Almost every garden grows pepper with other popular vegetables. Despite abundant fruiting, there is a risk of reduction or loss of the crop due to damage by harmful microorganisms or diseases. Prevent a problem by arming yourself with knowledge that will help you recognize the first signs of disease. In this article we will learn why the leaves may fall off the peppers, who is to blame for this and what can be done and how to deal with the scourge.
The main diseases of bell peppers and their treatment at home and in the greenhouse
When growing peppers, special attention is paid to preventive measures. Regular care and inspection of bushes is necessary for the timely detection of pests or diseases. Affected plants may die for 1-2 weeks, if the cause is not identified in time and the treatment is not done.. Abundant greens and a moist environment create favorable conditions for the development of various diseases or the invasion of insects.
The fungal disease develops predominantly at the stage of shoot growth, therefore it is dangerous for seedlings and adult plants grown in greenhouse conditions.
The cause is pathogens of various species that are stored in the seeds, soil and crop residue. Too thick planting of seedlings and poor-quality aeration can provoke the formation of black legs, which is more often observed in greenhouses.
Signs characterizing the fungal disease:
- change the color of the lower part of the stem to brown,
- decay on the darkened area,
- drying of the whole bush.
When detecting the first signs of a black leg, the following recommendations should be followed:
- at the very beginning of the development of the disease you need to water the beds with a weak solution of potassium permanganate,
- gush up the ground around the bushes,
- spud the root of the pepper,
- if the ground surface is too wet, you need to sprinkle the beds with river sand (ash, activated carbon),
- if the disease has hit the seedlings, you should ventilate the room, reduce the amount of watering.
The disease is caused by the development of the fungus Botrytis cinerea. A characteristic feature is the formation of wet brown spots in the lower part of the stem, in the zone of its contact with the ground. After a short period of time, a grayish taint appears on the affected area. The active phase of the development of fungal disease occurs in conditions of high humidity in combination with air temperatures above 20 ° C.
If during the inspection revealed the first signs of the disease, it is necessary to treat the beds with medical preparations:
The infected plants should be removed from the plantation or transplanted into a separate container.The defeat of pepper gray mold
Lightning bacterial wilt
The pathogenic bacteria in lightning wilt penetrate into the vascular system of the stem, thereby blocking the flow of nutrients. In addition to hunger, the plant is poisoned by toxic substances secreted by bacteria, which leads to the rapid death of the culture. A distinctive feature of the disease are yellowing spots on the foliage, indicating the drying of the plant, as well as the white substance secreted by incision of the stem.
If there are signs of wilting, it is recommended to remove the affected plant from the garden bed. The rest of the bushes to handle special preparations containing copper.
Refers to fungal diseases (fungus Phytophthora infestans), capable of destroying the crop of pepper. At an early stage of development, there are signs similar to the black leg. After 2 weeks, brown spots spread throughout the plant, including fruit. In dry weather, the leaves quickly dry out, shrinking. The process of decay is accelerated at high humidity, so do not hesitate to process.
When identifying the first signs you need to immediately do the processing of the beds, using special preparations:
- Hamair (for irrigation - 1 tab. Per 5 l of water, for spraying - 2 tablets per 1 l of water),
- Alirin-B (for irrigation - 2 tab. On a bucket of water, for spraying - 2 tab. On 1 l of water),
- Ridomil Gold (for spraying 10 g. Funds for 2 liters of water),
- Fitosporin-M (for spraying 10 g. Of powder per 5 liters of water).
On large plantations it is more rational to use more powerful drugs: Bravo, Quadris.The initial stage of late blight
The defeat of pepper with kladosporiozom: why it occurs and how to spray?
The disease is caused by the development of the fungus Fulvia fulva, often affects greenhouse plants grown in conditions of high humidity. Brown spot is tolerated by spores that fall on the soil, garden tools, clothing, and greenhouse surfaces.
Signs of cladosporiosis:
- brown spots appeared on the outside of the leaves,
- a gray scurf appears on the outside of the foliage with a velvety effect,
- rotting of the stem and fruits.
If you find the first signs should immediately begin treatment:
- reduce the intensity of watering the beds,
- ensure good ventilation of the greenhouse,
- treat affected plants with special preparations (Barrier, Barrier).
