Taxon: Legumes (Fabaceae)
Other names: clitoria ternatskaya, moth peas, pigeon wings, shameless flower, anchan
English: Butterfly Pea, Pigeon Wings, Cordofan-pea, Blue-pea
The scientific name of the genus comes from the Latin word clitoris ("clitoris"). This name was given to taxon by the great Swedish scientist Carl Linnaeus - he found a boat in the corolla of this plant similar to the mentioned intimate female organ.
Botanical description of Clitoria
Clitoria ternate - evergreen grassy vine with thin shoots, reaching a length of 3.5 m. Its leaves are pinnate, bright green, usually of three or five leaves. Flowers axillary, relatively large, about 5 cm in diameter. Calyx tubular. The rim is of the butterfly type, with the sail considerably larger than the other four petals. The color of the corolla - various shades of lilac or blue, differs from different varieties, the center of the flower (closed by petals) is yellow. There are varieties with a terry form of flowers. The oars and the boat form a dense scallop up to two-thirds the diameter of the sail. Pollination is carried out with the help of insects that crawl pollen inside this comb. The flowering time of the clitoral trifoliate is from May to September.
Fruits - flat beans with a length from 4 to 13 cm.
Locations of clitoria
The homeland of the trifoliate clitoria is Southeast Asia.
The triad clitoris is recorded and widely grows in many other regions of the world - in Africa, Australia, Central and South America.
The clitoris does not tolerate temperatures below 10 ºC, so in regions with a temperate climate, it can be grown either completely indoors, or part of the year indoors, and some outdoors. It is also possible to grow the clitoris as an annual plant.
The chemical composition of clitoria
The chemical composition of the tripartite clitoria is not well understood.
Active ingredients include triterpene compounds (taraxerol, taraxerone),
delphinidin-based anthocyanin compounds (ternatins), steroids (possibly associated with stigmast-4-ene-3,6-dione), flavonoids, glycosides (kaempferol, quercetin), saponins, carbohydrates in seeds and leaves (flutulene and oligosacchardes), biopesticide (finotin), trypsin inhibitors in seeds (J Ethnopharmacol, 2011).
Fatty acids are mainly represented by palmitic, stearic, oleic and linoleic acids.
The total content of phenolic compounds is relatively low compared to other herbs, about 1.9 mg / g (0.2%) equivalent of gallic acid (GAE).
Pharmacological properties of clitoria
Extracts of clitoria ternate have a broad spectrum of pharmacological activity: antimicrobial, antipyretic, antiinflammatory, analgesic, diuretic, antidiabetic, local anesthetic, insecticidal. In addition, they inhibit blood platelet aggregation.
In animal experiments, an extract from the roots of clitoria trifoliate demonstrated nootropic, anxiolytic, antidepressant, anticonvulsant, and anti-stress effect ("Clitoria ternatea and the CNS". Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior).
It was relatively recently established that several biologically active peptides of the clitoris are ternary, called cliotides, possess high antibacterial activity against E. coli, K.pneumonia, P.Aeruginosa and cytotoxicity against HeLa cells. These peptides have the potential to create new antimicrobial and anti-cancer agents. (Journal of Biological Chemistry, 8 July 2011)
Use of clitoria in medicine
The extract from the roots of clitoria is ternate, used to treat whooping cough.
The plant is used in folk medicine as a means to improve memory, to improve blood circulation in the brain, to treat insomnia and in case of chronic fatigue.
In India, the roots of the clitoris triad are used in Ayurvedic traditional medicine as bitterness, tonic, laxative, diuretic, anthelmintic. The roots of the clitoris are ternate in dementia, migraine, leprosy, leukoderma, bronchitis, asthma, pulmonary tuberculosis, ascites, and fever. The leaves are used for earache and hepatopathy. Seeds - a strong laxative.
Neurology and the brain
Aqueous and ethanol extract of clitoria's roots improves memory, they are also used to treat brain diseases (Down syndrome, dyslexia).
Preliminary animal studies suggest that clitoris has a trifoliate effect that improves memory, which has been attributed to it historically (Rai KS, et al.
A subsequent comparative study revealed that 100 mg / kg Clitoria Ternatea (aqueous extract) is slightly different from 50 mg / kg pyracetam (nootropic drug) (Jain NN, et al. Clitoria ternatea and the CNS. Pharmacol Biochem Behav).
