This herbaceous perennial plant lives in Europe, North Africa and Western Asia. Sometimes, if not strange, perennial ryegrass can be found in the regions of eastern Asia, right up to Western Siberia.
Plant descriptionPasture ryegrass, or, as it is called by the people, perennial ryegrass is one of the best and most unique pasture grasses of spring type. Very often English ryegrass is mixed with annual leguminous crops, and until flowering, it is eagerly eaten by various agricultural animals.
Perennial ryegrass differs from its other relatives in its high nutritional value: 100 kilograms of grass correspond to approximately 23 feed units, while hay - to 60 units of feed.
Perennial ryegrass is contained in the herbage on different hayfields from 4 to 6 years old, and on pastures it can live up to 12 years. Until the fourth year from sowing, it reaches its apogee in development. It tolerates frequent mowing and trampling, and also recovers very quickly after any kind of mechanical damage.
Preference gives rich, well-drained and loamy soils. In turn, it grows poorly on soils that have high acidity.
Pasture ryegrass is a unique green plant that is intended for feeding many domesticated animals.
Also, perennial ryegrass forms short and numerous shoots with shiny and tender, green leaves, forming an excellent carpet of high quality. He has a well-developed root system and therefore this plant is one of the fastest-growing grass for the lawn.
This herb is a mesophyte. Thus, it does not withstand excessive moisture, but it is not a drought-resistant plant.
English ryegrass is also used to consolidate various kinds of eroded soils.
The uniqueness of the yield of ryegrass perennial directly depends on the life span of a single plant. We already know that this subspecies of this type of ryegrass is also an excellent fertilizer and soil treatment, on which, in fact, the plant sprouts. This is the prerequisite to the fact that the harvest depends not so much on the conditions, but on the species itself, which contributes to fertilizing and improving the soil in the area of productivity.
If we talk in digital equivalent, then pasture ryegrass gives about 400 centners of green mass per hectare. In addition, it gives about 90-100 centners of hay per hectare, which is also a high indicator of plant yield. And the quintessence of the whole process of development and the apogee of the growth of productivity with each year of ryegrass is the total sum of the seeds. Thus, in the first year after sowing, about four quintals per hectare occur, and after the second and third years - about six quintals per hectare of soil.
In addition to high yields, pasture ryegrass has many other positive aspects:
- - high nutritional value and a very high rate of regrowth after mowing,
- very well with other types of herbs (especially with clover),
- is a fertilizer of the soil and its medicine, as it prevents erosion,
There is no obvious and significant deficiencies in pasture grazing. To small unpleasant aspects of the development of the plant can be attributed only to its non-drought resistance. Also, the plant does not withstand excessive moisture during its ripening period and may in the near future slow its development.Depending on the type of seeding, there are certain fluctuations in seeding rates. Thus, the seeding rate in clean crops per 1 hectare will be 12-14 kg. The second type of sowing will be sowing ryegrass perennial along with other herbs. In this case, the seeding rate per 1 hectare will vary in size from 8 to 10 kg.
Based on the above seeding rates, with a normal average climate in which there is no excess of moisture and various droughts, a positive result can be expected.
It is natural that the person is not under the temperature at which the pasture ryegrass will grow. And yet, a person can in a certain way affect the conditions of plant development. The optimum temperature for seed germination is from +2 degrees C to -4 degrees. The effect on temperature is due to the ability of a person to regularly water the plant.
The embedment depth of pasture ryegrass seeds is rather small and equals 2-3 cm. It is precisely because of the nature of the ryegrass itself, which is a mesophytic plant, that large amounts of moisture cannot be allowed, as well as to prevent the soil on which the grass grows.
Features of growing
Pasture ryegrass, although not too high, requires certain conditions for life and development. A lot depends on the method of sowing, because when sowing ryegrass with other grassy green plants, it is necessary to adhere to uniformity, but at the same time a separate partial approach to the cultivation, growth and development of plants that are planted on the same soil.
After winter, it is just the right time to sow perennial ryegrass, since the soil is sufficiently moist, there is no drought and the soil has “refreshed” with the retreat of snow and frost.Deviations from the following wishes can lead to a partial loss of the crop, and to its complete incapacity in comparison with the destination. These conditions are:
- - sowing should occur in early spring, the soil should not be dry and measured wet,
- English ryegrass can not cope with both frost and heat,
- the soil must be treated immediately after winter and the snow melt, moisture must be kept in a certain average amount and not allowed to "flood" the seeds of perennial ryegrass with water,
- for plowing it is necessary to make potash and phosphate fertilizers, and in early spring to introduce nitrogen fertilizers under the first sowing,
- mowing should be carried out at the very beginning of flowering, due to the fact that ryegrass coarsens very quickly, as a result of which animals are poorly eaten.
The initial range of this biennial or perennial plant covered the whole of Europe (with the exception of the Arctic), Western Asia, North Africa and more East Asian regions (up to the Himalayas), including the southern regions of Western Siberia. Gradually, grass ryegrass as pasture as introduced or introduced has been widely distributed in all the extratropical zones of the planet due to its active cultivation. The plant is found in meadows, fields, forest glades, in settlements, along roads.
Pasture ryegrass: description
This plant with a strong root system has a height of up to seventy centimeters (usually from fifteen centimeters to half a meter). Pasture ryegrass has both vegetative and generative shoots, in which it differs from other types of chaff, which are characterized only by generative shoots.
The stems of the plants are smooth, the leaves are bright green, long and thin, up to thirty centimeters in size, shiny at the bottom, rough along the veins. At the base of the plate there are short, sometimes indistinctly pronounced ears. Tongue with solid edge, short.
