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Karachai breed horse: description, maintenance and breeding

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Man is very closely connected with nature. Strong and strong-willed character made him dominant over other creatures. 5-6 thousand years ago he domesticated horses. Previously, they were a source of milk, meat and skin. This is evidenced by drawings on the walls of the caves, which were made in the Paleolithic era. Later this animal began to play the role of a tractor.

It took a long time before the man saddled his horse. Most historians claim that they first learned to ride Scythians.

Began to display new breeds that would best meet the needs of the then. Among them were the Karachai mountain race. A horse of this type appeared in the XIV-XV century on the territory of the North Caucasus.

Highlanders have long been engaged in the breeding of these animals. Deep clean rivers, generous pastures and special love contributed to the process.

Muse of writers and researchers

The first to describe this type was the famous German scientist, freight forwarder, zoologist, geographer and traveler Peter-Simon Pallas. In 1793 he made a working visit to the North Caucasus, namely the area where Karachai lived. In the course of research, he described the domestic animals of this nation.

Pallas paid particular attention to his horses. Thus, the scientist praised their amazing endurance, the ability to work for a long time in mountainous terrain. The man also noted that they have a good character and unusual loyalty. All this was said about the Karachai race horses. The horse made a positive impression on the researcher.

Further to the study of this type took the historian of the Caucasian peoples Semen Bronevsky. In his work (the 20s of the XIX century), he noted that these are animals of small stature, but very strong and able to easily overcome long mountain roads.

Pride of the Highlanders

Other researchers and writers also turned their attention to these horses. Traveler Jean Charles de Bess in his essays spoke with approval of this form. He was fascinated by the Karachai breed of horses. He noted that this type is absolutely not inferior to their European relatives and experts could give a tidy sum for them. Also, the man dispelled the myth that this subspecies is short, and indicated that their growth is identical to the parameters of other racers.

Often used stallions in military affairs, as transport. Horses delivered important cargo through long mountain roads. Other horses could not do this.

The owners, who bred this species, received for one head from 60 to 150 rubles (at that time enormous money).

In time rhythm

The situation changed at the end of the XIX century. The number of livestock heads has fallen, including the Karachai horses. Nevertheless, in the 1890s, this type was considered one of the most beautiful, and it was very popular among horse lovers.

A big blow was the Civil War. The number has changed. If in the pre-revolutionary period their number was more than 30,000, then already in 1925 this figure was only 10,000. This was a misfortune for the owners of the Karachai breed. The horse, accustomed to respectful attitude, fell into inept hands. Care in state stables was different from private. However, picky horses could survive in harsh conditions.

Distinguished winners

Representatives of this type of horse participated in a variety of tournaments. For example, 10 horses of this breed participated in the race around the Caucasus range, which was held in the winter of 1936. The length of the road was 300 km. She passed through difficult passes and wetlands. In competition, these horses showed the best results and came to the finish line first and, most importantly, not a bit exhausted.

For many years, the owners also engaged in the withdrawal and improvement of the Karachai horse breed. Photos that have been preserved from those times clearly show how the external characteristics have changed. Height at withers increased by 10-15 cm in 30 years. The reason for such changes was the selection of queens and stallions in the family and the influx of new blood, in particular, thoroughbred English horses. Due to genetic changes, today there are no pure mountaineers left among the horses.

It was then that the breed was divided into three main groups that still exist: riding, massive and characteristic. The first kind - the descendants of the British. They can be seen at competitions. They differ from their brothers in higher height. Massive type is used for work. They are described as mundane and bony. The latter feel great both under the saddle and in the harness.

Diplomatic vicissitudes

At the height of the Great Patriotic War, the Karachays fell into disfavor of the authorities. Repression was used against them. Fell under the hot hand and animals. In 1943, horses were deprived of status. For almost half a century they were called "Kabardian".

But the people who remained in their native lands continued to breed livestock. Karachai horses did not disappear. History acquired new twists and turns. After Stalin’s death, many families returned from exile. They restored their rights and traditions. But it was only in 1989 that this type of horses was returned to their well-deserved status.

After the collapse of the USSR, hard times awaited the hosts again. The number of livestock has critically decreased, but the owners have managed to save the breed.

Beauty and grace

Today, the government is doing a lot for the development of this type of business. All sorts of competitions and contests are held among various types of horses, both foreign and domestic. Take part in them and the horse Karachai breed - Karch. The exhibition in Moscow allows even ordinary lovers to get acquainted with this graceful animal.

Although many skeptics say that beauty, which is famous for the Arab and English racers, is not inherent in the mind, experts disagree. This breed is harmonious. The horse is thin, but has a very solid constitution. Among others, they are distinguished by a squat body and a long body. Head profile with a crook. Smooth loins and short backs are created under the saddle. They have very well developed muscles. They have a wide chest, front legs are normal, but the rear legs are visually bent. This figure helps to move better in the mountains. The hooves are extremely durable.