Clitoria ternary has a positive effect on the human nervous system, it strengthens the nerves and increases the functioning of the brain.
Stress and depression
In the tripartite clitoria, especially in its roots, substances have been found that have a strong stimulating effect and can be used as antidepressants, for the treatment of mental disorders, as well as for relieving stress.
Clitoria ternatea is effective in treating anxiety and depression and related problems.
The tripartite clitoria extract in a dose (500 mg / kg) is able to suppress triglycerides and total cholesterol to the same extent as atorvastatin (50 mg / kg) and gemfibrozil (50 mg / kg) lipid-lowering drugs.
Seeds and clitoria root extract reduce the concentration of triglycerides, although only the root extract was able to reduce total cholesterol.
High levels of faecal cholesterol (inhibits cholesterol absorption) have also been associated with taking Clitoria Ternatea (Solanki YB, Jain SM. Anti-allergic activity of Clitoria ternatea and Vigna mungo in rats. Pharm Biol).
Herb clitoria ternate is very effective in treating constipation. It acts as a laxative and treats ulcers.
Clitoria Ternatea is traditionally used as a diuretic, which was confirmed in dogs (Piala JJ, Madissoo H, Rubin B. Diuretic activity of the roots of Clitoria ternatea L. in dogs. Experientia), but has not been the subject of further research.
Type 2 diabetes
Clitoria ternate affects glucose metabolism, lowers blood sugar levels. Especially effective is the use in symbiosis with Sudanese rose (Hibiscus sabdariffa) (Adisakwattana S, et al. BMC Complement Altern Med).
The studies were aimed at establishing the relationship between the consumption of anthocyanins of clitoria ternate and diabetes mellitus type 2. After studying data from more than 200,000 men and women participating in long-term studies, it was found that a higher level of anthocyanin consumption is closely associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes.
Cough, cold and asthma
The roots of the clitoria are trifoliate in powder form used to treat whooping cough; it is recommended to rinse the mouth and throat for infections with a decoction of the roots.
Alcohol extract Clitoria Ternatea, as was shown in one study in mice, has an anti-asthmatic effect. The tripartite clitoria extract at a dose of 100 mg / kg body weight in relation to the suppression of leukocytes and eosinophils was as effective as 50 mg / kg of dexamethasone (Taur DJ, Patil RY. Evaluation of the antiasthmatic activity of Clitoria ternatea L. roots. J Ethnopharmacol, 2011).
• Grass clitoria has the ability to regulate the circulatory system, cleanses the blood in the body and gives new energy to the body.
• The extract from the roots of clitoria serves as an antidote to the bites of poisonous insects or cobras.
• The decoction of the plant clitoris triad effective in cleaning the wound. It also prevents the formation of pus in the affected area.
• Clitoria was found to be effective in treating female sexual disorders, such as infertility, menstrual disorders, etc. In addition, clitoria flowers serve as a sexual enhancer or aphrodisiac.
• Grass clitoria has medicinal value in the treatment of male infertility, it increases sperm motility and increases reproduction.
Blue Tea (Butterfly Blue Pea Tea)
Clitoria trifoliate is served as a health drink, you can drink both hot and cold throughout the day.
Blue tea cleanses the blood vessels of the eyes, improves eyesight, prevents glaucoma and cataracts, and cleans the blood. It prevents hair loss and the appearance of gray hair, soothes the nervous system, improves memory, helps to relax and relieve stress and anxiety, is a natural antioxidant.
Preparation: 5-6 flowers brew a glass of boiling water, add honey or sugar to taste. Take 2-3 times a day. The infusion has a very beautiful blue color; if you add lime or lemon to blue tea, the color changes to purple-pink.
Clitoria (Clitoria ternatea) is a garden herbaceous plant belonging to the legume family. Its homeland is the tropical part of North America and Southeast Asia. Lentil and soy are considered to be relatives of the culture.
Like all tropical plants, the clitoris triad does not hibernate in temperate latitudes in open ground. It is grown only at home, in greenhouses, closed gardens. In the open field it is used as an annual. Pretty thermophilic, does not like low temperatures.
