General information

Bengal ficus: care, breeding, growing conditions

“Ficus benghalensis” - this is how the name “Ficus of Bengal” sounds in Latin. This tree is a prominent representative of one of the largest families - mulberry. It grows in the monsoon forests of Sri Lanka, Bangladesh and Burma, China, Malaysia and India. The uniqueness of the plant is that in the wild it acquires a very large size, as it grows not alone, but in small clusters, which over time create a sufficiently large and dense forest.

How to care for the ficus Bengal

This form of life of the Bengal ficus has the name "banyan".

If the florist wants to replenish his collection of plants with just such a tree, it is enough for him to go to the store and call the name “Andrey” - this is another name for the plant.

Main characteristics

  1. Ficus bengal variety banyan grows from seed. This tree differs from the others in its parameters: its height is 35-40 m. The foliage circumference can be more than 600 m.
  2. One piece is 20-25 cm in length. They have a slightly elongated oval shape. On the back (leathery) side of the surface, the veins of a light green hue are clearly visible.
  3. The size of the fruits of the ficus of Bengal does not correspond to the general characteristics: they are small.
  4. The fact that the ficus of Bengal can form a banyan is its peculiarity, which is obtained only due to the biological properties characteristic of the tree. Airy and fairly thick roots begin to form on the horizontal branches. Over time, some of them disappear, while others, on the contrary, develop, sink to the ground, where they take root quickly, after which the transformation begins, and these roots become similar to other trunks. As a result, the rooting process does not end, but constantly repeats, creating new trees. This plant for the minimum amount of time in the wild can grow to incredible areas. Caring for the Bengal ficus at home is somewhat different. Since the main goal of the grower is to grow a beautiful plant.
  5. The tree grows extremely intensively. If you provide a normal care, on average for 1 year it can increase in height 45-100 cm. In order to contain the growth intensity, it is necessary to cultivate or cut the root system in time.

Maintenance and care

The decision to buy and grow Bengal Ficus (ficus benghalensis) at home takes a small number of people. Since this plant has special characteristics, it needs a large open space, so those who live in small apartments are unlikely to buy it.

To take care at home was carried out qualitatively, it is necessary to know the main nuances of growing: how to plant, grow, feed, irrigate and replant a tree correctly.

Microclimate

Ficus Bengal is undemanding in terms of lighting. It develops normally in artificial light, the main thing is that there is enough space.

Correct and uniform development of the crown can be obtained only if you alternately turn the flower pot towards the sun around its axis. So the plant and the leaves will receive a uniform amount of light.

The tree loves a lot of space.

Another important point concerning the care of the Bengal ficus - the ambient temperature. The permissible minimum is 18-19 ° С, the maximum is 25-26 ° С. Professionals strongly recommend protecting the tree from strong temperature fluctuations and drafts: they can adversely affect the condition of the plant.

Ficus Bengal - a large plant, so there are small nuances regarding the humidity of the air in the room where it is located. In the presence of a battery or other devices for heating the room is to take care of additional irrigation: these devices make the air very dry. From time to time, a sponge should be moved along the foliage to eliminate collected dust particles.

Regarding the soil characteristics have their own nuances. Ficus Bengal will feel good in neutral soil. It may include:

Another substrate should have a low level of acidity. If the indicator exceeds the norm, the ficus will not develop and multiply, and eventually dries completely. In order to be confident in the soil, it can be purchased at the store. At the bottom of the pot must be a layer of drainage.

Top dressing and irrigation

Water the ficus should be regularly and abundantly, because this type of plant has no resting phase. Top dressing is done as carefully as possible so as not to harm the plant. Professionals claim that fertilizer can be applied using ready-made complexes. It is recommended to perform it every 2 weeks.

Reproduction of the Bengal ficus is done in two ways. The first - seeds. The second is cuttings (vegetative propagation), during which the tip of the branches, on which there are several internodes, is cut. Then they are transplanted into a special mixture consisting of peat and sand. The ficus can be left in the water, but in such an environment, the cuttings root much more slowly.

Transplant at home

It is necessary to replant a plant regularly

Young plants need an annual transplant. If the ficus is more than 5 years old, you can perform the procedure every few years. Each subsequent transplant involves a change in capacity. The pot should be several centimeters more in height and width than the previous one. In order not to make a mistake when choosing, you can ask for help from a professional florist-consultant: he will help you make a choice.