Fusarium and sclerocynia on the leaves of seedlings
The disease is caused by a fungus (Fusarium), which affects the stem vessels. As a result of the blockage of the ducts in the stem, the access of nutrients and moisture is blocked, the plant begins to die from toxin poisoning. An abundance of moisture (both in the air and in the soil) can provoke the development of a fungal disease.
- the leaves on the pepper begin to curl, wither,
- even with good care the greens turn yellow
- the stem at the radical part becomes brown,
- the development of rot on the roots, fruits.
Since fusarium is an incurable disease, prevention plays an important role in the agricultural practices of pepper.
Preventive measures at home from Fusarium
- before seeding the seed material, it is necessary to treat it with Fundazole (100 ml of product for 10 grams of seeds),
- periodically water the soil with a weak solution of potassium permanganate,
- after harvesting the beds, carefully select the crop residues.
When detecting the first signs of Fusarium, it is recommended to treat the beds with Fundazole or Topsin-M (0.2%). Drugs are not able to overcome the disease, they only suspend the development process.Fusarium and sclerocynia on pepper seedlings
Disease black bacterial spotting
From the moment of emergence of the seedlings above the ground, the plant can attack black bacterial spot. A characteristic sign of the disease are dark spots spreading along the stem and leaves. On the border with the green part you can see a yellow border.
Prevention is standard, including the correct choice of variety and the procedure for disinfecting soil and seed. It is hardly possible to save the affected plant, so it is important to immediately remove the diseased bushes in order to prevent the spread of the disease. Place the excavation to be sanitized.Black bacterial pepper spot
Bacterial pepper cancer and methods of dealing with it
The disease belongs to the bacterial, development is promoted by increased humidity and warm weather, as well as thickening of the beds. A characteristic feature is considered to be dark spots (dots) spreading across the plant, which subsequently merge with each other, forming a large crust. WITHThe front spots have a lighter color, which helps to determine the diagnosis. Small holes may appear.
If signs are detected, the culture should be sprayed with copper sulphate or preparations containing copper. Affected bushes should be removed from the bed.Bacterial Cancer Peppers
Fighting tobacco mosaic
Tobacco mosaic - a viral disease characterized by the penetration of the virus into cells and the destruction of chlorophyll. As a result of cell death, a marble pattern is formed on the surface of the sheet, with beige and emerald inclusions.
Disinfection of soil and seedlings before planting, as well as the right choice of variety, will help prevent the disease.
Pepper pests and how to deal with them
Destroy the crop can in addition to diseases and pests. One of the most dangerous is aphid. Feeding on the juice of pepper, it can destroy a bush in a few days, and leaves and flowers will begin to fall off. It spreads quickly on the beds, so it’s not worth delaying with insecticide treatment. In order to keep the working solution prepared from Karbofos or Keltan longer on green, it is necessary to supplement it with crushed soap.Pepper bush affected by aphids
Greater hassle causes gardeners spider mite. Located on the lower part of the leaves, it sucks the juice from the pepper. Immediately after the discovery of the parasite, it is necessary to treat the beds with infusion prepared from a glass of chopped onion (garlic), dandelion leaves and 1 tbsp. l soap. All ingredients after adding a bucket of water insist for several hours.Pepper, affected by aphids
Among other pests pepper slugs are naked. They damage greens and fruits, causing decay. You can get rid of them by spraying the plants with Strela (50 grams of powder for a bucket of water).
Identified holes in the leaves indicate the invasion of the Colorado potato beetle. The pest and its larvae are incredibly voracious, so it is important not to lose time and collect insects from the bushes. After harvesting, spray pepper with Commodore (1 ml per bucket of water).The worst enemy of gardeners - the Colorado potato beetle
Enjoy the leaves loves and bear. Arranging traps and spraying the smell of kerosene in places of its accumulation helps in fighting it.
Pepper treatment for pests and diseases of folk remedies at home
To avoid problems when growing Bulgarian pepper, you can, if you follow the basic rules of prevention at home.
- When choosing a seed or seedling, preference should be given to disease resistant varieties.
