The content of the article:
- Rules for care when growing
- Planting and breeding do it yourself
- Pests and diseases, methods of dealing with them
- Interesting Facts
Catarantus (Catharanthus) is a member of a genus of plants with herbaceous or semi-shrub growth. All of them are included in the family Kutrovyh (Apocynaceae). Among these representatives of the flora can be found as annuals, and plants that have a long-term life cycle and never shed their foliage. Only 8 species are attributed to this genus, and seven of this list reckon Madagascar island as their native habitat, and only one can be found in natural conditions on the lands of India in Sri Lanka. However, scientists precisely agree on the real homeland of the quarantine in difficulty, since not only the above-mentioned territories are included there, but also Indonesia, Cuba, the Philippines, and China, since there these beautiful flowers can be found in the wild.
A little earlier, all the varieties of this genus were attributed to the genus Vinca, today the scientific synonyms of this plant are Ammocallis and Lochnera. In translation, the name of quarantus means "immaculate flower", since in reality the buds of this plant have an ideal contour created by five petals, in the middle of which is placed a flat corolla. There is a different version, since the translation of the name from the Greek means “pure, clear flower”, all this is associated with the bright color of the petals of the bud, which take on very attractive acrylic colors.
Mostly gardeners are well aware of the plant bearing the name Qarantus rose (Catharanthus roseus) or as it is popularly called Periwinkle rose. This representative of the kutrov family most often in conditions of natural growth can be found in Pakistan, as well as in the southern and eastern lands of Madagascar. In these areas, the specimen of flora can grow on forest edges in tropical rain forests. In our strip, this plant is successfully cultivated as an annual plant, and it can be found in this form on the lands of the Transcaucasus.
So, Periwinkle Pink is a shrub with branchy shoots and evergreen crown, it rarely exceeds the height of 30–60 cm in height. If we talk about the root system, it is a long root in the form of a rod that extends to a length of 25–35 see. It has many lateral root processes. On young roots, root hairs are completely absent. The color of the root system is light yellowish, there is a strong peculiar smell.
An interesting color is the bark of the branches, which directly depends on the color of the petals in the buds. In plants with pink flowers, the bark acquires an anthocyanin tone, with snow white - a green or light greenish tint. As the stem goes older, it becomes woody, and the distances between the nodes decrease. Crohn seems very thick and dense.
The leaf plates are located on the branches in the opposite order, they have short petioles, there is a wedge-shaped constriction at the base. The form is mainly lanceolate-oval. The leaf is single-edged, painted in a dark green color, its surface is shiny, bare or possessing pubescence, the feathery pattern of the vein is clearly visible, with a clearly visible central vein, tinted with a whitish tone. The length of the leaf reaches 2.5–8 cm with a width of up to 3.5 cm.
When flowering buds are formed, with a tubular corolla. When opened, the flower in the diameter reaches 3 cm. The color of the petals is often pinkish red, and the shed is shaded by a purple color scheme. The flower has a pubescence, it is callused. The corolla consists of five spliced petals that form a tubule, bending down at the top. These limbs are painted pinkish or white, and they are bent in the same plane.
After flowering, there is a ripening of fruits, which are a pair of sickle-shaped leaflets, not exceeding 5 cm in length with a thickness of up to 3 mm. The peduncle is greatly shortened. Inside the fruit there are numerous seeds, small in size with a black color.
It is this variety that is popular with flower growers, with which they decorate balconies and flower beds, since the pink carantus successfully blooms throughout the entire summer period until the late autumn days (this time extends from May to October until the severe cold comes). Often it is cultivated in cold greenhouse conditions. To date, there are varieties in which the flowers have both pink and white or red petals, while their mouth is shaded in yellow color. But due to a rather long flowering period, the plant is greatly depleted and again it will be quite difficult to bloom to force it, so after flowering such a quarantus is replaced with a young specimen, since this representative of the green world easily reproduces both by sowing seeds and grafting.
Rules for the care of quarantus when grown
- Lighting and location selection. For a comfortable content of pink periwinkle, a place with good lighting is selected, but in order to avoid direct sunlight on the plant. In the rooms it can be window sills of the eastern or western windows. On the street it is also important to ensure that the carantus is not placed in the sun, it will not be superfluous to think about wind protection. Also in the conditions of outdoor cultivation, it is important to find a place so that moisture does not stand there. The soil when planting plants in open ground should be light and nutritious, most often it consists of equal parts of peat, river sand, garden soil and humus. If on the site where the substrate will be planted, the substrate is too sour, then it is recommended to cast it out or to add a little wood ash.
