For the amazing similarity of leaves abutilon with maple, the plant has received the name "home maple". But this is not the only name of the Brazilian handsome. Stems of some species are used to produce durable fiber, which is used to make ropes and ropes. Therefore, in the people of a unique plant is often called the "rope".
Features of culture
Abutilon is a gardener's dream plant. It combines ease of care, fast growth and beautiful long bloom. In their homeland, in Brazil, in Hawaii, in China or in India, an abutilon can reach 2–3 m. In a European climate, a hotpot is grown as a pot crop, since harsh winters are destructive for it. This high he does not reach.
Home maple is represented by a variety of species and varieties that differ in the shape of the leaves and the color of the inflorescences. Abutilones may have double flowers or simple ones. And their color can vary from white to cream, from yellow to deep orange, from pink to purple, from lavender to purple.
Abutilon: care and needs
Even a beginner grower can grow a home maple. A native of Brazil has a flexible temper and does not require special conditions. At the same time he is able to bloom all year round, if you know about some things. What nuances should be taken into account and how to care for abutilon in order to enjoy the beautiful flowering all year round?
Abutilium is a great lover of light. It needs lighting all year round. Only in such conditions can it develop. If the Brazilian feels the lack of light, then he often does not bloom. Use the following guidelines to provide adequate illumination for the abutilon.
- The choice of location. Place the plant near light sources. It can even be placed on the south windows. Abutilon is able to withstand direct sunlight, but only in small quantities. Therefore, in the summer, in extreme heat, indoor maple is desirable pritenyat.
- Winter lighting. In winter, handsome abutilon in European conditions do not have enough daylight. If you want to achieve constant flowering, provide him the backlight.
- Fresh air . In the summer of home maple can be taken out on the terrace or on the balcony. Abutilon will gladly take in the fresh warm air. But it should not be exposed to direct sunlight.
Abutilica develops better in cool conditions. Therefore, the plant is most often grown on a glazed balcony or in a winter garden. Some botanists claim that the abutilon is able to withstand a short-term drop in temperature to 0 ° C. But it is better not to create such shock conditions. Room maple suit such conditions:
- in the summer - the abutilon will easily withstand the temperature of +20 ° C ... + 25 ° C,
- in winter - a significant decrease to +12 ° С… + 15 ° С is required.
Abutilon is a big water lover. Provide him with sufficient watering, and the handsome cable car will delight with its flowering all year round. But an excess of moisture, as well as a deficiency, can destroy the plant. Abutilon will "liking" such conditions.
- Watering In the summer the plant is watered abundantly, but not poured. The soil should always be slightly wet. In winter, if the plant does not bloom, a slight drying out of the soil is permissible.
- Spraying. Bathing is not considered mandatory. Maple is able to completely dispense with spraying. But a plant that receives regular irrigation grows healthy and stronger. Especially the abutilon needs to be sprayed during the winter period, when the air is dry with heating devices.
Abutilon grows very quickly and spends a lot of energy on its active development. Therefore, he needs feedings. Although able to do without additional power. Florists give two tips.
- Regularity feeding. Fertilizers begin to make in the spring and continue until late autumn. This procedure is repeated every 14-15 days.
- Correct fertilizer. Mineral fertilizers suitable for flowering crops are suitable for Abutilon. For example, “Pokon”, “Agricola”, “Emerald”, “Rainbow”, “Master”. Before flowering, it is recommended to pamper your green pet with organic fertilizer - diluted bird droppings.
Abutilon needs regular transplants. Such a procedure is started in early spring, in the first days of March. Experts advise to transplant room maple before the appearance of new leaves. Proper transplantation consists of the following six steps.
- Preparing the pot. In order for culture to grow and grow, it is necessary to take a larger pot. It is enough that the diameter of the pot was 2-3 cm larger than the previous one.
- Soil preparation. The Brazilian guest needs nutritious soil enriched with humus. To prepare the soil it is necessary to mix the leaf soil, turf, peat, sand and humus. All components are combined in equal proportions. If you do not want to prepare the soil yourself, then stock up for your pet with universal primer.
- Preparing the plant. Carefully remove the abutilon from the old pot. If possible, shake the soil, but do not damage the root system.
- Drainage system. At the bottom of the new pot, put small pieces of foam, pebbles or expanded clay.
- Planting a plant. Plant the plant very carefully and carefully straighten the roots. This will allow the abutilon to settle down much faster and easier in a new pot. Liberally water the plant.