- It is recommended to store seeds in a dry ventilated area.
- Before planting, the soil should be treated in order to destroy various pathogens and larvae.
- Before planting, the seeds are soaked in a solution of copper sulfate, a weak solution of potassium permanganate or special preparations.
- Every day you need to inspect the beds in order to early identify foci. If necessary, spray or treat plants selected folk methods.
- Seedlings should be planted with respect to distance in order to avoid thickening.
- When watering to monitor the level of soil moisture. Excessive moisture provokes the development of fungal diseases.
Armed with knowledge gardeners easier to protect the crop from pests and diseases. One has only to comply with the systematic care of the culture. And then healthy bushes will grow even on the windowsill in the apartment.
Diseases of pepper seedlings
Seedlings - like a child, which you need in every way to protect and prevent all possible problems. Therefore, it is important to know what you can encounter when growing pepper seedlings.
Characteristic diseases of seedlings of peppers:
- white, gray and top rot,
- late blight,
- fusarium and sclerocyny,
- powdery mildew,
- verticillary wilting pepper,
- black bacterial spot,
- lightning bacterial wilt,
- soft bacterial rot,
- bacterial cancer of pepper,
- tobacco mosaic,
Diseases in the seedlings of peppers are often caused by violation of the rules of cultivation and careless actions: a broken twig, damaged root during tillage or planting, lack or excess of trace elements in the soil, improper watering.
With mechanical damage, you can adjust the cultivation agrotechnology and everything will return to normal. In case of an infectious disease, much more measures should be taken, because they spread to other plants and, accumulating in the soil, can affect the crops planted in this place for several years.
A more detailed description of the photo for each disease of pepper (including seedlings) is given below in the article.
Conducting preventive measures will surely give positive results. It has long been known that avoiding a problem is the best solution. Peppers also have some recommendations for the prevention of disease.
- The first preventive measure is carried out in the autumn - the earth is dug up about 25 cm deep. This is a standard procedure that allows you to destroy most of the fungal diseases and pests. They just die in the cold.
- The second important approach when growing peppers is to follow the rules of crop rotation. They can not be planted two years in a row in one place. And they are not planted after other Solanaceae. Otherwise, the diseases accumulate and the risk of damage tends to be 100%.
- The third most important procedure is proper watering. The drip irrigation system would be ideal. Waterlogging leads to putrefactive phenomena on the plant, so you need to do it very carefully and if there is a lot of rain, it is best to stop watering.
Even following such simple rules can prevent up to 90% of all possible diseases. Now consider the main diseases and measures to combat them.
It is more common in seedlings and large bushes when grown in a greenhouse. Caused by various pathogens that spread in the soil through the remnants of other plants. The occurrence of the disease can provoke with insufficient ventilation of the greenhouse and with a thick planting.
It is possible to determine this disease through a decaying and drying stem, first in the lower part. For its timely detection it is important to inspect the plants as often as possible.
Prevention is that before planting seedlings, seeds and soil are treated with manganese solution. It is impossible to prevent over-wetting in the bushes, and with a thick landing it is necessary to thin out.
White rot (sclerocinia)
Called: Sclerotinia sclerotiorum
This fungal disease appears on the stem closer to the root in the form of a white bloom. Later on, black seals appear inside the stem, from which a fungus grows, which completely poisons the whole plant. The disease begins to develop in conditions of high humidity and low temperature.
Prevention and control:
- Watering should be done only with warm water.
- When the greenhouse method of cultivation is necessary to regularly ventilate the room.
- Already damaged plants are extremely difficult to save, so they are completely removed.
Such diseases are quite insidious, as they are difficult to diagnose. Symptoms are often similar to other diseases. Lead to local or widespread lesions.
Their spreads are insects and they penetrate into the plant through pinholes. Lead to putrefactive phenomena, necrosis, tumors, burns.
Black bacterial spotting
Caused by: Xanthomonas euvesicatoria
Manifested in the form of dark growing spots. A strip of yellow color is visible along the edges of the spots and as a result the bush dies. It may even sprout.
What measures to take:
- Seeds are soaked for 10-12 minutes in a solution of potassium permanganate for disinfection, after which they can be planted.