Rules of sowing and planting in open ground. Usually periwinkle cultivated by seedlings. Seeds are sown in February to get seedlings in shallow containers, with a seeding depth of 1–2 cm. Then the box is wrapped with polyethylene and the temperature is maintained at 25 degrees. After 14–20 days, seedlings will appear. After that the box with seedlings is transferred to a cooler place. If the light is not enough, then illumination is carried out with phytolamps, so that the seedlings do not stretch too much. When 3 true leaves appear on the sprout, the plants dive into separate containers. As soon as warmer days come, you can temper the seedlings by “strolling” it on the balcony. As soon as the quarantuses reach 10 cm in height, the nipping is done to form lush bushes. Transplanted into the open ground usually in late spring. When there are no morning frosts, then the average temperature for this operation outside should be at least 20 degrees. Before planting a quarantine in open ground, one should dig up the landing site, and add some claydite or very small gravel to the soil. For planting, dig a hole and put a small layer of expanded clay on its bottom, then put a little soil on it and only after that put a seedling on it, sprinkle it with substrate, pressing it down slightly. When planting in a pot, you should also fill the tank first with a small amount of expanded clay, then put a layer in 1–2 cm of soil and only after that put the quarantus. Plants after planting moderately watered.
Humidity when growing pink vinca, it should be moderate, but if heat indicators are growing, it is recommended to spray the flower bushes even outside. At home, humidity is increased by all available means.
Watering pink periwinkle. Humidification should be regular, but it should not be allowed as overdrying, and the Gulf of the substrate. If the leaf blades began to curl, it means that the plant lacks moisture. In room conditions, as soon as after watering the water in the glass pod under the pot, it is necessary to immediately remove the liquid. If cold and rainy weather is established for a long time when grown in open ground, this will lead to the fact that at the quarantus the stems begin to wilt and the flowers fly around. It is recommended to help the plant survive this period - set up an awning over the bushes.
Fertilizers for the "clear flower" are introduced from the beginning of spring time. Apply universal preparations for declarative flowering plants. It is also recommended to make a solution of ash under the bushes. The frequency of fertilizer once for 14 days. A solution with dressings poured under a bush immediately after watering. If ash is used, it is prepared by stirring 100 grams of water in a 10 l bucket of water. It is also recommended to conduct foliar fertilizers. This uses Epin-Extra. This solution should be sprayed with a periwinkle bush once a month instead of root dressings. As soon as the autumn period comes to stop fertilizing the plant. It is important to remember that exceeding the dose of mineral preparations during the fertilizer process can burn the root system.
Planting and breeding pink vinca do it yourself
To get a new quarantine sow the seeds, carry out the division of the bush or grafting.
- When dividing an overgrown bush, pick up the time in the spring, when the “clean flower” is transplanted from the conditions of the rooms to the open ground. But the division depends on the size of the root system. It can be separated into 2-3 parts and then each of the delenok landed in a separate pot or hole.
When pruning of the branches of the bush is carried out in the spring, horse cuttings are used for reproduction of the pink vinca. These branches should not be less than 7-10 cm in length. Cuttings are placed in a moist substrate where rooting is carried out.
Pests and diseases of the quarantine, methods of dealing with them
Like many delicate garden and indoor plants, periwinkle pink can be affected by insect pests: mealybugs, aphids, whitefly and shields, most often the pest reveals itself due to foliage, a whitish blotch, spotting or a leaf plate begins to curl and dry out. To combat the use of insecticidal treatments.
You can also highlight the following troubles when growing pink vinca:
- At the increased level of illumination sheet plates will become soft and turn yellow. You need a shading, you can hang curtains in the rooms or move the pot to another place, and build an awning on the street or make a transplant to a more suitable place where the lighting will be diffused.
When air humidity is low, the leaves will begin to turn yellow at the tips. It is necessary either to spray the plant, or to put the vessels next to it with water.
If the leaves at the bottom turned yellow and began to fall, this is a natural process.
When the number of buds formed is very small, this is the reason for the cold maintenance of the flower. You can solve the problem only in room conditions (put a quarantus warmer place), you have to wait for warming outside.
Interesting facts about the flower Quarantus
But there is another side to these toxic properties, they are currently used in the manufacture of drugs for the treatment of leukemia.
