188.8.131.52. Lambing and rearing lambs
The most responsible, difficult and laborious work in sheep breeding is lambing. It occurs 147-150 days (on average) after a fruitful insemination. The success of reproduction of the herd depends on the following points: successful insemination of animals, creating conditions for the ewes to maintain their gravity and normal development of the fetus, skillful lambing (lambing), preserving and proper rearing of the young. It is very important that no errors are allowed at any of these four stages of reproduction. For example, there is little benefit if, after successful insemination of animals, conditions are not created for normal fetal development. It is also impossible to consider satisfactory reproduction of the herd if the young and even fully preserved young animals are poorly grown and do not constitute full-fledged animals.
Occult hygiene. Sheep practitioners prefer winter and early spring lambing, since lambs can use summer pastures early and develop well by autumn. This reduces the case, decreases the number of colds and gastrointestinal diseases of young animals. For carrying out winter lambing, ewes are inseminated in August-September, when they are well-fed, which contributes to their high fertility and the production of a large number of twins. Winter lamb lambs make full use of pastures and by the time of autumn they have a good time to develop and get strong enough.
Preparation for lambing begins in advance. 10–15 days before the start, we proceed to the weatherization and equipment of the maternity ward. If there is no maternity ward, equip the sheep house accordingly. It is divided into sections: the middle serves as a maternity ward, the left - for the content Sakmans , right - for syagnyh uterus. To prevent diseases of lambs, especially colds, it is necessary that the sheepfold was not damp and drafts. Straw litter is a good absorber of moisture and insulation. It is recommended to harvest straw for bedding at the rate of 120-150 kg per uterus.
Successful lambing contributes to the provision of the necessary equipment (pans, shields, lanterns, buckets, sinks, group drinkers for lambs, towels, twine, first aid kits with medicines for first aid to animals, etc.).
The air temperature in the maternity ward should not fall below 8 ° C and rise above 16 ° C at a relative humidity of 75-80%.
Help the uterus during lambing. Lambing occurs in the maternity ward, where the floor is abundantly covered with clean, fresh straw. During the period of lambing in the maternity ward, shepherds are on duty around the clock.
With the advent of prenatal signs, the ewe is transferred to a greenhouse or other equipped room. In teplyak create foster and maternity ward. The cell area in the maternity ward is 2-2.5 m 2, the height of the wooden partitions is 50-60 cm.
If the uterus worries, often lies down, looks back, groans slightly - these are signs of an upcoming labor, you should not be disturbed. With the right kind of labor, soon after the attempt a bubble appears, filled with liquid. The bubble bursts and the front legs and the muzzle of the lamb lying on them are shown. This is the normal position of the fetus. If the uterus is healthy and not exhausted, then such births, as a rule, are completed safely and no intervention is required. But if the lambing is delayed, the uterus groans strongly - the shepherd should assist her, and if necessary call a veterinary specialist.
Within three hours after lambing, the uterus should free itself from the afterbirth. It should be remembered that the placenta can not be pulled or cut, he must move himself. It is removed in a special box, and then burned or buried. The place where the birth took place, cleaned and disinfected. In the event that the afterbirth is not separated within 6 hours, resort to the help of veterinary specialists.
Care for uterus and newborn lambs. Newborn lambs need careful care from the moment of birth. A lamb can be born weak, sometimes without signs of life. In this case, you must immediately clear the muzzle of mucus, then open your mouth and strongly blow air into it. If this does not help, apply artificial respiration: lay the lamb on its back, stretch the front legs, and then bend and apply them to the chest.
After lambing, the umbilical cord of the lamb is usually cut off by itself, if necessary, it is cut at a distance of 8-10 cm from the belly and burned with a solution of iodine or 5% creolin solution.
Immediately after the birth of the lamb, you need to take care that it dries quickly and does not catch a cold, and the mother licked it. For drying and heating newborns and creating a local microclimate, infrared lamps are used. It is advisable to use ultraviolet lamps, which have a positive effect on the growth of lambs, hemoglobin content, formed elements and reserve alkalinity of blood, along with infrared heating lamps, and increases the deposition of calcium and phosphorus salts in the body.