- Aftercare. The question always arises: how to care for abutilone (room maple) after transplantation? Florists claim that there are no features in the care of the transplanted plant. Provide him with lighting, watering and periodic feeding.
Maple grows very quickly and is able to turn into a tree in a year. To provide him with a beautiful appearance and form a crown, flower growers are advised to do pruning. This procedure is carried out twice a year, in spring, before the beginning of the growing season, and in the fall, before “hibernation”. Cut abutilon (room maple) is recommended as follows.
- Autumn pruning. When the plant is preparing for a rest period, around November, it is necessary to prune all the branches, forming a beautiful crown. If you do not do this, your pet will quickly fill most of the room.
- Spring pruning. During the winter, some branches can strongly stretch out of the common crown. To return the Brazilian compactness, it is recommended to prune such shoots.
- Formation of the crown. In the spring, it is necessary not only to cut long shoots, but also to pinch the abutilon correctly. This is the only way to form a beautiful crown. Outline what size plant I would like to receive, and carefully cut off all that was higher. Trim the side branches, forming a tree-trunks. And if you want to enjoy the bush, then the side shoots should not be removed.
The process of breeding abutilon simple. To grow a new plant, flower growers root cuttings or plant seeds. The choice of method depends not only on personal preferences, but also on the characteristics of the Brazilian. Experts say that indoor maple with green foliage, can be propagated in any way. And variegated varieties are able to take root only by grafting.
If you decide to practice the cultivation of seed from seeds at home, then planting material can be purchased at a flower shop. If there is already an indoor maple, then it is better to wait until the flowering has ended and fruits similar to boxes appear. From them carefully remove the seeds. Mature planting material turns black. Seeds should “cure” in a dark place for one month. After that they can be planted. The seed propagation procedure includes the following points.
- Seed preparation. The seeds are wrapped in a tissue and moistened with water. To improve germination, you can add a growth stimulator. Fitosporin.
- Features germination. Soaking lasts at least 12 hours. You can leave the seeds until long roots and green cotyledons appear. The better the seeds germinate, the more effectively they will take root.
- Planting seeds. Planted future trees in a well-moistened soil in the same mixture as for adult culture, to a depth of 5-6 mm.
- Pet care. Capacity covered with glass or film. The soil is regularly ventilated and moistened to prevent drying. Pets must be provided with + 20 ° С and sufficient lighting. To improve the germination of abutilons, it is recommended to water them with the Energen solution. At 14-25 days you can admire the first shoots.
- Dive shoots. When the plants appear on three leaves, they can dive, transplanted into separate pots. During transplantation, pay attention to the root. If it has a small number of side branches, then it is necessary to pinch off half of the main rod in order to ensure proper development.
- Preparing for “adult life”. Young plants again covered with a film. But from time to time it is removed, gradually accustoming abutilony to fresh air.
It is much easier to propagate this Brazilian cuttings. Planting material remains after trimming and crown formation. From such shoots it is necessary to choose strong branches that will later give healthy plants. The procedure for breeding abutilona cuttings is quite simple.
- Preparation of cuttings. To prevent rotting of future plants, all lower leaves of the selected branches are removed. It is recommended to cut the tops with flowers or buds in order not to expose the cuttings to additional exhaustion. It is enough to leave three or four internodes.
- Formation of the roots. Prepared cuttings immersed in a jar of water. After some time, roots will appear on the shoots. To speed up this process, you can pour in the growth accelerator and cover the cuttings with a film, providing them with the greenhouse effect.
- Planting plants. When the root system is formed, the cuttings are planted in the ground. Planting process is exactly the same as transplanting an adult plant.
Pests and possible diseases
Indoor Maple can be safely ranked as a hardy plant. He is able for a long time to put up with some errors in the care and is rarely attacked by pests. But sometimes even he is afflicted with diseases, and is attacked by insect parasites. And in this case, the Brazilian needs timely and proper assistance. The table contains the basic rules for responding to changes in the state of the plant.
Lighting for growing abutilona
Abutilon is light-requiring, and at home he needs bright, but not harming foliage, diffused lighting. If the light is not enough, wait for abundant flowering is not worth it. When growing a plant with motley or almost white foliage, it is more accurate to shade the plant a little to keep a unique pattern on the leaves.
At home, abutilon do well on sills facing east, southeast, west, or southwest. On the south windows you can't do without protection from the midday sun, and the north side will not provide the required amount of light. The quality of lighting directly affects how compact the crown will turn out to be in a plant, because in the shade the shoots are noticeably lengthened, the foliage thins, and the shaping and cutting of the abutilon becomes more complicated.