If the tree is already large, it makes sense to replace the upper ball of the soil. During the transfer, you can adjust the growth rate by performing a small trimming of the root system. Another solution to this problem is not to replace the ficus, but leave it in a close pot.

Pruning a bush

This procedure should be carried out in warm weather. There are two types of trimming:

  • Forming, after which the tree becomes more well-groomed appearance.
  • Sanitary, which involves the removal of dried and weak shoots.

Ficus - a plant that is rarely amenable to disease. There are situations when parasitic insects appear on it: ticks, scale insects, thrips. If the plant is small, the problem is solved very simply: a stream of warm water is directed at the pests, after they fall off, they are removed. If the tree is large and has a thick massive crown, it is additionally treated with specialized means - insecticides.

Sick plant only when a person violates the basic rules of care:

  • If the temperature drops significantly, the lower leaves begin to fade.
  • If the soil is heavily flooded with water, yellowish spots will appear on the sheets.
  • If the plant needs additional fertilizing with fertilizer, a slow growth rate and loss of leaf color saturation will be a signal for this.
  • If the room is the wrong lighting or ficus is in the shade, the stems are strongly drawn out, and the leaves lose their shape and length.
  • If the florist is too hot, or the florist has applied too much fertilizer, small brown spots appear on the edge.

Ficus Bengal in its natural environment

Being a native of wet forests and lower mountain slopes of India, Thailand, Malaysia and Burma, this tree in the natural environment can grow to incredible sizes and is characterized by numerous aerial roots, gradually transformed into trunks. The crown of the largest specimen in diameter is 350 meters, has more than three thousand aerial roots. Some of them dry up, the rest fall to the ground, take root, take the form of bearing trunks, subsequently forming side shoots. Outwardly, such a ficus Bengali creates the appearance of a small forest: covering a area of ​​several hectares, the tree forms entire ecosystems.

Externally, the Bengal ficus, referred to in ancient literature as the “world tree” and “symbol of immortality and endless rebirth,” is a tree with beautiful rich green leaves, each of which reaches a length of 15-25 centimeters. In room conditions the ficus of Bengali can grow to the ceiling in just a few years. Therefore, most often such a tree, characterized by a highly decorative look and ease of care, is a resident of office premises and huge halls.

Illumination is an important factor in care

When caring for the Bengal ficus, you need to know that the plant is sufficiently light-requiring, therefore it should be placed in a sunny place, protected from direct sunlight. Otherwise, there is a risk of burns, which can be determined by brown spots on the leaf plates. At the lack of light will indicate wilting of the leaves, their twisting. In order for the crown to develop evenly, and all sides receive an equal amount of light, it is recommended to periodically turn the ficus of Bengal periodically around its axis.

At home, growing ficus of Bengali prefers a moderate temperature of 18–26 ° C, and in winter it is able to withstand 12–16 ° C above zero. Negatively, by dropping the leaves, the plant reacts to sudden changes in temperature and drafts. It is not recommended to place the Bengal ficus near the heating devices: hot air, drying the leaves, causes the death of the plant. In the summer season, the tree is recommended to carry out on the street or on the balcony.

Bengal Ficus: home care

The Bengal Ficus needs regular moderate watering with soft settled water, which needs to be carried out as the soil dries out: in the warm season - every three to four days, in the winter there will be enough weekly. On hot summer days, the plant should be sprayed with a spray bottle, and its leaves with the purpose of refreshing the ficus and removing dust should be regularly cleaned with a damp cloth. Be sure to drain the remaining water from the pan, because the stagnation of moisture can cause the development of fungal diseases and rotting of the roots.

Plant nutrition

Like any plant, the ficus needs additional feedings: in summer, during the period of active growth, they must be carried out twice a month (with fertilizers with a high nitrogen content), in winter - once every two months (with preparations for non-flowering plants). The Bengal Ficus, which even an inexperienced florist can take care of, positively relates to pruning, aimed at slowing down the growth of the tree and necessary for giving the crown a neat look and a beautiful shape.

Transplantation of young plants is carried out annually, in March-April. The Bengal Ficus at home is characterized by a high growth rate: up to 1 meter per year, so the capacity should be chosen a little larger (just a couple of centimeters) compared with the previous ones, which will be a deterrent to active development. When transplanting it is recommended to trim the roots of the tree a little. For older plants, it will be enough to replace the top soil layer with fresh ones.