In 30-40 minutes after lambing, the uterus is prepared for the first feeding of the lamb. To do this, if necessary, she has her hair cut on the udder, the inner sides of the thighs, around the eyes, the udder and nipples are washed with warm water and wiped with a clean towel. Before the first feeding, it is recommended to milk the first portions of colostrum. If the uterus badly accepts its offspring, they are transferred to an individual cell-heap. If the lamb cannot independently find the nipple, the shepherd provides him with appropriate assistance. During the first 2-3 days, the lambs are fed every 2-3 hours.
After lambing, the uterus is very thirsty. They should be watered with warm water of 1-1.5 liters in 1-2 hours after lambing, then 1.5-2 hours later they are watered again. The main feed at this time is hay. Juicy feed and concentrates give a little. Feeding large amounts of concentrate and silage can lead to illness. On the full diet with the inclusion of hay, succulent fodder and concentrates, the uterus should be transferred 3-5 days after lambing.
Hygiene content of lambs with ewes. After giving birth, the uterus with the lambs is transferred into small (for 3-5 heads) group cells — otsarki.
For every 100 ewes 9-10 such cells are isolated. In such a cage, an ewe and its lambs (one or two) are kept for 1-3 days. Troubled, do not let the lambs of the uterus to him are placed in separate cells.
Proper formation of groups of queens with lambs (Sakmans) is the most important work during lambing. In small sacmans, each lamb quickly finds its mother, and consequently, it sucks more often. When forming Sakmans, the age and development of lambs are taken into account.
For newborn lambs, the air temperature should be 10-14 ° C, and for older ones - 5-8 ° C with a relative humidity of air in either case not higher than 75%. To protect the lambs from colds, they are kept on a rich, dry, benign straw bedding. On a good bedding lambs, even weeks of age, do not catch cold even at sub-zero temperatures. Keeping on a damp, dirty bedding for one night can lead to the development of colds in lambs even at 10-12 ° C.
The first 3-4 weeks after birth, the mother's milk is the natural and most valuable food in the diet of lambs. Newborn lambs are allowed to the ewes every 2-3 hours. Strong, healthy lambs usually when they are in the "heap" suck the mother. If the lamb is left hungry for any reason, the shepherd on duty should help him find his mother's nipples and feed him periodically.
The development of a multi-chamber stomach in lambs mainly ends by 3 months of age. Only at 2–3 months of age, lambs are able to digest and assimilate the nutrients of vegetable feed, just like adult animals. Therefore, training from the first weeks of life to various feeds is a necessary measure for the good development of the digestive organs and the general physiological state of the lambs. As a top-dressing use benign feeds: grass meal, hay, branch feed, carrots, cake meal, bran. In the diet must enter the salt, chalk and bone meal. The inclusion of antibiotics in the diet of lambs gives a good economic effect.
In good weather in winter, lambs that are well-developed and well developed are released for walks to the bases, richly covered with litter, constantly increasing the time they spend with ewe in the air on a sunny day every day for 15-20 minutes and then for 1 hour or more.
In bad weather, lambs are not recommended for release.
In sheep farming, there are mainly two ways of growing lambs - Sackman and Koshar-base. Sakman The method of growing lambs is as follows. In the spring, it is much easier to grow lambs than in winter. From 2 weeks of age, lambs with ewes have been kept on the pasture for the whole day (Fig. 184.108.40.206.1).
Fig. 220.127.116.11.1. Ewe with lambs on pasture
During the shepherd they ensure that the lambs and ewes do not run from one sakman to another and do not lose each other. Sakman from Sakman graze at a distance of at least 500 m.
The packer should not allow the lambs to lie on the damp ground, as they easily catch cold and may die. Every 2 hours, the sakman should be knocked down in a heap so that the lambs can quickly find their mothers and suck them. Feeding lambs with this method of cultivation is organized in places of rest.
To save the entire offspring, you need to keep the lambs in small sacmans for the first 5-10 days of life, in which case they quickly find their mothers and regularly suck them, whereas in large sacmans the lamb sometimes cannot find the mother and remains hungry. This is the cause of diseases, and often death of young animals.
In Sakmans, it is desirable to include lambs that are fairly uniform in age and development. The approximate scheme of formation of Sakmans in table 18.104.22.168.1.