- The soil for planting must be disinfected by any means.
- Periodically, seedlings are sprayed with Bord liquid.
- Already infected plants are disposed of.
Soft Bacterial Rot
Called: Pectobacterium carotovora, P. atrosepticum, Dickeya chrysanthemi.
Also affects the blood vessels and completely the whole bush. The power supply stops, the plant fades and dies.
Symptoms include hollow stem and leaf discoloration. The main reason is high humidity.
- Before planting, disinfect seeds and soil.
- Provide regular airing and do not allow water stagnation during watering.
- Remove all affected bushes.
The main distributors of viruses are insects - aphids, thrips, nematodes. Diseases of this nature are less common, but they carry a greater threat.
A distinctive feature of such diseases is the defeat of plant cells by the virus. As a result, it leads to pathologies in the development, growth and deformations of different parts of the bushes.
Diseases of sweet pepper seedlings with photos
The causes of the disease of pepper can be different, but they are aggravated by improper care of the seedlings, so the agricultural technology is of great importance. By type, all diseases can be divided into:
Most often, peppers are affected by diseases caused by fungus. Fungal microorganisms are spread everywhere, so they easily fall on the seedlings and cause their defeat. Bacterial diseases are caused by bacteria that enter plants from the soil or through infected seeds. Viruses have the same route of transmission. In addition, they can be transferred from one plant to another by insects, rain and wind.
Noncommunicable diseases are caused by improper care of the seedlings. Among the reasons may be:
- improper temperature conditions
- waterlogging or insufficient watering,
- nutrient poor ground
- unbalanced dressing.
- Pepper and temperature changes affect the pepper, as the air in the room is too dry.
- he may be ill for a long time after the wrong picks.
Возбудитель болезни через корни проникает в стебли растения, где начинает активно развиваться. This is manifested by the appearance of brown stripes and the fading of the lower leaves, which are fading before.
Seedlings can quickly die from this disease. Treatment as such does not exist, diseased plants are destroyed.
The disease is characterized by damage to the vascular system of plants. Access to nutrients is blocked, resulting in wilting and early death of seedlings. This problem can be identified by cutting the stalks of the plants - a white liquid will start to be released from them, which is formed as a result of the vital activity of bacteria.
Diseased seedlings are best removed from the seedling box. The remaining plants are sprayed with a solution of copper sulfate at the rate of 20 g per 10 liters of water.
Black bacterial spotting
May affect seedlings in early stages of development. On the leaves and stems black spots are formed, which increase in size. Soon the whole plant is affected. Sick seedlings must be destroyed immediately.
Most often the problem arises due to poor-quality seeds, seed material is better to purchase from reliable suppliers. Before sowing, seeds are pickled with a solution of potassium permanganate, or Fitolavin-300 is used for this purpose. Carry out also preseeding processing of the soil.
The bacteria cause blanching of the leaves, which then take on a crumpled, corrugated appearance. Over the next few days, the plants dry out and die. There is no cure for this disease. Patient seedlings are destroyed, the remaining plants are transplanted into fresh ground.
A feature of bacterial diseases is that bacteria can persist in the soil for a long time. Therefore, it is important to calcine the soil before planting. Most of these diseases are incurable, which reduces the number of seedlings and adversely affects the yield. Pay attention to prevention.
Cucumber mosaic (leaf curl)
This viral disease can affect both cucumber and pepper. The disease can occur in several forms.
- With a transient variety, seedlings instantly lose their turgor of leaves and dry out, remaining green.
- Brown form occurs at the stage of bud formation. It is manifested by the appearance of brown areas on different parts of the plant with subsequent wilting, the spread is observed from the bottom up.
- The yellow form leads to yellowing of the stems and leaves, followed by deformation. Growth of bushes stops, ovaries are not formed.
- Dwarf form is characterized by stunting. Shortened shoots with small ugly leaves are formed on the plants. Ovaries are almost not formed. Fruits grow small and deformed.