On summer days, the abutilon responds well to staying on the sun terrace or balcony, and sometimes the plants are successfully transferred to the garden or even transplanted into the open ground.
In this case, choose a quiet area in the penumbra, and also make sure that the abutilon is kept at a temperature within the limits described above. In the fresh air, the pet grows well and blooms, and during cold weather it can be protected with a cap made of covering material.
Features of watering in the care of abutilon
Abutilona at home is eagerly “drunk”, which is especially noticeable on hot summer days, as well as in the warm, dry air of the room where heating works. The delay in watering during the active growing season necessarily leads to wilting of the foliage, and in some cases even to the loss of buds and the death of the peripheral root system. The plant should not dry out. And the best consider the gap between irrigation, when the surface of the soil dries out a little.
However, in the care of abutil it is better to focus on the state of the plant, the size of the pot in which it is located and the temperature of the content. A small amount of soil loses moisture faster than the soil in a large pot. Yes, and in the dry air of the heated room the humidity of the substrate drops much more sharply than when a pet is in the front garden. Much depends on the composition of the soil.
Abutilon at home should be watered only with warm settled or melted water.
If the plant is satisfied with a cool wintering, it should be watered much less often, otherwise the moisture that is not claimed by abutilon will cause rot on the roots.
Selection of soil and transfer of abutilona
The main requirement for the soil for growing abutilona is a good permeability to moisture and air. Therefore, as a substrate, you can use a universal soil for indoor crops, flavored with substances that loosen the soil. This may be sand, perlite or vermiculite.
If components of natural origin are added to the mixture, for example, humus or soddy soil, they are necessarily disinfected in order to exclude the possibility of pests and pathogenic fungi entering the pot.
The soil for growing abutilona should be neutral, friable and light. But even with a quality substrate flower growers sometimes complain about the poor flowering of the crop. This is due to the wrong choice of the pot.
A fast-growing plant with good potential eagerly develops a soil com, but during the development of the root system, the plant almost does not bloom. Therefore, it is better to plant a young specimen in a container with a diameter of not more than 9–10 cm, and then as part of the care for abutilon, it is little more than a pot in the spring.
The necessity of transplantation is indicated by the earthy lump completely hidden under the cobweb of the roots, as well as the extremely rapid absorption of moisture during watering.
When and how to fertilize abutilon?
The rapid development of the green part of the plant and active flowering are the reasons for the need to feed the abutilon at home. In the spring and until the autumn, fertilizing is carried out once every two weeks, alternating between mineral and organic fertilizers. The more precisely the feeding schedule will be observed, the longer and more abutilon blooms.
The concentration of fertilizer for abutilon may be lower than in the instructions of the selected composition, but at the same time it is necessary to feed the flower a little more often. At the time of mass flowering, it is better to fertilize abutilon with products with a high content of phosphorus and potassium, which positively affect the formation of buds. When, after pruning, abutilon must quickly acquire new foliage, it is more correct to use preparations with nitrogen.
Sometimes growers notice that the number of flowers decreases, and the foliage of a good care abutilon becomes discolored, turns yellow and loses its attractiveness. These symptoms indicate a lack of trace elements. To prevent the development of chlorosis, the pet is fed, for example, with "Emerald", which helps to quickly return the decorative effect and brightness to the leaves.
Depending on the variety chosen for cultivation, an abutilon in an apartment can form a crown up to one and a half meters high. If you do not use pruning, the abutilon loses its shape in a couple of years, the bush falls apart, and the flowers are formed only at the ends of the shoots.
To form a compact bush or shtambovy tree, pruning can not do. Shoots pruned and pinch in the fall and spring to half or one-third of the original length.
Abutilone tolerates even a strong pruning, and within a few weeks the green is fully restored. In addition to using this procedure, you can control the volume of the crown, the plant is updated after pruning.
If the abutilon grew in the garden in the summertime, in the fall it is subjected to pruning and its overgrown root system, which allows the bush to be returned to its former pot.
After flowering, the already faded shoots, all damaged or dried branches are cut off. During such care, you should not leave the parts of the crown shading it, making it thick and tangled. In the spring, before the appearance of the buds, the shape of the crown is once again corrected.
If a young plant is to be pruned, the main shoot is pinched at a height of 15–30 cm from the ground level. And the next time in a similar way shortened shoots of the second order. When an abutilon grown at home is to become a miniature tree, in the early years it is useful to use supports for the stability of the trunk, especially during the bud set.