22.214.171.124.1. Sakman size
Queen-eyed queens Many shepherds keep together to use abundant dairy queens with odinets for feeding lambs from multiple litters. During the formation of queens with twins in separate Sakmans, the norms of feeding animals should be higher.
When enlarging Sakmans, one should pay attention to the development and condition of the lambs. If the lamb is weak, lagging behind in development, it is kept for a few days in a small sacman. Moreover, if weak lambs find themselves in large sacmans, they are separated and form a small group of them, further improving the feeding of both the lambs and their mothers.
In the first month of leaching, the need for nutrients in lambs is satisfied mainly at the expense of mother’s milk. Therefore, to ensure high milkiness of the queens is very important when growing lambs during the suckling period. For each kilogram of growth of lambs an average of about 5 kg of breast milk is consumed. For daily gains of 250-300 g in age up to 2-2.5 months. The milkiness of the queens should be 1.2-1.5 liters per day.
During lactation, the amount of breast milk gradually decreases, and the need for lambs in nutrients is constantly increasing. Therefore, from 2-3 weeks of age they are taught to eat concentrates, hay and succulent fodder. The best concentrated feed for lambs - oatmeal, as well as a mixture of oatmeal and cake, from succulent fodder - chopped root crops and benign silage. Well leafy hay lambs give plenty. It is advisable to accustom the lambs to eating branch feed.
During the suckling period it is recommended to use kosher base method of growing lambs. In this case, at 8-9 am, the queens are driven out to the bases, and the lambs are left in the skullcap. At 12 o'clock, the queens are returned to the lambs, where they stay until 14 o'clock. From 14 to 17 o'clock, the queens are again kept in the base. At night, they are in a kosara with lambs. Hay, silage, and concentrates are fed to the uterus base.
In the southern regions of the country, where lambing is carried out during the pasture period, uterus are driven out to pasture, every 2-3 hours they are driven into a cat-piece and are allowed into the oatbox, where their lambs are kept. In warm weather, the squabs for the lambs are arranged at the base, in a windless, well-warmed area.
The advantage of the kosher-base method is that, while in the base or in the pasture, the uterus calmly eat, the lambs do not bother them, which has a positive effect on lactation. And at the same time, the lambs left in the scarecrow, quickly accustomed to eating food, not influenced by the weather, less catch cold and get sick.
Lambs are fed in so-called canteens enclosed by special shields with manholes at the bottom for passage of lambs 20-25 cm wide and 35-45 cm high. As a top dressing, lambs are given a mixture of concentrates, good hay, roots, and chalk, bone meal, defluorinated phosphate, salt. Lambs should have constant access to drinking water.
With the onset of warm, windless weather, lambs are taught to keep the base. In the first days, it is recommended to keep them in the base for 1-1.5 hours, then their time in the open air gradually increases. When keeping Sakmans on pasture, shepherds and Sackmans should ensure that the lambs do not run from one Sakman to another, do not eat the ground, do not lie down on the damp ground. Every 2 hours Sakman is bored, the lambs are fed.
The technology of growing young stock in the suckling period varies significantly depending on the direction of sheep productivity and zonal characteristics. In the majority of farms of the Nonchernozem zone in the winter period, the cellular (small group) method of keeping sheep is widespread. In this method, 8-10 queens and lambs are kept in cages throughout the entire stall period. This method of keeping sheep, especially young stock, often leads to the occurrence of diseases, especially colds, which is associated with high humidity and gas pollution of the air, physical inactivity and lack of exercise and walks.
Growing lambs from multiple litters. Lambs from multiple litters with insufficient milkiness of mothers, as well as orphaned lambs, are brought to uterus having one lamb, but capable of feeding two. Many shepherds do it like this. During lambing from the abundantly mammary uterus, which has brought one lamb, they take mucus and smear it on the lamb. Then they give it to the womb-nursing mother to lick, so that by the smell of mucus she cannot distinguish the lamb from her seat. There are other ways of replanting lambs to foreign mothers.
Lambs from multiple litters and orphans can be grown artificially. Of these lambs form separate groups that contain in isolated sacmans, where the air temperature should be in the range of 10-15 ° C.