These and other characteristics distinguish type from others. Exposure is the secret of popularity that attracts Karachai horses. Dzhigit, an exhibition on KCR, usually has the goal to show all the best aspects of this breed.

Traits

The owners can tell a lot about them. The main characteristic is unpretentiousness. They do not need special conditions. This is very important, considering how the economy is developing in the republic and the country as a whole. Another advantage of them is endurance. Horses from time immemorial lived in mountainous areas and their bodies adapted to this land. It is very easy to move astride them along ridges and rocks. If a simple stallion can overcome no more than 20 km of such a road, then this breed takes long distances and is able to run for several days.

The pros were clearly demonstrated by the exhibition of Karachai horses in Dzheguta. There one could not only look at the horses, but also buy one of them. Potential customers learned new information from good owners. Horsemen told that the horse perfectly orientates itself in space, remembers the roads and relives stressful situations more easily.

The ancient proverb of this nation teaches that a man, first of all after sleep, needs to visit his parents, and after that, his stallion. It is worth noting that the Karachai horse breed loves attention. For this she pays devotion.

From the history

Breeding Karachai horses was so popular in Russia that there were 5458 heads at the end of the XIX century. The country was in dire need of live cargo transport. Horses were supplied for military needs, for the Cossack service of the Kuban. For this purpose, a special breeding progeny was reproduced “under the saddle” of the Cossack.

Convoys overcame the most difficult routes, moving over rough terrain and through mountain passes, and took part in strategic campaigns of the Russian army.

It is interesting that during the period of repression (1943) the indigenous people suffered and horse breeding of this region. Breeding of horses was suspended, the livestock was greatly reduced. The indigenous people were forcibly relocated to Central Asia, and the horses of the local breed lost their status, they were included in the Kabardian blood.

Horse breeding continued to develop, but in all specialized publications horses were listed as “Kabardians”. This historical injustice lasted for a long time, but since 1960 the name “Karachai breed” began to appear again in publications. Finally, it was only in 1989 that she was given her legal name by an official decree of the state.

Appearance, characteristics

Unlike other horse breeds, the Karachai racers have undoubted advantages. Alpine karakay able to endure long loads over long distances in extreme conditions.

In the process of selection, their body acquired its own characteristics: the front legs are straightened, like in ordinary horses, and the hind legs are bent. The horses of this breed have a very beautiful exterior. The body is slightly squat, chest is voluminous and strong. The color is mostly black, later it acquired a brownishness peculiar to the “Englishmen”. In general, many shades of the breed - about forty, and everyone has a name.

This species has a special exterior horse. The body is lean, but it has a lot of muscle mass. The head of a Karachai breed of medium size, elongated, with a characteristic crook in profile and sharp small ears. Animals are very beautiful, they have a long mane (often wavy).

For many years, animals had to overcome mountain obstacles, so they formed their own body biomechanics. Due to the special structure of the hind legs, it is easier for the animal to move along the mountain slopes both up and down.

Growth in this species is 164-151 cm. This breed has gained its deserved popularity. In addition to Karachay-Cherkessia, Karachai racers are now bred in two more countries: Germany and the Czech Republic.

Suits inside the breed

It is necessary to give a general description of the Karachai horse breed by suit. These animals are mostly of dark color (dark suit). They have almost no white blotches. Almost all the names of the colors in the local language mean shades of color and speak for themselves: bay (black and tan) or red, black horse (almost all black). As well as gray, buckthorn (similar to the color of a deer) and others.

Karachay racers are able to accelerate to 50 km / h.

In the winter of 1936, a race for 300 kilometers around the mountain range was organized in the Caucasus. The route was very difficult: ascents, descents, passes, thickets. The race lasted 47 days. The performance of horses inspires deep respect! Ten Karachai horses became winners of the competition. The horses went around all and came to the finish, and they had no special signs of fatigue!

Horses are quite unpretentious and at the same time hardy and mobile. They are not worse than their elite English congeners - riding horses, and even surpass them in some ways.

Karachai racers were in the service of the Cossack army of the Kuban, they participated in many military activities and campaigns of the Russian cavalry. Also participated in the Russian-Japanese war, showing their best side.

The record achievement was recorded in 1974: the Karachai steed covered 3000 meters in 3 minutes and 44 seconds.

The ascents

It is important to mention the “record” of riding Elbrus with horses (together with people) in 1996, when the expedition included the best representatives of the breed, their names - Ginger, Daur, Hurzuk. Experts took the horses with them in order to prove the tremendous potential of the Karachai breed. Animals climbed the eastern summit of Mount Elbrus on the steep slopes and the surface of the glacier. Horses bore a considerable burden and people.

The story continued, in 1999, Karachai champions again conquered the western summit of Europe’s highest mountain peak (5642 m). It was all the same Daur, Ginger and the new "member" of the team - Karachay stallion Igilik.