The most common ornamental plant forms:
- Blue Sails - terry flowers, purple flower color,
- Legend - represents value as a medicinal and decorative culture,
- Ultra Marine - flowers usual, color dark blue.
Clitoria triad on photo:
In length, the plant reaches up to 3.5 meters. Most varieties are creepers with lying and climbing stems. You can find varieties with double flowers.
Brief description of the clitoria:
- flowering period: from the beginning of July until the end of August,
- reproduction: seeds or cuttings,
- lighting is bright, partial shade is allowed,
- watering - regular,
- stem roots, oval-shaped leaves, bright green color, pinnate, trifoliate,
- pedicels are placed in the upper part of the corolla,
- oars and boats form a ridge
- flowers are large, single, mostly white, blue and pink in color, they reach up to 5 cm in diameter,
- moth-type corolla
- features - does not overwinter in open ground,
- the fruit is flat beans that reach a length of 5-13 cm,
- top dressing - complex mineral fertilizers,
- temperature condition - does not tolerate temperatures below 10 degrees.
How to grow a plant at home?
For growing preferably sunny and warm places. If the clitoris is at home, then the south side is chosen - balconies, window sills. Watering needs regular, because the plant loves moisture. It is recommended for this purpose to use warm and settled water. Despite its moisture-loving, you can not pour the soil.
For clitoria, structured and nutritious soils with a neutral reaction are selected. A soil mixture, which is formed from peat, sod land, humus and sand, taking into account proportions of 2: 1: 1: 1, will also be suitable. To avoid excessive waterlogging, good drainage is necessary. Fertilizing is carried out periodically, during the development period fertilizers are applied once every two weeks.
When grown at home, every spring requires re-planting in a larger pot and pruning. In the warm season in the home contents, it is preferable to put a container with a flower on the balcony. The abundance of fresh air for the plant will be useful.
In general, the flower is quite viable and unpretentious. It grows quickly, branches well and blooms intensely. To give the clitoris the desired shape, it is necessary to carry out periodic pinching and trimming.
In some cases, it is possible to stimulate branching by twisting the main stem - side shoots will soon appear. For climbing branches need support. In winter, when indoor growing requires additional lighting.
Clitoria is resistant to various diseases. In some cases, it may be affected by ticks. Periodically, the plant should be inspected for timely detection and disposal of the pest. If a tick is detected, it is necessary to spray insecticides, which can be bought in specialized stores. Breeding is necessary in accordance with the recommendations indicated on the package.
Methods of reproduction and landing
Clitoria propagated by cuttings and seeds. The latter are sown in February-March, since the seedlings develop better with increasing daylight. This applies to both seedlings and for closed ground. Cuttings are desirable for breeding cut in April-July. For their rooting will require wet perlite or peat tablets.
Seeds are pre-soaked in water or a special stimulator for several hours. The solution should be warm.
Next, pour in a shallow box with a mixture of sand, leaf soil, peat, in a ratio of 1: 1: 1, or placed in peat tablets. Sowing is carried out in pre-loosened soil. Capacity can be covered with glass - in this case, it must be removed every day for ventilation and humidification. You can buy clitoria seeds immediately before sowing.
Approximately in two weeks the first shoots are seen. After full leaflets appear, they dive into pots. The optimum landing temperature is 21-24 degrees. Under comfortable conditions, flowering plants can be expected from the middle of summer.
Clitoria in folk medicine
The plant is used in folk medicine for the treatment of various diseases. In India, it is officially used in Ayurvedic practice.
Ancestors used to treat pertussis root extract. The substances contained in the roots, are used as antidepressants. They have a powerful stimulating effect and relieve nervous tension. Clitoria is used to improve memory and to stimulate blood circulation. Broths help with colds, diseases of the upper respiratory tract. It also helps to cope with chronic fatigue and insomnia.
The composition of the plant has not been studied thoroughly. Only certain compounds are known, glycosides, flavonoids, steroids. The presence of stearic, linoleic, oleic, and palmitic acids is also determined. The presence of tannins, natural antioxidants and peptides.
If you intend to use the clitoris for health purposes, it is necessary to take into account some limitations. It is not recommended to use with a tendency to allergic reactions, hypersensitivity and hypotension. The absolute contraindication is lactation, pregnancy, child age.