Lambs are grown on whole milk replacer (milk replacer). Before watering, the milk replacer powder is diluted with warm water (40-50 ° C) in a weight ratio of 1: 4 or 1: 5. Dilution is carried out with active stirring (homogenization) of the milk replacer powder. The resulting solution is filtered (to remove the lumps) and in the first days they are sucked from the bottle through rubber nipples, which are boiled twice a day in soda solution. Practicing and drinking lambs from drinking bowls
With artificial cultivation it is best to provide the lambs with free access to the milk replacer during the day (ad lib). It is evaporated cooled to room temperature. This method of feeding milk replacer allows you to increase the level of feeding, prevent overfeeding and dramatically reduce the incidence of tympania, which is usually observed in lambs for 2-2.5 decades, starting from 3 weeks of age, as well as increasing the safety of the young.
From 2 weeks of age, in parallel with giving milk replacer, lambs need to be fed with hay, grass meal, silage, concentrates, and provided with drinking water and mineral supplements. Milk substitute is drunk to lambs up to 45-60 days of age.
Trimming tails and castration of rams. In fine-wool and half-fine sheep breeding, all lambs at the age of 5-7 days cut tails between 3 and 4 tail vertebrae so that the fur is not contaminated with feces and urine. At the age of 2-3 weeks sheep, unsuitable for tribal purposes, it is desirable to castrate. Tail trimming and castration is carried out in compliance with aseptic and antiseptic measures.
When selling young stock for meat at 6-8 months of age, the rams may not be castrated. This approach is explained by the fact that the rams develop faster and give the carcass 7-10% heavier than the valushki, but the meat of the valushkas is of higher quality and more expensive than the meat of rams. The question of the feasibility of castration of lambs in each household is decided individually.
Weaning lambs from mothers. Lambs are weaned at the age of 3-4 months. This work, as a rule, is carried out in two steps: first, well-developed, large lambs are taken away, and then, after 15-20 days, the rest. At weaning, all the lambs are weighed and form the flocks of bright, ram, waluh. Weak lambs are collected in separate flocks and provide them with enhanced feeding.
Ягнят можно отнимать от матерей в любом желаемом возрасте при обеспечении их достаточным количеством молозива - в первые сутки после рождения и заменителем молока - в молочный период. Во многих странах мира практикуют ранний отъем в различные сроки - через 24-48 ч после ягнения и в 30-дневном возрасте.
Однако нужно учитывать, что рубец у ягнят начинает функционировать в возрасте около 3 недель, лишь в 8-недельном возрасте преджелудки ягнят, пользующихся пастбищем, достигают пропорции взрослых животных. Отношение массы сетки и рубца к массе тела максимально в возрасте 8-9 недель. Therefore, at weaning at the age of 3 weeks, the organization of feeding and housing of lambs is very difficult, and after this period it is greatly simplified.
Saving lambs to weaning is one of the most difficult tasks. The milk production period of lambs is considered critical in terms of survival. The deaths of young stock generally occur in the first days of life. Some researchers believe malnutrition during the fetal period is the main cause of death of newborn lambs.
The level of feeding of sheep should provide an increase in live weight of the queen by the end of sugaryness by about 7 kg. Early sheep (first lambing at the age of 14-15 months) with insufficient feeding bring weak lambs, easily exposed to lung diseases, from which 80% of offspring die.
With insufficient feeding of the uterus in the liver and muscles of the lambs, glycogen does not build up at all, and therefore it is difficult for newborn lambs to maintain normal body temperature after birth, which often causes their death.
Greater incidence compared with odintsy noted in twins, triples. These lambs, having a smaller live weight, cannot for a long time compensate for the loss of thermal energy spent on warming the body.
In farms with a small livestock, the rams and valushki after weaning are combined with rams, and the yarochek within 10-20 days is kept as a separate group. After lactation stops in the queens, and is brightly shed from their mothers, they are returned to the mother flock again.
The joint keeping of lambs and adult queen is undesirable, since in this case the proper organization of feeding and keeping of young stock is difficult. But on small farms this is a necessary measure, since the separation of animals leads to the creation of small groups of animals and a sharp increase in labor costs.
So that after quenching the lambs produce less milk and do not worry, they should be fed on dry, low-grade pastures, sufficiently distant from the location of the young, for 5-7 days after the beating, once a day with water.