It is alkaloids (and there are more than 80 of them) that are derivatives of indole and possess antitumor activity. Therefore, the ground part of the quarantus is harvested. The time of harvesting falls on the period when this representative of the flora begins to bear fruit. Pink periwinkle leaf plates are used as a raw material for the preparation of an anticancer drug, called Rosevin, which is prescribed for lymphogranulomatosis and hematosarcomas. Leaves are harvested in the phase of abundant flowering of the plant and in the process of its fruiting on the 2nd order shoots.
Types of Quarantus
As a result of the work on hybridization between the species of quarantus and the works of breeders, numerous highly decorative varieties of this representative of the kutrov family were created. Among them the most popular are the following varietal plants:
- Albus, forming buds delight the look with a snow-white shade of petals,
Ocellatus also has flowers with petals painted in a white color, but inside the throat has a red tone, as if a peephole is visible,
Cooler, in this series, the petals of flowers can take on a wide variety of shades from pinkish to bright red,
See more about the quarantine below:
Catharanthus is an evergreen resident of Madagascar and India. Herb plant belongs to the family Kutrovye, the genus includes 8 species. Previously, the karanthantus was attributed to the genus Periwinkle, even called Pink Periwinkle or Periwinkle Madagascar. Now it is known that these are two different plants, not related to each other.
Important! The plant is poisonous! It should not be planted near playgrounds. After pruning and transplanting plants, you must wash your hands, or work with gloves.
Quarantus contains alkaloids, which produce substances that make up blood cancer drugs. In the natural conditions of Russia, a resident of tropical forests is grown as a houseplant, in gardens - as an annual.Homeland plants
In natural conditions, the carantus reaches a height of one and a half meters, in pot culture the height of a bush does not exceed half a meter. The plant has a strong branched stem, well developed root of the core type. The flower is covered with large ovoid glossy leaves, the length of which reaches 8 cm and the width 3–5 cm.
Flowering begins 2 months after emergence, in late spring - early summer, and last until late autumn. The flowers of the quarantine are simple, have 5 petals. They are located at the ends of the branches and in the sinuses, are collected in several pieces in loose inflorescences - brushes. After pollination, a seed box - a double-leaf filled with dark seeds ripens on the spot of the flower.
Types and varieties
Of the eight existing species of quarantus in gardens and room culture, one is used - quarantus pink. It is a compact branchy bush, with dark green leaves and white or pink flowers.
Breeders bred a variety of hybrids based on this species. Here are the most attractive varietal groups.
- Cascade or ampel quarantus. The shoots of the plant, covered with small scarlet flowers, reach a length of 130-150 cm. Falling down in a cascade, they create a thick emerald wall with bright scarlet flashes of flowers. There are varieties with white, pink, crimson flowers.
Ampel Pacific. The plant is short, only 30 cm tall, has a spherical shape. White flowers have a scarlet peephole in the middle.
Ознакомиться с внешностью катарантуса предлагается по представленным выше фото цветов.
Катарантус – светлолюбивый цветок, предпочитающий неяркий рассеянный свет. The apartment pots with a plant set on the east or west windows. In the garden, a bush can be planted near trees or tall plants, so that the carantus is in a light lace shade. From the hot summer sunlight, it must be covered with nonwoven fabric or tulle, otherwise burns will remain on the leaves.
The flower does not stand drafts, although fresh air is necessary for the plant. The most comfortable temperature for it is + 22 +25 degrees in the summer, and +12 +16 in the winter. You can do without the rest period in the winter season, but then the plant is satisfied with the additional illumination with fitolamps, extending the light day to 10 - 11 h.
Soil to flower like light and fertile. Prepare it from peat, large river sand and forest sod land, humus, taking all the ingredients in equal proportions. In the soil it is useful to add a full range of mineral fertilizers for flowers (Kemira Lux, Pokon, Ava).
If in the flower garden, where they plan to place the quarantus, the soil has an acid reaction, it is corrected, introducing chalk, lime, wood ash, baking soda. Adding good humus also reduces soil acidity.
Sand and gravel are added to clay and waterlogged areas to make the earth looser.
Quarantus in its hot homeland accustomed to frequent rains and high humidity. At home and the flower garden, you will have to provide similar conditions to your pet. Bushes are sprayed daily, trying to get water on the leaves only, without affecting the flowers. It is better to carry out the procedure in the evening to avoid burns on the foliage.
With a lack of moisture, the leaves of the quarantus will dry out around the edges, turn yellow. Helps to increase the humidity of the aquarium near the flower or wide dishes with water, where pebbles are poured. In the garden, the Quarantus feels good on the shore of a reservoir or near a fountain, an artificial waterfall.
Water the flower often, only with warm and soft water. The soil in the pot should always be a little wet. But stagnation of water in the pan is not allowed.
