraying, the plant will benefit if you regularly wipe its leaves with a soft, damp cloth.
Soil and fertilizer
Mikrokarpa loves light fertile soil with a pH level of 5.5 - 7.5. The soil can be prepared by yourself. For this it is necessary to mix in equal proportions sod, peat ground, deciduous humus and sand.
If the ficus mikkarpa is grown in the style of bonsai, then apply specialized fertilizers.
Also, the tree responds very well to fertilization through spraying the foliage.
Ficus microcarp transplant rules
Let us see how and when it is better to replant the ficus microcarp. This species is best replanted every two years. The tree grows very slowly, and in the adult state the trunk almost ceases to grow. Ficus microcarp transplant is more needed to update the soil or replace the substrate. This procedure also allows you to inspect the condition of the roots, which are underground. Replace better in the spring.
How to deal with possible diseases and pests
Despite its simplicity, Ficus mikrokarpa prone to a number of diseases. Mostly difficulties arise due to improper care. Consider the most common difficulties faced by lovers of this type.
The root system may rot due to excess moisture. Dark spots may appear on the leaves. The method of treatment is very simple - to reduce the frequency and abundance of watering, to allow the soil to dry out. It is also possible that there are not enough drain holes in the pot itself. With a lack of moisture and high temperature on the ficus spider mite may appear. This pest is able to destroy the plant in a very short time. Young plants for getting rid of the parasite can be washed in the shower. The water temperature is about 40–45 degrees Celsius. Adult plants need to be treated with insecticides several times. On the drugs themselves and their dosage is better to consult in flower shops. Also on the ficus can attack aphid, shield, whitefly and thrips. To combat them, it is better to use special preparations. Today, in specialized stores given a large selection of drug names. It is better to consult with the sellers about the brands and active ingredients, to clarify the dosage.
With proper care, the ficus microcarp will delight with the exotic shape of the roots and glossy green foliage. A plant can easily become not only a pet "favorite", but also a source of pride.
Soil and fertilizer
Fertile soil with an acidity level of 5.5-7.5 on the pH scale - favorite for the microcarp. The soil is easy to prepare yourself. To do this, mix in equal proportions sand, leafy humus, peat and sod land. During the growing season it is recommended to make additional fertilizers (from early spring to late fall). Perfect all-purpose universal fertilizers or fertilizers for decorative leafy plants. They need to be added to the water when watering the soil. Fertilizer should be applied every few weeks.
When growing ficus mikkarpa in the style of bonsai used specialized fertilizers.
Fertilizer can also be applied by spraying the foliage - the tree responds well to it.
Crown formation and trimming
In order for the plant to maintain the attractiveness of its forms, it must be periodically cut. Begin to engage in the formation of the crown as soon as possible. In terms of changes in appearance, the ficus is very malleable, which allows your imagination to properly roam.
To get a powerful trunk from a young tree, his it is necessary to prune more often. With the help of wire it is necessary to form the direction of the branches. Thick shoots, whose length is not more than 20 cm, can also be cut off. By cutting off strong branches, branching of the crown of ficus can be achieved.