Breeding and maintenance

Cultivation, selection of Karachai horses were in full swing until the October Revolution (1917), after which the livestock was very much reduced. Only in 1930, this omission by the state was corrected - a stud farm was established near the city of Kislovodsk. Valuable breed could not be lost. Over the years, it has been improved with the involvement of thoroughbred English "copies". And the appearance of the Karachai horses has changed somewhat. Originally, they were naturally stunted, not very attractive looking, dry and wiry animals.

Now, the horses are about 30 cm higher at the withers. But the most important thing is that the physical parameters of the species remained intact and the horses are still very hardy. Karachai horses well endure the herd way of breeding, they do not require specialized care. They are unpretentious in food and walking, withstand periods of poor nutrition. The vein body, very strong hooves allow animals to overcome all sorts of obstacles.

It is important to mention how much a Karachai breed horse costs. It is known that at any time these horses were valued dearly. Only a wealthy Cossack could afford to buy a few heads. Nowadays, the cost of an adult individual ranges from 100,000 to 200,000 rubles.

Use of horses

The use of such horses of the Karachai breed is very wide: equestrian sports, military service, as pack animals. In the flat areas of the European part of Russia, Karachai horses were used for hunting and riding.

In addition, the life expectancy of Karachai racers is longer than that of other horse breeds. These qualities are valued throughout the world, and therefore the horses are bred for sale. They are bought as a force in the regions of Central Asia, for riding troops to the border areas. Some countries in Europe are also buyers of Karachai horses.

Karachai breed is divided into several main types. The first one is characteristic. These horses are most typical for the exterior of their breed. They are bred as pack and harvest animals. The characteristic type is somewhat squat (150 cm), hardy, unpretentious.

The second type - riding. This is a species that has undergone mixing with representatives of the horse breed horses. They are taller and thinner, with a lightweight body. They are used for skiing, for tourism purposes, are prepared for horse racing (classic jumping).

The third type is massive. The name speaks for itself: horses of this type are short and sturdy, with a wider sternum and bone. They are used by a person as a baggage pack. Such “sturdy” prefer mountain shepherds. And separate territories breed massive horses for the production of inexpensive meat. Sad but true. After all, these powerful animals are also very prolific, easily adapt to the mountain climate, graze on their own even in winter, in the highlands.

From the notes of researchers

There are many records made by researchers and scholars who admired the beautiful appearance and physical parameters of the Karachai racers.

Peter-Simon Pallas - a researcher, geographer, zoologist in 1793 described the Karachai racehorse breed as "hardy and hot". The traveler found the qualities of these horses "outstanding."

In the 20s of the XIX century, the writer S. M. Bronevsky in his book, in which he made a verbal description of the Caucasus, noted that the mountaineers have a small but strong and strong variety of horses. The author first called these animals "Karachai."

As a “beautiful” this breed was characterized by a researcher from Hungary, Jean Charles de Besse (in 1829). He noted that these horses, like no other, are capable of traveling in mountainous areas and are very suitable for recruiting an army (light cavalry).

The Russian writer P.P. Zubov also characterized the “excellent” Karachai horses.

Horse for the highlander

The horse for the mountaineer was a friend, a transport, a salvation from a multitude of hardships. Long since songs were composed about horses, stories about their strength and exploits were passed from mouth to mouth. Having lost his loyal friend, the Cossack cried ...

A special chic for the young mountaineer has always been jigitovka! A very handsome rider racing a black horse. And when a horse and a man become one, they amaze others with dexterity and power. And now the peoples of the Caucasus have this tradition, they even hold equestrian competitions in horse race. Karachayevsky horse elegant, has a special grace and all good for his rider!

Origin

For the first time Karachai horses appeared in the 15th century on Elbrus region pastures. They were part of the history of the Karachai people, sharing with them both good and bad times. These horses were distinguished by quite high endurance. Полностью понять, какие таланты скрывает этот вид, смогли во время перехода из Кубанской области через Марухский перевал до Сухума. Тогда, почти тысяча особей, груженная тюками, прошла около 150 км по непригодной для этого местности.In some places they even had to be lowered using ropes. Later they became the main forces in the formation of the Kuban and Terek Cossacks.

During the civil war, this species suffered greatly, so the government of Soviet Russia began to grow them. During the Great Patriotic War, all individuals were registered as Kabardians (Kabardians are one of the oldest breeds of high-yielding type. This species has much in common with the Karachai breed: dense build, endurance, similar external data, which is why they are always compared) and the name the species has disappeared from all literature. 1963 was the year when the Karachai breed returned to the books, and in 1990 the species became independent.

Characteristics and description of the breed

This breed is unpretentious, very efficient, has good coordination of movements and resistance to various kinds of diseases. The horses look massive, as they have a large body and short legs.

Height and weight

In terms of growth, Karachai stallions are inferior to Kabardians, but they are more massive. According to this indicator, horses can be of three types:

  • characteristic - have a height of 150 cm at the withers,
  • massive - slightly lower, 148 cm,
  • riding - are the highest, have a growth of 152 cm.
The weight of these horses ranges from 800 to 1000 kg.