Pruning causes the awakening of dormant buds and the formation of lateral branches on which the buds are formed. The more carefully the crown is formed, the more abundant the flowering will be in the coming season. And after the pruning, the abutilon is fed up. Видео об уходе за абутилоном в домашних условиях поможет наглядно познакомиться с особенностями культуры и обращения с нею.
Возможные проблемы при выращивании абутилона
If the care for abutilon is not given due attention, the florist may face the emergence of such dangerous diseases and pests as root rot, mealybugs, aphids, spider mites and scale insects. For prevention, be sure to support competent watering, humidify the air, and remove fallen flowers and leaves.
The blooming of the buds, the yellowness and wilting of the foliage of the abutilon signals:
- about abrupt temperature drops of abutilon content,
- about the presence of a draft in the room,
- violation of irrigation schedule.
Not the best way on the appearance of the plant and its flowering affects the lack of light and lack of fertilizer, when they are especially needed - during the spring and summer growing season.
Abutilon is a perennial shrub with large, up to 20 cm bright green leaves with carved edges. At home, the bush reaches two meters in height, branchy and leafy, the plant stems are often red-brown in color.
The shrub blooms in May and blooms through October. Depending on the variety of flowers, bells can be golden, orange, pink and red shades. The most common types are:
- Abutilon sellovianum - two meters high, inflorescences are large orange in color with burgundy streaks,
- Abutilon hybridum - its subspecies bloom yellow, pink, purple, burgundy and red flowers with thin veins,
- Abutilon Thompsonii - with pale pink inflorescences interspersed with white.
Lighting and temperature
For a plant, diffused lighting is preferable, direct sunlight can burn the leaves, and a lack of light will affect the development of green mass. The best option would be a place at the south-west or southeast window. During the winter period, a light day is short, so it is desirable to provide the maple with several hours of additional lighting.
The most comfortable temperature for maple is the range from 18 to 25 degrees heat. At the end of spring you can take the plant to the loggia or veranda, but in this case there should be no drafts. In winter, the temperature of the content drops to 15 ° C.
Pot and soil type for home maple
For the first year there will be enough a pot with a liter volume. The indoor abutilon has one feature: as long as its roots do not overlap the entire lump of soil in the pot, it will not bloom. Next, select the pot, focusing on the drainage holes at the bottom, if you can see the roots in them, it's time to transplant. At the bottom of the pot to drain water must be holes.
If possible Prepare the soil yourself, there are two options to choose from:
- coarse sand, peat and leaf earth in equal parts,
- coarse sand, humus, sheet and sod land in proportions 0.5: 1: 1: 2.
If this is not possible, use a universal primer, adding sand to it.
The natural conditions of the shrub are subtropical and tropical climates, but at home, care has some subtleties:
- it is not desirable to allow neither drying out nor over-moistening of the soil in the pot,
- correctly dispense top dressings and timely conduct trimming of the bush.
Home summer maple abutilon in the summer period needs regular abundant moisture, it is necessary to ensure that the soil in the pot is constantly moist. By winter, watering is gradually reduced, bringing to a minimum. There are no special requirements for air humidity in the plant, but spraying will not harm it. Watering in the summer - twice a week, in the winter - once every ten days.
As a fertilizer for shrubs, it is better to purchase a complex for flowering plants in the store, it is desirable to alternate between mineral and organic compounds. The plant needs additional feeding from spring to October with an interval of ten days.
After spring pruning to build foliage better suited compositions with a large amount of nitrogen. During the formation of buds it is better to use phosphorus-potassium compounds, they will favorably affect the flowering splendor. In winter, fertilize once a month if the shrub continues to bloom.
Abutilon is characterized by rapid growth and the formation of new shoots, because it needs a formative pruning. In early spring, while growth is not active, shoots are pruned to a third of their length. Such a cardinal pruning will form a beautiful crown shape and stimulate abundant flowering.
When the plant ottsvetet, remove all withered buds, dry branches, carry out the adjustment of the crown for the winter. In order to form a mini-tree, all side shoots should be cut, leaving at least the length and untouched central stem.
Reproduction of culture
Reproduction home maple possible cuttings and seed method.
Sowing of seeds is carried out in March in a moist soil (peat and sand in the same proportions), to a depth of about 1.5 cm.
The box is covered with film and placed on a warm, well-lit window sill. Recommended temperature for germination is 20 ° C. Within twenty days, the first shoots appear. Due to the rapid growth over the summer, they are transplanted about three times.