Often the death of pepper seedlings happens for non-infectious reasons. They can be attributed to errors in the care of pepper. The reason that trouble occurs with seedlings can be:
- Waterlogging. A similar situation occurs as a result of frequent heavy irrigation or clogging of drainage holes. The roots of plants rot from excess moisture, and the seedlings themselves die as a result. The situation may be aggravated by a low content temperature.
- Seedlings may wither because of too dry air. Often gardeners make such a mistake as placing boxes with seedlings near the battery. This can be done only at that stage, while the seeds have not yet germinated. If you notice that the leaves are drooping - remove the box with the seedlings away from the heating devices, ventilate the room and lightly spray the peppers.
- Dangerous for young seedlings and drafts. Thermophilous pepper can quickly freeze and heal. At that time, while you open the window for ventilation, it is desirable to cover the seedlings so that it does not get cold air.
Why do the leaves of pepper seedlings turn yellow
Sometimes the pepper leaves turn yellow. There are several reasons for this too:
- Underdevelopment of roots and their confusion. Some make the mistake of growing peppers without picking in too small individual containers. Seedlings quickly become crowded, the roots do not develop properly. Because of this, the plants lack nutrients, the leaves begin to turn yellow and fall off. Seedlings may even die for this reason. Help in this situation can only be transplanted to a large container, during which the roots should be gently straightened.
- Poor watering. Pepper tolerates a lack of moisture, and experienced gardeners know this. Pepper seedlings are watered regularly, completely shedding earthen clod with room temperature separated water. Due to lack of moisture, the leaves quickly turn yellow and dry, and then fall off. Especially dangerous is overdrying at the stage of formation of buds and ovaries.
- Lack of nutrients. Yellowing and falling leaves are often caused by a lack of nitrogen. The trace element is very important for the normal development of young peppers. To fill the nitrogen deficiency use urea, ammonium nitrate, the drug "Azogran" in granules. All means are used according to the instructions. Calcium deficiency causes underdevelopment of the root system, resulting in a growing point of death. Symptoms of this condition appear as yellow-gray spots on the leaves. To prevent the death of pepper feed it with calcium nitrate solution at the rate of 2 grams per 1 liter of water.
Deformation and twisting of the leaves may be due to potassium deficiency. In this case, the plants are fertilized with potassium nitrate or wood ash. Twisting and dropping of leaves is provoked by an attack of a spider mite or aphid. Use soap and garlic solution, or industrial insecticides ("Fitoverm", "Aktara") against pests.
Description and signs of the disease
The disease is often popularly called “dropsy,” although in its essence it is not a disease at all. It manifests itself in the form of cork growths, small swollen tubercles from the underside of the leaf closer to the petiole, and sometimes on the petioles of plants. In the latter case, the disease looks like white mold. It covers the stem with dotted or solid spots, which sometimes causes the stem to curl.
Scalloping looks watery, but when groping, they appear rather dense, similar to warts. The color of the plant itself does not change, it remains natural.
The reason for such deviations are not bacteria, infections or fungi. The problem is the lack of sufficient illumination and a strong waterlogging of the soil.
In such conditions, part of the roots of the plants die off, respectively, the nutrition of the ground part is disturbed. Hillocks appear exactly in those places that were supplied with nutrients of the dead root.
Therefore, the leaves of sweet pepper affected by edema will no longer recover. But if you restore the necessary conditions for the growth of seedlings, new ones will grow absolutely healthy.
How to protect sweet peppers from edema: methods of control and prevention
There are no special means and methods to combat oedoma. It is enough to level the regularity and volume of irrigation, give the seedlings more light, loosen the ground after irrigation if it is too dense - and over time new formations will not arise.
As a preventive measure, it is recommended to use land with good drainage. It should be the fifth or fourth part of the pot.
Should I treat oedemu
Oadema of the leaves of sweet pepper is characterized by the fact that the affected areas of the leaves are not restored, because their nutrition is not restored. We must take for granted that in time they will disappear. Although if the defeat is not critical, they may continue to grow further. There is no need to treat this disease. It is not contagious, does not affect the yield and stops when the necessary living conditions of the seedlings are restored. But if you really want to help the plant, you can remove the affected leaves, and bury the stem to the level of healthy leaves. Of course, if the pepper is still low. With the pimples on the adult seedlings should simply accept.