Fertilizers with mineral fertilizers, with a predominance of potassium, phosphorus and trace elements, are applied every 2 weeks. Begin to give additional food from the phase of budding the plant. From the moment of emergence, to the laying of buds, the bushes are once fed with organic matter to stimulate the growth of green mass, spreading chicken droppings in water at a concentration of 1 to 20.
At the seedling stage, the carantus is pinched several times, removing the apical buds. This stimulates the growth of side branches, the bush becomes more magnificent. An adult plant undergoes rejuvenating pruning every spring, with all shoots shortened by a third in length.
Every year, the Qatarantus needs to be transplanted into a new, larger pot. The procedure is carried out in the spring, transferring the flower into the container, with a volume of 5 - 7 cm more than the previous one. It is useful to plant the plant for the summer in the open ground, with the onset of cold weather, the flower is dug out and carried into the house.
After the end of flowering, it is useful for the catarantus to arrange a rest period of 2 to 3 months. For this flower is placed in a bright but cool room. It does not feed and reduce watering, spraying crown stop.
In case of violation of the regime of irrigation, thickened crops, in combination with low temperatures, the quarantus may be affected by rust and root rot. To save the plant, it is transplanted, completely replacing the substrate, smoothing the affected places on the roots to healthy tissue. The plant is treated with phytosporin.
The flower may undergo an invasion of aphids, whiteflies, scutes, and spider mites. A small livestock pest cleaned with soapy water, carefully wiping the stem, branches and all the leaves with a cotton swab dipped in solution. With a strong defeat, the bush is sprayed with Aktar.
Seeds of quarantines are sown in February, to a depth of 1 cm, in a light and nourishing soil. In a warm place, the shoots of the plants will seem in 15 - 20 days.
Council To stimulate germination and protect against fungal diseases, the seeds of the quarantus are soaked for 30 minutes in a pink solution of potassium permanganate, then in a solution of epin.
Seedlings grow at a temperature of +18 degrees and a daylight of 9 to 11 hours, so that they do not stretch and weaken.
At the age of 3–5 true leaves of the quarantus dive in separate pots. When the plants reach a height of 10 to 12 cm, they pinch the top for the first time to stimulate tillering. A week after pinching, the flower is fed with nitrogen fertilizer.
On the street, the flower is carried out when steady heat comes. When landing in the ground, a layer of expanded clay or crushed stone is poured at the bottom of the landing fossa as a drainage. The distance between the bushes ranges from 40 to 60 cm, depending on the size of the adult plant.Seeds
A tropical guest will blossom in 2 - 3 months after the first shoots appear. Quarantus can be propagated vegetatively. In the spring, by transplanting an adult flower, its root is cut with a sharp and clean knife into pieces so that at least one bud remains on each delenka. Cuts sprinkled with pounded coal, and planted delenki in loose soil.
You can root the quarantus with the upper cuttings, which are harvested during the trimming of the bush. The sections of the branches are immersed in the root-forming drug (root, heteroauxin), planted in a mixture of peat and sand or perlite. Landings covered with a plastic bag or plastic bottle, put in a bright and warm place. Be sure to daily airing, watering and spraying cuttings.
Abundantly blooming bush is beautiful in itself. It is planted in small groups of 3 - 4 plants with different color buds.
Cascade varieties planted in hanging baskets and flowerpots are very beautiful.
Important! It is necessary to remember about the quick drying of earthen coma in small pots. Plants in pots arrange automatic watering or add hydrogel to the ground.
In joint plantings, the cataractus looks harmoniously with petunia, periwinkle, and lobelia. Low varieties are placed along the tracks, in the foreground mixborders, at the foot of trees and shrubs.
The quarantus in the floor pot and pot will decorate the terrace, patio, porch.
See also a video on the topic:
As you can see, caring for the quarantine is not that complicated. If you know and take into account when growing all these nuances, you will get a spectacular, long-flowering plant to decorate the garden plot or the interior of the apartment.
When is it best to plant seedlings
Growing a quarantine from seed is a simple matter. The main thing that is required from you is the organization of the proper full care of the seedlings. However, if you are thinking about when it is best to plant the quarantus on seedlings, the answer is simple: The most favorable time for sowing seeds for seedlings will be the end of February - the beginning of March.
Seed preparation before plantingTo prevent pests from eating seeds and seedlings, it is better to pickle them a day before sowing with a weak solution of potassium permanganate (two grams of potassium permanganate per liter of water). Seeds wrapped in cheesecloth are placed in the solution for thirty minutes. Then they are taken out and dried on a rag.