The cuttings are cut from the upper shoots up to 12 cm long. The lower leaves are removed, the bottom of the shoot is treated with a root formation stimulator and deepened into the nutrient soil. For the best rooting for cuttings construct a mini-greenhouse, regularly airing it. After a few weeks, the shelter is removed and the top is pinched. Subsequently, a young abutilon receives the same care as an adult plant.
Diseases, pests and possible difficulties in growing
Fight insects insecticide preparations and some measures will help:
- Mite appears in case of great dryness. Having treated the plant acaricide, you need to increase the humidity of the air by spraying, wiping the foliage with a damp cloth.
- You can remove aphids from the leaves using a soap solution, rinse them under running water.
- A mealybug is removed with a cotton pad moistened with alcohol.
Effective preparations against insects: "Decis", "Pyrethrum", "Aktellik".
Powdery mildew is a common plant disease. To notice the symptoms of the disease is not difficult - the leaves are covered with a sticky coating and brown growths. To get rid of maple from the disease, you can use the drug "Aktara" and washing the leaves with soapy water.
Another common problem is root rot. You can help the plant if you immediately notice the symptoms (withering and falling leaves) and transplant. Root-affected roots should be cut and crushed with crushed coal.
As a preventive measure against diseases, you can use a solution of iron chelate according to the instructions.
Problems with cultivation are mainly due to errors in care. Blooming buds, yellowing foliage, wilting and twisting is Signals for the following care gaps:
- temperature drops (draft),
- waterlogging or, conversely, lack of moisture,
- excessive air dryness
- lack of trace elements,
- strong crown thickening.
Description of domestic maple
Abutilon is a perennial plant whose stem forms a branchy shrub with green and large leaves that have an unusual shape with jagged edges. In nature, many species resemble the maple tree in its size and shape of leaves. With proper care at home, room maple grows quickly and can reach up to two meters in height.
The stalks of the bush are red-brown in color and very strong, therefore some types of Abutilon are used for the production of raw materials from which the ropes are subsequently manufactured. In this regard, the plant has another name - "cord".
Abutilon bloom looks amazing. Most often it lasts from April to November, and with sufficient light, the bush can bloom for a year. If the conditions for comfortable existence are not quite suitable for domestic maple, it also buds are blooming, but the flowering period will be very short.
The inflorescences of the plant are quite large, of the most diverse hues: red, yellow, pink, orange, golden, purple. The corollas of flowers consist of five petals, which are connected at the base, their diameter can reach from 5 to 7 cm. In form, they are very similar to fairy-tale bells or bright lanterns.
Popular types of Abutilon
In nature, there are more than 100 species of Abutilon, but only a few of them are used for home gardening, as well as crossed forms bred by breeders. They are not as large as wild maple trees, they have a longer flowering period and these plants do not need special care. PWhen creating favorable conditions, certain species can grow up to 4 meters in height.
The most common varieties of Abutilon:
- Vineyard. This plant can reach a length of more than two meters, its shrub is large and branched. The leaves are large, bright green, about 20 cm long, have three or five blades. Green shoots are covered with velvet fuzz. Inflorescences are arranged in groups, their shade varies from blue to lilac with dark veins on the petals. Vine leaves bloom in late May.
- Striped. Such Abutilon has a motley color of foliage. Its stems are rather short and thin, on them are six-lobed leaves of green color, with white impregnations along the edges. Flowers are located separately from each other, in form they look like bells, have a yellow tint and a long corolla of red color. This unusual plant can be a wonderful decoration for the garden. Blossom it starts in August.
- Sello. This species belongs to the hybrid and is a type of striped Abutilon. With proper care at home, it can grow to a height of two meters. The shoots are branched and straight, slightly covered with fuzz, the leaves are smooth, green in color, consist of three lobes and have a pointed shape. Flowering begins in early summer and continues until the end of autumn.
- Megapotamsky (Brazilian, Amazonian, Chinese lantern). The plant has a rather small size up to 1.5 meters in height. Its distinguishing feature is strongly drooping shoots, leaves of elongated shape, green with notches on the edges. Inflorescences of light yellow color are in the sinuses and are located one by one. When you create suitable conditions of detention and proper care, Abutilon megopotamsky can bloom all year round.