Karachai horses are very similar to Kabardians. The head has massive jaws. The ears are long and quite mobile, it adds expressiveness to the breed. The area between the ears may resemble a lyre. The neck is short and has an average density, but at the same time it can be very meaty. This species has a small withers, which smoothly goes into a flat back with a muscular belt and wide croup. Stallions are not long-legged, but they have the correct legs, very rarely - with a slight clubfoot. The hooves are very strong, like all rocks used in the mountains. The stallions do not have white marks on their heads, but they are often found on their feet.

Most often Karachai horses have a dark suit. The most common is bay and black, but horses with gray and red color are often found. At a time when there were clans in the Caucasus, by suit it was possible to determine which family the horse belongs to. Bayhorovskys were bay, Kubanovs were red, and Bayramukovskys were gray in color. In the main suit, there were often drawings in the form of apples or stripes on the back and shoulders.

Individuals of the Karachai breed are obedient, workable, patient and quickly get used to various conditions. They are also flexible, very attached to their master. This type does not cause much trouble.

Distinctive features

Karachai breed horses differ from others most of all with their strength and dryness. They have good stamina, unpretentiousness to food, fecundity. Also distinctive features are agility, agility, softness in motion and tremendous energy. Unlike most rocks, this one will easily overcome a long distance, and even in mountainous terrain.

Breed use

As noted above, these horses are very similar to the Kabardian horses, but the range of their use is much wider. They can be used for riding, for various rural work and even the transport of goods. Often they are used by border guards at the outposts and during the patrol. Some mares and stallions are used to save the breed and create new lines.

Tribal lines

At the moment there are only 8 tribal lines. Of these, the most developed is the Dususa line. The horses of this line are more massive than the rest, bring good offspring and easily work in the mountains. This line most often has a black suit. From it appeared the line Dubochka. The horses acquired the qualities of riding and became a little higher. The horses of the Boreas line are larger and move easily. Line Kobchik mainly used for movement.

The horses of the Orlyk line are very massive and similar to the Dausus line, and the Argamak individuals have very significant growth, large limbs and a bay suit. They are very well suited for competition. Horses of Pledge - the most hardworking and strong. An example for mountain horses are individuals of the Arsenal line. Karachai breed is very often present at exhibitions because of its diversity. A lot of words of praise can be said about Karachai horses. They have a lot of positive qualities, so they are used in many areas.

History of Karachai horse breed

As a single breed, it was probably finally formed about 500 years ago in the territories northwest of Elbrus. This process took place in the pasture-rich river valleys that flow into the Caspian and Black Seas. The very first records of this breed were made in the seventeenth century. And more or less detailed information about the Karachai horse was collected by the German traveler Peter-Simon Pallas, who visited this region in 1793.

The breed got its name from the historical region of Karachay, inhabited by the people of the same name - Karachai. The mountaineers needed hardy and unpretentious horses adapted to mountain conditions, in particular thin air. Karachay breed fully met these tasks. The animals were relatively short, but very hardy and confidently moved along the narrow stony paths of the Caucasian ridge.

During the Caucasian War, the Karachai militia was defeated by the imperial army, and at the end of 1828 Karachai was annexed to Russia. During this period, the number of Karachai horses was small - about 6.5 thousand. Only by the end of the 1860s their number had grown to 13 thousand.

The Karachayan horse breed possessed such noticeable advantages in mountainous terrain that soon these horses were actively used by Russian troops based in the Caucasus. The first large-scale campaign in which the horse showed its exceptional qualities was the transition through the famous Marukh pass, completed by one of the units of the Russian army in the summer of 1877 during the regular war with Turkey.

This campaign involved up to a thousand horses, which were to overcome one of the most difficult mountain passes in the North Caucasus, having traveled more than 150 miles along extremely difficult and wilderness areas. As the participants of the campaign noted, no other horses, except Karachai, simply could not cope with the task. From this time until the collapse of the empire, the Karachai horses became the basis of the population of Cossack military units stationed in the Caucasus.

The First World War, one of the fronts of which took place in Transcaucasia, and the subsequent Civil War in Russia caused enormous damage to the Karachai breed. According to estimates, during these conflicts, the number of livestock decreased by at least three times: from 33.7 thousand in 1907 to 11.9 thousand in 1925. Known in pre-revolutionary times, stud stud farms for one reason or another ceased to exist. A situation arose in which the state could not buy a Karachai horse in sufficient quantity to recruit mountain army units.

Restoration of the breed began in the 1920s. To this end, several new equestrian plants were established, from where horses were subsequently sent to the neighboring collective farms. At the end of the same decade, the State Farm Committee of Karachai horses was established, which became the main enterprise for breeding this breed.