Soil for Carantus seedlings
Quarantus loves light soil, especially when it comes to seedling. The soil must be moisture and breathable, because the plant does not tolerate stagnant moisture. The substrate can be bought in the store or cook yourself. For the preparation of the substrate take equal proportions of garden soil, peat and sand. The resulting mixture must be steamed to disinfect pests.
Sowing of the quarantus is carried out in the seedling boxes, or plastic cups (as it is convenient to someone), and the containers with the ground should not be filled to the very top, so that there is room for adding soil. Before sowing the quarantine on the seedlings, you need to slightly moisten the soil and wait until the moisture is absorbed. Seeds are spread evenly over the ground, and then covered with soil. The depth of seeding should not exceed two centimeters.
Conditions for germinating seeds
In order for the seeds to germinate well, the dishes are covered with dark polyethylene, or they are sent to germinate in a dark place with air temperature not below + 25ºC. Shoots will appear in 7-10 days. As soon as the seedlings have risen, the containers are moved to the light, and the ambient temperature is reduced to +18. + 25ºC.
Choosing a place for planting seedlingsWhen choosing a location for the future arrangement of flowers, it is necessary to take into account the fact that these plants do not like cold winds and heavily shaded places. Growing in the shade, the flower is pulled out and stops blooming, which means that sunny, warm and cozy areas in the flowerbed are best for planting the quarantus.
Planting procedure seedlings
If you dived the seedlings of the quarantus in a container of several pieces, then it is necessary to plant it without separating the bushes. The rhizomes of sprouts are strongly intertwined, therefore, by separating the bushes, you can damage the roots from each other, which will lead to the death of the plant. So that young sprouts could be left out of the pot, they are well watered before planting.
Pinching the tops
If you want to have a chic blooming bush of cayenne jasmine on your bed, you should definitely pinch it when the plant reaches a height of 10-15 centimeters. Pinching the bush stimulates the branching of the central trunk, and the more branched the bush, the more flowers there are. The first two months after disembarking on the flowerbed, pinching wines are carried out once a week.
Regular wateringHow to water the carantus, easy to guess. Since it is a tropical flower, it requires frequent and generous watering throughout the year. At the same time it is necessary to ensure that the water does not stagnate. In the period of heavy rainfall, the plant should be protected from possible diseases, so the distance between the planted bushes should not interfere with natural ventilation. You have to choose the golden mean for yourself when watering caratrantus, as it equally adversely tolerates both drying and over-wetting of the soil. Quarantus loves humid air and responds positively to regular spraying.
How to conduct dressing
Like any flowering plant, the quarantus needs regular feeding (every ten days) with special complex fertilizers for flowering plants. Begin such feeding from the moment the first buds appear. Fertilizers are diluted in water at room temperature, according to the instructions.
Basically, plants that are grown indoors are in need of pruning. Usually, this procedure is carried out in the spring, and the specimens growing outside are cut in the summer. If you want to achieve high decorative goals, the quarantus on the street must be cut off regularly. The image will remove flowering for several weeks, and the stem of the plant will thicken, take on a tree-like appearance.
Dividing bushDividing a shrub is a simple way of breeding quarantus, as full shrubs are well suited for this procedure. Apply this method of reproduction from March to May. The separated part of the bush easily tolerates transplantation and begins to grow actively. The resulting delenki can be planted in pots and in the open ground.
The cuttings of the cataractus are carried out in early spring, for which they cut off the tops of adult bushes with a length of 10-12 centimeters, cutting off the lower leaves of the cutting. The removed parts of the plant are placed in a vessel with a solution of root growth stimulator or in a ready-made moist substrate (fertile soil mixed with sand in equal proportions). To root the cuttings in the substrate, they are covered with a can and they watch that the ambient temperature does not fall below the + 20 ° C mark.
The bank periodically needs to be removed in order to air and spray the plant. After twenty days, the plant will take root and the jar can be removed and the bush transplanted into a permanent pot.
Resistance to diseases and pests
Because of its toxicity, carantus is considered a plant that is resistant to diseases and pests. In dry weather, with low air humidity, it can be plagued by aphid, mealybug, spider mites, whitefly and scale insects. Therefore, as soon as you notice the presence of these insects, you need to urgently treat the plant with a solution of soapy water. Also, brown rust, which appears when the soil is over-wetted, sometimes causes discomfort to the quarantus. The most characteristic sign of its activity is the appearance of ulcers located in the lower part of the leaf.