- Hybrid. The plant was obtained by crossing different species. Abutilon Hybrid is a perennial and evergreen shrub up to 1.5 meters high, with leaves that have three to five blades, covered with a light down. Flower stalks about 12 cm long. The color of buds can be very different: white, red, pink, burgundy, yellow, orange. Flowers are bell-shaped, petals are often riddled with dark or light streaks.
- Darwin. Despite the beautiful flowering, this species is not very popular for breeding at home. The plant has long petioles and shoots, its leaves are velvet, three-lobed, dark green. On the bush are quite large flowers about 5 cm in diameter, bright orange color with red veins. Inflorescences are usually located in one sinus for several pieces. The bloom of Abutilon Darwin begins in mid-April.
- Sutense. It belongs to the tallest plants of all species and can reach a height of 4 meters. The flowers have a lilac color, their diameter is from 10 to 12 cm. Such Abutilon is usually grown in greenhouses, winter gardens and city parks.
Abutilon - home care
Care for indoor maple at home is quite simple. The plant is very unpretentious and for good health and abundant flowering it is necessary to comply with only a few conditions for its maintenance and care. Abutilon grows fast and already for a year From a small seedling you can grow a small bush or a tree on which the first buds will bloom.
Choosing a place for plants and lighting
The room maple needs good lighting to form green foliage. However, you can not place the plant in direct sunlight, as they can burn the leaves, therefore, it is preferable to provide Abutilon diffused lighting. In room conditions, you can put a pot with a flower near the window, facing south-east or south-west. In winter it will be necessary to install additional lighting. And also worth consideringthat the most comfortable plant will feel at a temperature of 17 to 25 degrees.
In the spring and summer, indoor maple can be placed on an open balcony or veranda, fresh air will be very useful for its growth and flowering. It is only necessary to take care that the plant is not exposed to cold drafts, as well as to protect it from rain and strong gusts of wind.
Watering and humidity
In the summer of Abutilon should be watered quite abundantly and ensure that the earth always remains a little wet. But it is impossible to allow a very strong soil moistening, this will lead to drying of the leaves and the loss of full-blown buds.
In late autumn, watering should be reduced, but make sure that the soil does not dry out, since the lack of moisture can adversely affect the health of the plant. During this period it is recommended to water it once in 10 days.
Room air humidity It does not really matter for domestic maple, but in winter, with dry air in the room, Abutilon can sometimes be sprayed.
Fertilization and transplantation
Transplant Abutilona, care at home for him in the future does not provide much difficulty even novice florist. A new flower pot should be chosen only slightly larger than the previous one, because until the roots completely entwine the whole soil in it, the plant will not bloom. To understand when to replace Abutilon, you need to pay attention to the condition of the soil when watering. If you notice that moisture is absorbed very quickly, it means that the plant does not have enough space for growth and it is time to transplant it into a large container.
It is best to choose the soil for homemade maple, consisting of the following components that need to be taken in the same proportions:
It is necessary to replant a young plant every year in the spring, and an adult Abutilon once every 3 years. The capacity for this is recommended to pick up by 2–3 cm more than the previous one. It should be remembered that flowering will begin only when the roots completely fill the whole earth in a pot.
To feed a room maple it is necessary mineral fertilizers which should be brought every week in the spring and in the summer. When will buds begin to formfertilizers containing a high percentage of phosphorus and potassium are used.
With the onset of autumn, the shoots of the plant need to be pruned. If this is not done, home Abutilon can grow to a height of two meters. Shorten branches necessary before flowering. First of all, it is necessary to cut the weakest shoots. A small tree can be obtained by periodically removing the processes on the sides, leaving the main stem. In order to form a beautiful and lush crown of a bush, the tops of young shoots need to pinch from time to time.
Seeds of home maple quickly lose their germination, so it is recommended to collect them yourself. After harvesting, seeds are stored in a dark place until spring.. Sowing is best done in mid-March, acting as follows:
- First you need to choose the largest and whole seeds.
- The grains for planting must be wrapped in some kind of fabric and placed in a special solution that stimulates the growth of plants.
- Then you need to prepare the ground for planting. It should contain three components: peat, turf, coarse sand. All ingredients should be taken in equal quantities and placed in the landing box.
- During sowing, place the seeds in the ground to a depth of 5 mm, keeping a distance of about 2 cm between them.
- The seed box must be covered with foil. It is necessary to remove it for a certain time every day in order to air and moisten the ground.
- The temperature of the room where the crop will be located should be 20-22 degrees.