In the 1930s, by the decision of the Soviet authorities, the Karachai horse was chosen as one of the main breeds that were used to equip mountain army units based in the region. During the Second World War, these horses were very much in demand during the Battle of the Caucasus. However, due to the Stalinist repressions directed against the Karachai people for allegedly aiding the German troops, in 1943 the breed was considered a Kabardian political decision. Karachai horses in the video chronicle and printed materials were called Kabardian. That is, even horses were subjected to repression together with people.

Although in subsequent years, the improvement of the breed continued, until the 1960s, even the term "Karachai horse" was not used in the domestic literature. It was only in 1963 that an unofficial ban was lifted from it, although the Karachai horse finally returned the status of a separate breed only towards the end of the 1980s.

After the collapse of the Soviet Union, the already not good situation deteriorated even more. Only the efforts of many enthusiasts managed to preserve the purity of the Karachai breed and itself as such. Today, these horses are most actively bred in Karachay-Cherkessia. But outside the mountain republic, there is also a steady interest in the breed.

Photo and description of the Karachai horse

As can be seen from the photo, Karachai horses are a classic rock, which is manifested not only in performance, but even in the appearance of the horse. Height at withers reaches an average of 1.5 m. Animals have a wide and “deep” body. Since initially Karachai needed not so much a military as a workhorse, it turned out to be more massive and short-legged than other breeds of mountain origin.

The Karachai breed has a “dry” head with a slightly hooked profile and sharp ears. The neck is of medium length, rather muscled. The straight back goes into the middle length of the lower back and then into a short but wide croup.

The front legs are set wide and slightly clubfoot, otherwise without significant flaws. The hind legs have the correct setting and often sabers, like many other rocks. The shape of the hooves is correct, and the horny fabric is of increased strength. The mane and tail are rather long and thick, often wavy. For this reason, galloping horses of the Karachai breed look very impressive in the video.

Mostly dark suits are characteristic of the breed: the black and the caracas dominate more than others, and horses of dark bay and bay suits are slightly less common. But white spots - a rarity.

As for the character, the Karachai horses are known for their obedience, courage and strong devotion to the owner.

Over the past century, the breed has undergone significant changes. Through the efforts of breeders, it has become larger, but retaining its valuable characteristics. At the same time, three intrabreed types appeared.

Historical excursion

Karachai breed was formed about half a millennium ago. Her homeland - the territory to the north-west of Elbrus. The first mention of the breed dates back to the 17th century. And in detail about the breed was written for the first time by the German P. Pallas traveling in the Caucasus in 1793

In the Caucasus, stud farms that breed horses have long existed. Since tsarist times, the Malkinsky stud farm has been working here - this is in Kabardino-Balkaria, and later two more stud farms were built, but already in Karachay-Cherkessia. There was competition among the breeders, which was unofficial in Soviet times.

Breed characteristics

Adapting to the peculiarities of the mountain life, the breed formed a special biomechanics of the body. So, the front and rear legs of Karachai are different - the first straight, like ordinary horses, and the second - bent. Due to the special structure of the legs, the horses briskly move on the rocky mountainous terrain. The breed is beautiful in appearance.

disadvantages

This breed has few minuses, and even then they are not critical for highlands:

  • Lose speed to riding rocks. But after all, the main purpose of the Karachai people is mountain transitions, so minus is natural.
  • Aesthetics. This is also a subjective aspect - Karachai horses do not have any flaws in appearance, there is simply nothing remarkable about them, neither special grace nor obvious nobility of lines.

Natural conditions in Karachay-Cherkessia is a separate topic. In a place where horses live, the climate is so healthy, the air is gorgeous, and the water is clear that when they get into the city, into civilization, these horses start to ache. Their bodies cannot adapt to polluted air - respiratory diseases begin.

Scope of application

Karachai breed is indispensable in mountainous areas, it also finds application in:

  • breeding,
  • equestrian sport
  • equestrian tourism and hunting,
  • ipotherapy
  • cargo transportation
  • military service,
  • circus programs
  • hire

Exterior of Karachai horses

Features exterior Karachai breed:

  • squat and lean body,
  • muscular body,
  • head medium sized, slightly elongated,
  • in profile - a characteristic crook,
  • ears small, pointy,
  • long mane - often wavy,
  • wide and strong chest
  • the color is more often black and brownish, but there are also others - the Karachai breed has about 40 shades, and each has its own name,
  • height at withers - 142 cm
  • severe bony frontal lobe,
  • neck of moderate length and medium muscularity,
  • straight neck smoothly into a straight line of the back,
  • the loin is strong and the wide croup is a little low,
  • legs of medium length, with the correct setting, sometimes there is a slight club foot,
  • mane and tail moderately fluffy.

In the old days, when horse breeders belonged to different clans, several families were identified in the breed, which were determined by color:

  • Kuban - red,
  • Boycharovsky - bay,
  • Bayramukovskys are gray.

The breed is popular not only in the Caucasus, but also in Europe. In particular, she is bred in Czech and German stud farms.