The soil for the Bengal ficus should be nutritious, consisting of peat, humus and leaf soil. You can purchase store primer for ficuses. Be sure to have a good drainage, which can be used as clay shards, expanded clay, tree bark.

Bengal ficus: reproduction. Process features

The Bengal ficus reproduces by cutting, for which semi-woody apical cuttings with leaves are used. Cut them are recommended to hold in the growth stimulator, then put in water or in wet sand and put in a bright warm place for a few weeks. Then the process with the formed root system needs to be transplanted into a separate container, and after a week to feed it with mineral fertilizer.

Diseases and pests

In time to detect pests by regular inspection of the leaves, especially their back side. Of the diseases most often, the Bengal phicus is affected by spider mites, aphids, a shield, and a mealybug. If possible, the plant is recommended to be rinsed under a warm shower or rinsed with a napkin, and then treated with chemical agents.

Yellowing of the lower leaves and their subsequent fall will indicate waterlogging. Especially such a problem may occur in the winter. If white woolly spots are present on the underside of the sheet, the presence of a mealy worm may be assumed. The pest must be removed with a sponge moistened with methyl alcohol, and the plant must be sprayed with a systemic insecticide or Malathion. The appearance of scythophas can be judged by the presence of scaly brown insects on the stems and on the underside of the leaves. Processing plants carried out similarly to the above.

Permanent waterlogging of the soil or stagnation of water can lead to the appearance of fungal diseases. For preventive purposes, the leaves of the plant must be cleaned with soapy water, a shower should be treated, at least once a month, with a weak solution of manganese.

As a reward for high-quality care, due attention and sincere love, the ficus will thank its owners with an atmosphere of tranquility in the house and positive energy.

Botanical description

The Bengal Ficus belongs to the genus Mulberry and came to our country from India, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh. In nature, it is a powerful tree whose crown throws a shadow at half a thousand meters and a height of 40 meters. When growing in an apartment, observing the right care, you can grow a plant a few years from the ceiling. This is due to the fact that the tree has an annual increment of 100 cm.

The bark of the plant is dark gray, the leaves are large, dark green in color, the flowers look like small orange fruits that serve as food for birds and mammals. At home, the Bengal ficus banyan does not bloom.

At home, the tree is considered a symbol of eternity. They are decorated with temples and dwellings, and wide foliage is used for a canopy and roof covering.

How to choose a tree when buying

In order for a plant to grow and develop well, it is necessary to approach the choice of a plant correctly. For this you need to know the basic rules:

  1. Ficus can not be acquired in the cold season, as the adaptation is painful for the plant.
  2. Choose a better young plant.
  3. Check the condition of the tree. To do this, iron the sheet in the opposite direction and shake gently. If the foliage disappears, then the plant is not worth buying.
  4. The root system emerging from the drainage holes should not be black or brown.

Important! To give the beauty of foliage, many sellers polish the leaves. After buying such a plant, you need to hold it under a warm shower for several minutes.

Breeding procedure

Most often, ficus is propagated by cuttings, as this is the easiest and most effective way. To do this, cut woody cuttings with foliage length of 10−15 cm

Important! Too young seedling does not take root.

The prepared stalk is kept for several minutes in a growth stimulator, and then placed in a container with water until the root system appears. After the roots become developed and powerful, planting material can be planted in nutrient soil and continue to care, as for an adult ficus.

When breeding this southern guest there are several recommendations:

  1. A suitable time for breeding - spring, summer.
  2. The place of the slice from the milky juice is washed, and then dried.
  3. Not lignified cuttings do not root.

How does the Bengal ficus

This tree is distinguished by a specific way of life, which is also called “banyan”. The initial stage of banyan formation is based on the emergence of a hanging root system on the powerful, horizontally growing branches. The roots are multiple, not covered with hairs. Their development is slow. After a certain time, most of the roots dry up and no longer touch the soil.

The remaining part of the air root complex still reaches the ground and can take root. As a result, the suspension part undergoes a stage of enhanced thickening and forms trunks.

Orange fruits growing on the tree are food for animals and birds, which turn into the main seed distributors and serve as assistants in plant reproduction.

Banyan is very tall - up to 40 meters, and its crown can spread up to 610 m.

The leaves of the plant also stand out - up to 25 cm in length. Form - elliptical, oval, elongated. On the leathery surface there are juicy light green veins.

Flowering tree in the form of sycony.