If done correctly, sprouts will appear in 2-3 weeks. When they grow up and leaves form on the surface, it is necessary to transplant the seedlings into small pots. Small maples should be in a bright room without drafts. With good conditions and proper care, they will quickly begin to grow. After a month, you can begin feeding young Abutilonov. Flowering plantsgrown from seed can be expected 5-7 months after sowing.
Reproduction by cuttings
Any type of Abutilon can be propagated by cutting, and for variegated plants this method is the main one. This can be done throughout the year, but the most suitable time is the whole spring period and the end of summer. The process of obtaining new plants using cuttings is as follows:
- It is necessary to choose the largest and healthiest shoots and cut cuttings from them, 10–13 cm long.
- Then you need to remove the inflorescences and lower leaves.
- Prepare the soil for planting, the ideal composition that is required for seed reproduction.
- Carefully place the cuttings in the ground.
- Cover the planting material with a film and place it in a room with an air temperature of 20-25 degrees.
- Периодически надо снимать плёнку для увлажнения и проветривания грунта с черенками.
- Через 30 дней, когда саженцы полностью укореняться, рекомендуется пересадить их в отдельные горшки небольшого диаметра и обеспечить полноценный уход.
Diseases, pests and possible problems in growing domestic maple
Abutilon refers to unpretentious plants, but with the wrong content such difficulties can arise:
- The plant sheds leaves. The reason for this may be sudden changes in temperature or lighting, drafts, improper maintenance of feeding and watering.
- Dry up and twist the tips of the leaves. This trouble may occur due to too dry indoor air. To solve this problem, you need to spray the plant more often.
- Yellow leaves may indicate the presence of pests.
- The plant drops foliage and buds. This may be due to drafts, improper watering, temperature fluctuations.
- Pale color foliage. The most common reason for this is insufficient lighting.
The main pests of indoor maple include:
- Spider mite The reason for its appearance on the plant can serve as a rare watering and dry air. This problem is solved by treating foliage with acaricide, regular spraying of the plant and full watering.
- Aphid. You can remove it using a soap solution, after which it is recommended to wash the leaves well with running water.
- Mealybug. To get rid of it, you need to wipe the leaves with a cotton pad dipped in alcohol.
- Mealy dew. This disease can often affect indoor maple. Signs of its appearance on the leaves of dark growths and sticky plaque. It is possible to treat the plant with the help of a special preparation "Aktara", and it is also recommended to wash the leaves with soap and water.
- Root rot. Symptoms of the disease are expressed in the fact that Abutilon leaves begin to fade and fall off. To help the plant, it should be transplanted, cutting off all the rotten roots before it and treating the remaining crushed coal.
Abutilon - diseases and pests
Characteristic problems in growing are the appearance of spider mites, aphids and scale insects. Abutilon is affected by whitefly and mealybug. Abutilona pests are destroyed by traditional insecticides recommended for all indoor flowering plants. Compliance with the conditions of detention will reduce the risk of such problems to a minimum. Another common problem is why the leaves turn abutilon. Here you are more likely to talk not about the fungus or pest, but too dry or hot air.
Features care for abutilon home
For cultivation of abutilona at home, preference should be given to hybrid varieties. They are distinguished by their compact crown and large flower sizes. In order for bright bells to bloom on home maple from spring to late autumn, you must comply with the conditions of lighting, temperature, watering and make additional feeding in time.
When abutilona content in the winter in the house on the windowsill at temperatures from +18 ° C to +22 ° C, it is necessary to provide it with additional lighting. For this fit several lamps with a capacity of 20 watts.
The root system of indoor maple may be exposed to hypothermia and rot. To protect the roots under the flower pot, you can put a heat-insulating material, for example, a cork stand or a piece of foam.
Watering abutilona should be moderate and should be done after the soil dries to half a pot. Top dressing is done on the sheet and only when there are signs of nutritional deficiency.
At home, a balcony or a loggia can be a place for cold wintering abutilon, but with one important condition: the air temperature should not fall below +8 ° C. Watering should be moderate, closer to scanty. It is carried out after the maximum drying of the soil. Top dressings in winter, until mid-February are not applied. Soil for cold wintering is better to choose breathable, loose and light.
In winter, when heating devices affect the air quality in the room, a screen made of non-woven material or film protecting the space under the window sill from the living room will become a good protection against heat.
Fertilizer for abutilona
The room maple loves dressing and responds gratefully to them. At the same time, almost any compositions are suitable for him. It makes sense to apply fertilizer for abutilon from the beginning of spring until autumn, and it is recommended to dilute them with experienced growers in a slightly lower concentration than is expected in the instructions for the selected composition. Feeding is completed in October.