Genealogical lines of stallions

There are eight breeding male lines in the breed, six of which were bred by private horse breeders. Bookmark genealogical lines occurred at the end of the 20s. last century. Among the most notable is the Dusus Line. This is a black stallion, from which such signs and qualities were passed on to descendants:

  • massive body
  • strong constitution
  • fertility,
  • performance

A separate branch appeared on the basis of the Dususa line, started by the Karachai stallion Darom, and after it, Duboche took up the baton, after which the horses became taller and took on horse form. Another famous tribal line was founded by Karachay Borey - its representatives were especially large. Horses along the Kobchik line are dry and playful, they work well under the saddle.

Karachay stallions convey their attributes well along the line, so Orlik's descendants have a powerful physique and endurance. Stallion Argamak passed on his line riding signs - big growth and long legs. One of the most valuable lines of the Karachai breed went from a stallion named the Louvre. This line - a large, efficient and prolific, was completed genealogy of the breed.

Karachai horses are excellent material for breeding work. They are fertile, and their offspring has good survival. The features of the tribal lines are in table 1.

The most common suit - black.

· Good riding abilities

The descendants easily convey the characteristic features of the line when crossed.

· Pronounced riding abilities.

· Good riding qualities

· Developed leg levers.

The most common suit is bay. Have many sports awards.

· Excellent riding forms.

More often found bay suit.

The percentage of breeding lines in the total number of livestock for 1993 is in table 2.

Representatives of different lines - frequent participants and laureates of various exhibitions. Breeding work continues - horse manufacturers seek to get horses for sports and agricultural work.

Karachays go well in the herds. They are long-lived and almost do not get sick. The breed is actively used in military service, in hunting and tourism, in agriculture and sports.

Popular suits

The main color of the Karachai breed is dark. The most common horses are black and bay suits, and the latter has a lot of tricks. Less common are gray, red and tan specimens. White patches of Karachai almost never occurs. The proportion of popular stripes among horses of the Karachai breed is in table 4.

Care and maintenance of the breed

Karachay-Cherkessia is a mountain republic in which there are not many pasture lands. In summertime, horses are grazed on mountain pastures, in winter - they are taken to the foothills. Farming is not developed here and fodder feeding has never been practiced here. The only feed for horses is grass.

Severe conditions hardened local horse breeds. Thanks to the natural selection, Karachai horses are extremely hardy. The modern content of Karachai people is close to the historical ones. Horses in the Caucasus do not indulge. This tactic allows you to save the best characteristics of the breed - unpretentiousness and endurance.

Horse breeders note that the Karachai breed is very responsive to the conditions of detention and the high quality of feed. Each breeder or owner chooses the ration himself - you can keep the animal grazing, or feed it with nutritious food. But it is recommended to give those horses that feed on pastures in addition:

When kept in stables, Karachai recommended a balanced diet:

  • meadow hay - 60%,
  • fresh vegetables - 30%,
  • concentrates - 10%.

To make the animal digest better, it is recommended:

  • mix chopped grains with chopped straw,
  • give vegetables, chopped into large pieces.

Nursing mares in stalls are given boiled beets and potatoes to improve lactation. Жеребцам, используемым для перевозки грузов или для соревнований на выносливость и скорость, дают ежедневно:

  • разнотравное сено – 50%,
  • свеклу, морковь и картофель резанный – 10%,
  • концентраты – 40%.

Чтобы у лошадей формировалась полноценная костно-мышечная ткань, их подкармливают рыбьим жиром, жмыхом и костной мукой. What else to look for when feeding:

  • a horse should get 50 liters of water a day
  • juicy feed supplement vitamin supplements and concentrates,
  • the feed must be of high quality, there must be no mold or insects.

Stable Content

Stable organization rules:

  • In order for the animal to feel comfortable in its stall, it is enough for 4 square meters m
  • Sawdust is scattered on the floor. Replacement litter - daily.
  • Full stable cleaning - once a week.
  • Indoors are excluded drafts, sharp smells, temperature drops and humidity.
  • The stable should be disinfected from time to time to prevent the reproduction of dangerous bacteria.

Karachays need winter and summer pastures, which should be located near the villages, in places protected from the winds. Animals must be examined and vaccinated by a veterinarian twice a year:

  1. After returning from summer pastures.
  2. Before going to spring pastures.

  • from anthrax,
  • from dermatophytosis,
  • against flu
  • against leptospirosis,
  • from rabies,
  • from tetanus.

Breeding until the 20th century

Karachay entered the Russian Empire in 1828. At that time, the number of Karachai breed was numerous. The horses were actively involved by the Cossack troops - it was the Karachays who formed the backbone of combatant horses.

Breeders bred horses specifically "under the Cossack saddle" - they were intended Kuban Cossacks. Such horses had a height of 151 cm - this was their main distinguishing feature. Due to high demand, Karachai horses cost 150 rubles. - The amount is considerable for that time.