After beating, lambs graze on fresh pastures with good grass, so that they become less infected with helminthic diseases. In addition, the young animals are fed with concentrates. Water the lambs at least 2-3 times a day. For less concern, lambs during the pasture in a flock of young for the first 10-15 days are allowed a few queens (preferably barley), which serve as leaders. When the lambs begin to graze on their own, the queens are returned to their flocks.
126.96.36.199. Lambing and rearing lamb
13.5. Lambing sheep and growing young
To prevent colds, it is necessary that there is no dampness and drafts in the sheep house. In rooms in which uterus lamination takes place, the air temperature should be within 15-18 ° С, relative humidity should not exceed 70%.
Prior to the beginning of lambing in the maternity ward, individual cells are set (3-5 per 100 queens), cells for younger Sakmans. The size of an individual cage for sheep is from 1.0-1.5 m2, depending on the breed.
In the sheep-houses used for winter lambing, the following norms of area per m2 per head are accepted: womb going to wintering - 1.8-2, womb with lambs in the maternity ward - 2-3, lambs in groups (sacmans) - 1- eleven.
During the entire period of lambing, members of the shepherd brigade are on duty around the clock in the maternity ward. If the uterus is anxious, often lies down, looks back, groans slightly - these are signs of an upcoming labor. With the right kind of labor, soon after the attempt a bubble appears, filled with liquid. It bursts, and the front legs and the muzzle of the lamb lying on them are shown. This is the normal position of the fetus. Within 3 hours after lambing, the uterus should be free of the afterbirth. It should be remembered that the placenta can not be pulled or cut, he must move himself. It is cleaned in a desyaschik, and then burned or slaughtered. The place where the birth took place, cleaned and disinfected. In the event that the afterbirth is not separated within 5-6 hours, resort to the help of veterinary specialists.
After lambing, the umbilical cord of a lamb usually breaks off on its own, if necessary, it is cut at a distance of 8-10 cm from the belly and burned with a solution of iodine and 5% creolin solution. After birth, it is important that the lamb quickly dried and its mother licked. Licking a newborn lamb with a mother is very important, because firstly, it is a good massage that helps to establish blood circulation, warms and dries the lamb, and secondly, having licked her lamb, the mother recognizes him well by smell.
For heating newborns use heat-radiating lamp brand ZS-Z, which hang at a height of 100-110 cm from the floor. They create a favorable microclimate in diameter up to 1.5 m.
20-30 minutes after lambing, the uterus is prepared for the first feeding of the lamb. To do this, if necessary, she has her hair cut on the udder, the inner sides of the thighs, around the eyes, the udder and nipples are washed with warm water and wiped with a clean towel. During the first 2-3 days, the lambs are fed every 2-3 hours.
After lambing, the uterus is very thirsty. They should be watered with warm water of 1-1.5 liters in 1-2 hours after lambing, then 1.5-2 hours later they are watered again. The main feed at this time is hay.
The first feeding is very important for the life of the lamb, since colostrum helps cleanse the intestines of the original feces. After feeding, the uterus, together with the lamb, is transferred to an individual cell - a handful. Uterus, well receiving lambs, in the cells contain no more than a day, and then transferred to
small sacman. If the uterus badly accepts its offspring, it is put in a cage (heap) for a few days together with the lamb.
Growing lambs before trimming. In the first weeks of life, the only source of nutrition for lambs is colostrum and mother's milk. For each kilogram of growth of lambs an average of about 5 kg of breast milk is consumed. Therefore, the enlarged queens should be given good hay and mineral supplements. For an average daily gain of 250-300 g under the age of 2
- months milk yield of the uterus should be 1.2-1.5 liters per day. During lactation, the amount of mother's milk gradually decreases, and the need for lambs in nutrients increases. Therefore, lambs are taught to eat concentrates, hay and succulent fodder. The best concentrated food - oatmeal, as well as a mixture of oatmeal and oilcake, from succulent fodder - chopped root crops and benign silage. Herbal flour from legumes is also a valuable food. In the second month of life, the total nutritional value of feeds fed to lambs in addition to breast milk is approximately 0.2-0.25, in the third - 0.35-0.40, and in the fourth - 0.6-0.65 feed units, and Protein nutritional value - 25-30 g, 50-60 g and 65-70 g, respectively.