The growth rate of the plant is considered one of the speed representatives of the flora, since the increase in the year is 60-100 cm.

Spread and homeland

The native places of the Bengal ficus are the jungle. Therefore, under natural conditions, it can be found in India, Thailand, Burma, Malaysia and southern China. The plant grows up and in breadth, taking possession of vast territories.

Banyan growth continues indefinitely, as young roots stretch to the ground, take root and form new trees.

At home, to reproduce this phenomenon is almost impossible. И тем, кто решился на такой шаг, придется приложить немало усилий и запастись упорством и немаленьким помещением, в котором нужно будет создать тропический климат.

Как выбрать растение при покупке

Чтобы дерево радовало хозяев в дальнейшем и не возникало проблем в уходе, важно знать основные правила выбора растения:

  • Не следует покупать фикус в холодное время. Адаптация в этот период проходит довольно тяжело.
  • You can not choose large plants. The older the tree, the harder it is to adapt to new conditions.
  • Healthy sprouts can be tested this way: shake gently and stroke against the leaves. If the leaves fall off (2 or more), then this tree is not worth taking.
  • The roots of the plant should not be black or dark brown.

Lighting and location

Choosing the place where the ficus is supposed to be placed, should pay attention to the sunny side of the room. However, one should not allow the rays of the sun to fall on the leaves, because they can get burned. That is, the light should be bright, but diffused.

Ficus should be placed in the west or east side. If there is no such place, then shading will be required in the southern direction.

Air humidity and temperature

Fucus does not welcome temperature drops. For development in spring and summer, the plant will need a temperature of + 18-26 ° C, and in the fall and in the winter period - no less than + 17 ° C. If the tree is cold, it will begin to fold the leaves.

Ficus needs moisture. The optimal level is 60-70%. To maintain the desired level, the leaf mass is sprayed once a week. In the cold season, when heating devices are working, spraying becomes especially important.

In addition, the leaves should be regularly wiped with a soft damp cloth or sponge, removing the accumulated dust. No extra will also be any additional ways to increase the humidity.

Soil for the plant

Ficus loves fertile, loose soil. You can buy ready-made mixture in the store, and you can prepare the mix yourself. It should include the following components:

The plant will feel good in a mixture of sod (1 part), sheet (1 part) of soil and sand.

Before planting, the soil (both purchased from the store and cooked) must be calcined in the oven. Such a procedure is necessary to prevent the spread of diseases and the destruction of pests.

The soil should be well drained. Expanded clay can be placed on the bottom.

How to water

It is necessary to water a ficus regularly and plentifully. Moisturize the soil as the top layer dries to a depth of 2-3 cm with soft warm water.. The procedure is repeated about once every 3-4 days.

The plant must be watered both in summer and in winter (once a week) - ficus does not have a pronounced rest period.

Than to fertilize

Feed the tree in the summer, during the period of active development, once every 2-3 weeks. To do this, you can use universal fertilizers in granules with a high nitrogen content. You can also use organic fertilizers.

In winter, the plant rests, so it should not be fertilized more often than once every two months. For this use top dressing for non-flowering plants.

Anyway, before fertilizing the fertilizer is pre-dissolved in water and only low concentration is used.

How to trim

One of the main procedures for the care of the plant. It allows you to give the tree a great decorative and compact form:

  • spherical
  • in the form of a bush,
  • multi-tiered
  • bonsai

You can also shape any sculpture.

Prune the plant in spring or early summer, observing these rules:

  • the form must be natural
  • it is better to pre-guess what the tree will look like after trimming,
  • sterile instrument - the guarantee of health of ficus,
  • the cut is performed at an angle to the edge.

When and how to transplant

The first transplant of ficus is made immediately after purchase. If the plant has dropped the leaves, the procedure should be postponed for 10-14 days until the tree adapts to the new conditions.

The second and subsequent transplants are carried out in the spring. During this procedure, it is possible to form a crown and cut too large roots. With each transplant use new, larger than the previous 3-4 cm capacity.

Do not transplant only adult figs, which grow in large containers. In this case, simply remove the top layer of soil and replace it with fresh.

Basic rules for transplantation:

  • pour over
  • remove top coat
  • remove the earthen room, slightly shake,
  • transplant into a new pot,
  • add fresh soil mixture.

Breeding features

Ficus Bengali breeds cuttings, leaves, air outlet.

When cutting, take the upper cuttings with foliage, which are slightly stiff.