Karachais were also used as mining and pack horses. They were used by travelers and the military to transport goods along mountain trails.

Due to a decrease in grazing land, horse breeding gradually died out. Instead, horse-breeding of kosyachny type came - herds were divided into smaller groups.

For Karachai horse breeding was one of the main activities. Local breeders sold horses to different provinces, supplied them with Cossack wax. Every year, Karachai breeders sold nearly 10,000 horses.

Breeding in the Soviet Union

After the Civil War, horse breeding in Karachai was almost destroyed. In the conflict unleashed by the opposing sides, thousands of horses were killed. From 1917 to 1926 the number of horses in this area decreased three times.

Valuable breed had to be restored. What the local people did. For a long time, Karachais were not used in harness, holili and protected, restoring livestock. In order to raise horse breeding in the republic, several Karachai breeding enterprises have opened here - a stud farm, a breeding farm and a state stable.

With the increase in livestock, horses began to sell in collective farms - here they were used to work in the field and for the transportation of goods. And soon the breed was spread throughout the Soviet Union.

Since 1930, at the Karachayev stud, they began to restore and improve the breed. The initial appearance of the breed had some aesthetic omissions - the horses were low and lean. Thanks to breeding, modern Karachays look much better than their ancestors.

Organization Karachaevskogo GPR

GPR - state breeding nursery, was organized in accordance with the decree of 09/01/1937. The decree provided for the introduction of zoning by breed. Breeds included in the Karachayevsky GPR - in table 5.

GPR worked to improve the characteristics of the breed in two ways:

  1. They improved the breed within themselves - selecting mares and stallions with suitable qualities.
  2. Running into the breed blood of English horses. To do this, both thoroughbred and half-blooded stallions were involved.

By the beginning of the Great Patriotic War, there were almost 20 thousand heads in the konefermah area. As breeding, the growth parameters of horses changed. An example of the correction of measurements of Karachai horses from 1930 to 1963 is in table 6.

Karachayevsky GPR in the 30s. held one of the leading positions in the cattle-breeding complex of the USSR. The livestock in the Karachay region, which is geographically many times smaller than Georgia, exceeded its population in numbers. In Georgia, the Karachai horses were evacuated during the Second World War. The decline began in 1943 - during the repression against the Karachai people.

Deprivation of breed status and breed restoration

During the Great Patriotic War the breed again suffered greatly. In 1943, repressions were launched against the people of Karachai - he was accused of complicity with the fascists. Karachai horses were evicted to Asia - this had a negative effect on the breed. She became confused with Kabarda. But they did not stop breeding. Horses continued to be used in sports, at exhibitions and in breeding. The breed returned its official status only in the 80s. last century.

When the Karachai people were repressed, the Karachai breed was also persecuted. She simply "forgot", equating to Kabardian. Since 1943, it has been recorded in any literature as Kabardian.

After the 90th year, when the “parade of sovereignties” began, the inhabitants of the two republics again could not divide the breed - the stallions and mares of neighboring stud farms successfully mated and gave offspring. There are practically no visual differences between the Kabardian and Karachai breeds. The difference is only on paper - in the "breed".

However, in the late 80s. the decision on the identity of the Karachai and Kabardian breeds was disqualified, and both breeds began a parallel existence. Karachai breed was added to the fifth volume of the state stud book - 130 stallions and 495 mares were brought here.

In order to stop the controversy on the topic - whose breed is “pedigree” - Karachai or Kabarda, some experts advise to return to the Caucasian horses their original name - “Adygea”.

Nowadays

Currently, the Karachai breed is appreciated by professionals and horse riding enthusiasts. These horses are ideal for long hikes, walks for tourism or hunting. This breed is most suitable for serving on the borders in the highlands.

Since 2008, the breed has about 20 thousand horses. Three thousand - the elite of the breed, individuals with confirmed pedigree. It was decided to control the pure blood by means of special markers of genetic recognition.

In 2009, the Statute on the State Library of Karachayan Horses was approved, and all conquered regalia and awards were returned to the breed.

In 2014, the Russian Association of Horse Breeders and Lovers of Karachai breed appeared, which all owners of these wonderful horses can easily apply to. So, thanks to the work of the association, the breed was presented at many exhibitions in Moscow, St. Petersburg, in Europe.

On the fertility of the breed

Karachay mares are not in vain actively used for breeding - they are very prolific. According to statistics, their fertility is about 89%, and the survival rate among the young is 86%. Horses of this breed, differing somewhat late puberty, are considered long-livers. They can be used for breeding up to 25 years or more. 92% of mares regularly produce offspring.

Stallions launch to mares begins in late April and lasts until September. Then only one stallion remains with the queen bees - to maintain order. One adult stallion usually controls a herd of 30 queens; a three-year-old stallion is trusted by 10-15 mares.

Usually, the birth of a foal occurs without the help of a person. Newborns stay with their uterus before entering spring pasture.