The most common method of growing lambs during the suckling period is the kosher-base method, in which queens are expelled into bases, while lambs are left in the stack (Fig.
Until 12 o'clock uterus contained in the database.
At 12 o'clock, the queens are returned to the feeding place where they stay until 14 o'clock. From 14 to 17 o'clock uterus again released in the databases. At night, they are in a kosara with lambs. The advantage of this method is that, being in the base
Sakmans of lambs with a Koshar base method of growing them
or on pasture, the uterus calmly eat, lambs do not bother them, which has a positive effect on lactation. Lambs left in a kosher are accustomed to eating feed faster, are not affected by bad weather, and are ill less.
Lambs are fed in specially enclosed shields with manholes at the bottom for passage of lambs 25-25 cm wide and 35-45 cm high. Lambs are given a mixture of concentrates, good hay, root crops, salt, as a top dressing. With the onset of warm, windless weather, lambs are taught to keep the base. In the first days, it is recommended to keep them in the base 1-1.5 hours, then the time spent in the open air is gradually increased.
Every 2 hours Sakman is bored, the lambs are fed.
In the farms of the non-chernozem zone, for example, during the winter period, the cellular (small group) system of keeping sheep is widespread: 8-10 ducks and lambs are kept in cages during the entire stabling period. The microclimate deteriorates from the constant stay of animals in the sheepfold, and the air humidity increases, which leads to the occurrence of colds.
Feeding the lamb from the bottle with the nipple
With such a system for growing lambs, there is a low labor productivity - one worker serves on average 50-75 queens with offspring.
For the cultivation of lambs from multiple litters and orphan lambs, they are placed in the queens that have one, but are able to feed two. During lambing from an abundantly-milky uterus, which brought one lamb, they take mucus and smear it on the lamb. Then they give it to the womb-nursing mother to lick, so that by the smell of mucus she cannot distinguish the lamb from her seat. Along with this, lambs-orphans, as well as lambs from low-producing queens, are fed from bottles with a nipple.
For the cultivation of lambs use whole milk replacer (milk replacer). The composition of the milk replacer includes the following ingredients: skimmed milk powder (70-80%), beef tallow, vegetable or culinary fat (25-30%), phosphatide concentrate (5% gt), as well as vitamins A, B, E, antibiotics and trace elements. The powder of the substitute is dissolved in boiled water at a temperature of 40-45 ° С (in the ratio 1:44, 1:50).
The resulting solution is filtered. Cow's milk is drunk whole, the temperature during feeding should be about 30 ° C. The daily rate of feeding a sheep milk substitute (ZOM) or cow milk up to 7 days is 0.9-1.2 liters per head, from 8 to 20 days - 1.3-1.6 liters and over 20 days - 1.7- 1.9 l. For the first 7 days the lambs are fed every 2
- hours, and then at least 3 times a day. By 45-60 days, milk and milk replacer can be stopped, because lambs are already able to eat well vegetable and concentrated feed.
Weaning (beating) lambs from the queens. The structure of the wall of the scar, and its motility stabilize to 1.5-2 months of age. Therefore, at 2 months of age, it is possible to carry out the removal of lambs. Usually, early weaning is practiced if the uterus is used to produce commercial young stock, but since most of our regions do not milk sheep, weeping of lambs is usually carried out at 3–4 months of age. With extended periods of lambing, weaning of lambs from queens is carried out in two stages: first, well-developed lambs are beaten off, and the rest after 25-20 days.
Otar is passed through a split and in one otsarok beat all the rams (valushki), and in the other - Yarochek. Then they are kept separately. The size of the flocks: Yarochki - 500-800, valushki - 7001000 heads.
After beating, lambs are boned, sheep and sheep are unsuitable for reproduction, and also Valushki are put on fattening and are given for meat at the age of 7-8 months.
So that after quenching the lambs produce less milk and are not worried, they should be grazed on low-yielding pastures for 5-7 days after the beating and should be watered with water once a day.
After beating, lambs are grazed on fresh pastures with good grass, fed with concentrates, they are watered at least 2-3 times a day.
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