After removing the milky sap from the site of the incision, the graft is placed in water, adding drugs to stimulate the growth of roots (you can simply put it in the moistened sand in the bag). Capacity put in a warm, bright place. It takes several weeks for rooting to occur.

After the roots have developed, the stalk is transplanted into a separate pot and looked after later as an adult plant.

When breeding ficus has a few recommendations.:

  • the optimum time of the year is spring-early summer,
  • the cut is washed and the stock is dried,
  • during cutting, young, not stiffened shoots cannot be used.

Plant origin

Ficus benghalensis belongs to the mulberry family. He comes from the tropical jungles of India, Thailand, Burma, southern China.

Its second name - banyan - means the form of life, when a single plant, due to the special abilities of its aerial roots and shoots, takes on the appearance of an entire grove.

Numerous trunks in such a “forest” are just part of a single ecosystem of the Bengal ficus.

Over time, it will grow in breadth and high, capturing vast territories.

Growth continues endlessly, and all new and new roots, rushing from the upper shoots to the ground, take root in the soil and give fresh "trees".

Of course, at home it is almost impossible to repeat this miracle.

Those who still decide on such a feat will have to be patient and have a large room in which it will be necessary to create an atmosphere of the tropics.

However, many enthusiasts successfully grow in their homes table "banyanchiki", which is often called the bonsai culture.

What is banyan?

The authors of this term are Europeans. When Portuguese and English Travelers in the XV-XVI centuries. described the wonders of the fairyland of India they had discovered, they drew attention to the unusual trees that served as a kind of roof for local bazaars and other mass gatherings of local residents.

Of course, under the shadow of such a giant, the word “baniya” sounded very often, which in Gujarati language means “merchant, trader”.

Without thinking twice, the Europeans "rewarded" with this word the tree itself.

So the Bengal ficus became a “merchant tree”.

In the photo ficus "Belgian":

Home care

It is difficult to overestimate the decorative value of the Bengal ficus.

But although he is very beautiful and caring for him does not seem to be too complicated, those who decide to grow this species will have to find a well-lit, spacious room. (the ficus can grow as 40 cm, and up to 3 m up)in which constant warmth will be guaranteed (18-26 ° C), high humidity and lack of drafts.

Feed ficus 1-2 times per month. For this they recommend using universal granular fertilizers.

This plant needs regular watering with soft water, regardless of the season.

Should be watered when the top layer of soil dries 2-3 cm deep.

To maintain proper humidity, it is better not to spray the entire tree, but gently wipe the leaves with a soft wet cloth.

At the same time you clean the foliage from the accumulated dust.

Despite the beautiful legends that hover around the ficus-banyan, those who are engaged in indoor breeding of this tree will not be able to admire its flowers.

For one simple reason - the indoor counterparts of tropical giants do not bloom.

A chance to see a kind of "classic" inflorescences - small spherical formations of syconia, similar to berries - only those gardeners who grow Ficus Bengal grow in a greenhouse.

Crown formation

But the lack of flowers more than compensates for the crown of this plant, which grows magnificently in all directions.

However, the process of development of the treetops cannot be allowed to drift.

First of all, you need to regularly rotate the tree around its axis - so the crown will develop evenly and get enough sunlight.

Secondly, it is necessary to regularly prune the branches, so you can give the crown with its “velvet” leaves a certain shape and compact dimensions.

For the normal development of ficus will need a special ground.

The plant loves fertile soils, slightly acidic or chemically neutral.

Already ready soil for ficus can be bought on the market or in a specialized store.

But you can cook yourself by mixing sod, peat and leafy soil and sand.

The indoor will grow well if there is a drainage layer on the bottom of the pot.

Breeding

Starting the cultivation of home banyan, we must bear in mind that the Bengal ficus usually propagates by cuttings,

which for normal rooting need a mixture of sand and peat.

But in order to propagate this culture from seeds, it will take a lot of experience in breeding such crops.

At a young age, the ficus should be replanted annually in pots of large diameter.

For adults, it is sufficient to replace the topsoil with fresh soil.

Benefit and harm

This plant cleans the atmosphere well inside the room.

Ficus is not toxic. Moreover, it perfectly absorbs some substances harmful to humans (phenol, trichlorethylene, benzene), using them for its nutrition.

At the same time, the plant throws active substances into the air, elevating mood and working capacity, normalizing sleep.

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