One adult stallion can fertilize up to 30 mares per year. For mating suitable mares who have reached the age of three.

Character traits

In appearance, Karachai horses seem almost sinister - a dark suit, angular forms of a bony head, a flowing mane. In fact, they are quite adequate for the native breeds character, which is formed in conditions under which it is necessary to survive without human help. They are looking for food themselves, and make decisions.

At the same time, in the mountains, a horse is glad to cooperate with a man. True, they do not always understand why he chases after cows or rolls around a fenced aviary. But why do you need to go with a rider on mountain trails, the horse understands - to get to the pasture or mountain village.

Such features of character allow many to consider Karachai horses stubborn. And it is true. They cannot even be compared in obedience with well-trained sports breeds that obey a person without question.

Karachai horses are not evil, they are smart and go to contact with the person. Connoisseurs of the breed say that Karachai horses prefer choosing one person to obey him. But he will not immediately become a friend - the aboriginal horses are extremely mistrustful, they still need to prove their right to any demands.

The nuances of sports life

Representatives of the Anglo-Karachai breed many times won in the triathlon, at distances with an obstacle, as well as in competitions in style-Chezu. The breed is used for long-distance races, but for races of 100 km or more, Karachais cannot compete with Arabian racers.

According to the rules of competition, runners must not only overcome the distance, but also recover quickly after running. Each stage of the race ends with a veterinary inspection. Caucasian breeds can not withstand the loads that can be done by riding horses. Karachays have too long recovery, so they can not beat the rivals. Moreover, as a result of overloading, the Karachai horses may appear limp.

Karachays, having a small height and low speed, lose jumping. And because of the peculiarities of their structure, they cannot win a dressage competition. But Karachai horses are ideal for the amateur level. In addition, they are relatively inexpensive.

Important notes from researchers about the breed

Researchers, scientists and just travelers who visited the Caucasus, certainly noted in their notes the features of local horses. Parameters and opportunities of horses in Karachay could not help but admire.

In 1973, the Caucasus was visited by the geographer and zoologist P.S. Pallas, who described the Karachai racers. He especially noted their endurance and vigor, calling their temper "hot." The researcher considered that local horses possess simply "outstanding" abilities.

In the 20s. 19th century, writer S.M. Bronevsky made a description of the North Caucasus, in which he noted unique horses. The writer noted that the Highlanders have an unusually strong and strong breed of horses. It was Bronevsky who first called these horses "Karachai."

In 1829, the Hungarian explorer J.C. de Bess described the highlanders' horses, calling them "beautiful." He noticed that these animals have no equal in traveling in the mountains. Bess also pointed to the exceptional suitability of this breed for cavalry.

Breed for mountaineers

Horses, which are now called Karachai, appeared in the North Caucasus in the 14-15th centuries. In the Caucasus, they say that "the horse is the wings of a man." Here they always treated horses with special trembling and honor. It is not surprising that the breed, grown by the mountaineers themselves, is characterized by unsurpassed strength and grace. Each quality is the result of many years of natural selection. Life in harsh conditions has become the best breeder who has managed to create a unique breed adapted to specific mountain conditions.

Unlike cars, the horse was not just a vehicle. For the mountaineers, the horse is a friend and helper, able to help out in the most difficult situation. Each young mountaineer underwent a peculiar "course" of dzhigitovka. Today, the tradition of organizing dzhigitovka competitions has been preserved, riders on graceful black horses are a magnificent spectacle.

Records and ascents

The maximum speed to which Karachai racers are capable of accelerating is 50 km / h. In the Caucasus in 1936 a winter race was organized. The distance is 300 km. The route passed along the mountain ridge. On the track there were difficult conditions - the horses had to climb, descend, overcome passes and dense thickets. Karachay racers confidently won this race. Beating all the competitors, they were the first to reach the finish line, not showing particular fatigue.

Karachai breed has fertility records. Mare Sad, for 24 years of life, she managed to produce 21 foals.

The speed record among the Karachai breed was established in 1974. Then the steed managed to pass 3 km in 3 minutes 44 seconds.

In 1996, Karachai horses set another “record” by taking part in climbing Elbrus. Hurzuk, Daur and Ginger stallions participated in the climb. Taking the horses with them, the climbers proved that the possibilities of the Karachai breed are inexhaustible. Horses climbed the eastern peak of Elbrus, overcoming steep slopes and a glacier. In this case, the animals were loaded - transported people and goods.

Elbrus is the highest peak in Europe. Its height above sea level is 5642 m.

In 1999, the record of climbing was continued - the horses ascended to the western peak of Elbrus. The composition was almost the same, only Hurzuk did not participate - he was replaced with a stallion Igilik.

Karachai horses are real friends of the highlanders. Thanks to their unique abilities, a person can feel most comfortable and safe in the mountains. This hardy breed is the real property of the whole horse-breeding complex of Russia.

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