When it comes time to active flowering, fertilize the bush with means saturated with potassium and fluorine. They contribute to the formation of buds. After pruning the branches and during the period of active growth of the green mass, it is useful to add nitrogen-containing preparations. And when it is discolored, signaling a deficiency of trace elements, the plant is fed with a complex organic fertilizer, for example, Emerald.
In summer, it is possible to shorten the soil fertilizer intervals to 1 time in 2 weeks. Approximately from November to spring, it is enough to feed the substrate once a month or stop feeding at all so that the plant rests.
The first buds bloom on it 3-5 months after sowing the seeds. But sometimes all the allowed terms pass, and the home maple does not bloom. So, he does not have enough strength to tie and dissolve the buds.
The main reasons why abutilon does not bloom are two:
- lack of lighting (the plant needs at least 2 hours of bright sunlight per day),
- an excessively large volume of a flower pot: a bush spends too much effort filling it with a root system.
Sometimes the abutilon drops the buds. The probable causes of such a phenomenon:
- insufficient watering, especially in spring and summer,
- nutritional deficiencies, the need for additional feedings,
- exposure drafts, indoor maple does not tolerate them.
With the wrong care with the leaves of the indoor maple, there may also be problems of different nature and different degrees of complexity. Each of them must be solved individually:
- Abutilon drops leaves, they turn yellow and fall off. In some varieties, this indicates the onset of a dormant period in winter. Also, the reason may lie in damage to the root system, lack of power.
- At abutilona leaves curl. The flower may get direct sunlight, humidity may be too low, and the temperature is too high. To help him, it is worth trying to change the conditions of his content.
- Lower leaves yellow. Causes may be due to a lack of light or supplements. The flower pot should be moved to a more lighted place, a complex fertilizer should be applied, and the bush should also be examined for the presence of pests, for example, a spider mite.
- The leaves are lighter than usual. This is due to insufficient frequency of irrigation, lack of trace elements, lack of sunlight and fresh air. To help the flower, water it more often, but with less water, move the pot to a lighter, more ventilated room and feed it with complex fertilizer.
- Rust stains on the green mass. This is the result of rust fungi. To combat the disease, the affected leaves and shoots are removed. The shrub is sprayed with Topaz, a systemic fungicide that is effective not only against rust, but also powdery mildew, spores and mycelium of pathogenic fungi. It can also be used for prophylaxis: spray the flower at the beginning of the vegetative period.
House maples are resistant to diseases. But it can be attacked by insects and other pests. The bushes are the most vulnerable in the spring, when parasites actively reproduce, and the immunity of green pets is weakened after wintering and cannot fully resist them.
The main pests of abutilona:
- Shchitovki. When they appear abutilon covered with sticky secretions, and then with small brown plaques. To remove pests, you can use a cotton pad and treat the shrub with an insecticide solution, such as aktar or soapy water.
- Spider mites. Signs of their presence in the pot with the plant - the presence of gray or black specks on the inner surface of the leaves, as well as a thin cobweb. To cope with this pest, you can use agrovertine or phytoverma. Processing should be carried out several times, with a week break.
- Aphid. Causes cablers considerable harm and infects them with viral diseases. When aphids appear, you can apply the solution of agrovertine or use folk remedies. For example, once a week it is allowed to treat the bush with infusion of garlic with soap.
How to cut abutilon
At home maple room can grow up to 1.5 meters in height. Without pruning, it loses its shape, the inflorescences are located only at the ends of the shoots. In order to form a compact shrub or shtambovy tree, it is necessary to cut off the shoots in spring and autumn, leaving half or a third of their original length. Abutilon feels comfortable after trimming and pinching, fully restoring the amount of green mass in a few weeks.
To form a compact bush or shtambovy tree, pruning can not do. Shoots pruned and pinch in the fall and spring to half or one-third of the original length.
In order for a well to bush out, it is necessary to regularly cut off dried and damaged branches from the faded bush, thinning the crown. And in the spring adjustment of the shape of the crown must be repeated. Due to pruning, dormant buds awaken and lateral branches appear. After this procedure, the plant must be fed. When forming a trunk to give the plant stability, so that the bush does not lower the branches, it is recommended to put supports.
Flower abutilon - the dream of many lovers of home flora. This pot culture combines ease of care, unpretentiousness and high decoration. Be attentive to the green "pet" and every year, from spring to late autumn, it will delight you with abundant and colorful blooms.