The inflorescence has the form of a slightly drooping, direct, friable spike of brownish-green color. Spikelets, having from five to twelve flowers, are attached to the stem of the spike one by one by the narrow side. Each of them has one spikelet scales. The bottom floral scales are endless. Koloskovaya longer in comparison with the adjacent floral.
Pasture ryegrass seeds have a length of 5.5-6.5 millimeters and a width of 1-1.5 millimeters, lanceolate, grayish in color, slightly concave on the inside. The rod is oblate, expanding upwards.
Pasture ryegrass, the photo of which is presented in the article, is a moisture-loving plant that does not tolerate drought. It is responsive to irrigation, but it does not withstand close suitable groundwater and long-term flooding.
Spring resistance and winter hardiness are low. Pasture ryegrass is well adapted to the conditions of a humid temperate climate characterized by mild winters. Winters without snow can not stand, and the old grass stands are more prone to freezing. One of the reasons for the poor winter hardiness of the plant lies in the shallow location of the tillering knot from the soil surface (eight to thirteen millimeters). This feature must be considered when breeding.
Pasture ryegrass belongs to plants of the mid-season type of development in the winter, it grows quickly in the year of sowing, however, as a rule, it does not form generative stems, although they are sometimes still formed in some populations. Gives fruit for the second year of life, and in the case of conservation of grass - and the third.
The plant feels well on fertile loamy, moderately moist, sandy and clayey soils. It develops poorly on dry podzolized sandy and acidic soils. Able to give a high yield of dry matter in the presence of favorable conditions. Pasture ryegrass is notable for its good ottavennost, high pobegoobrazovatelnoy ability, pasture resistance. This is one of the most valuable cereals, judging by the feed virtues.
Depending on the cultivation area and conditions, it blooms in the second year of the growing season, in warm weather, as a rule, in the second half of June and early July. The plant is pollinated by the wind. When self-pollinating is able to form a large number of seeds. In the forest-steppe zone, the seeds ripen depending on the conditions of the year of July 10-25, and in the forest - from July 10-15 to August 5.
Ryegrass grazing is characterized by a small longevity. In the second or third year of life, the plant gives the highest yields, after which productivity drops sharply. On pastures in herbage can last for three to four years.
Ryegrass is affected by some fungal diseases: spotting, rust, powdery mildew.
Weak winter hardiness, low longevity, low resistance to diseases in some areas restrain the widespread use of such valuable grassland grass. Its growth is especially difficult in areas with a continental climate.
Perhaps the main advantage of this grass is its amazing ability to form a very beautiful dense grass one month after sowing. All over the world ryegrass is widely used in agriculture as a valuable fodder plant. It is also used for decorative purposes due to its bright green color. Ryegrass is added to all types of lawn grass mixtures to cover both sports and decorative purposes.
After mowing, the plant grows evenly and quickly, while maintaining a decorative appearance until the end of autumn and leaving green under the snow. The herb used as a fodder crop is characterized by rather high digestibility, it contains a lot of soluble sugars, so it is well fermented without the addition of preservatives. Pasture ryegrass and clover form a very successful grass mixture, fully satisfying the livestock need for protein. Another advantage of the plant is the fast tillering, which makes it possible to start grazing early on its herbage.
Description of the lawn ryegrass
Ryegrass shoots are characterized by strong branching and are covered with small leaves, painted in bright green color. A powerful root system is characterized by rapid growth. The plant does not lose its rich green color until the beginning of the first frost. When pruning and mowing it is able to recover in a short time. Beautiful and elegant herbage grown on the same place can last more than 5 years.
Pasture ryegrass belongs to perennials and is highly resistant to trampling compared to other varieties of lawn grass. With all its advantages, the plant does not tolerate excessive waterlogging of the soil, therefore it often dies in the event of floods or flooding of the plot. In the absence of snow cover in winter or at too low temperatures, the grass roots freeze.
Perennial ryegrass has several names, for example, perennial chaff, English or pasture ryegrass.
Under natural conditions, it can be found on the territory of Europe or North Africa. Sometimes grass grows in certain regions of Asia.
Growing lawn grass ryegrass from seeds
Perennial ryegrass is grown from seeds that are sown directly in open ground. Before planting is necessary to prepare the site. Remove weeds and large stones, dig up the soil so that it can settle before sowing. Shortly before planting, it is required to additionally compact the soil and level the surface. It is not recommended to choose a site with an angle of more than 30 degrees, otherwise the soil will crawl.
In the autumn it is better to enrich the site for growing ryegrass with potash and phosphate fertilizers. In spring, the soil needs top dressing with nitrogenous compounds.
The optimal time for sowing is considered to be early spring, when the air temperature will not fall below 2-4 degrees. If there is an opportunity to practice constantly watering the lawn, the seeds can be sown throughout the whole summer. They are scattered on the prepared site and close up with a thin layer of soil. A week later, under favorable weather conditions, the first shoots appear.
With the arrival of summer, it is necessary to water lawn grass regularly. Then it will begin to grow actively and forms a lush and thick carpet. During the whole season, it is required to mow the lawn several times in order to maintain its attractive appearance and restrain the active growth of the shoots.
The consumption of this grazing perennial when sowing may vary. As a rule, to fill 1 hectare of land you need to spend about 14 kg of a mixture of pure ryegrass. If you use a mixture of grass, then its consumption does not exceed 10 kg.
Full thick coating is formed very quickly. For mowing grass used lawn mower. The shoots have an excellent ability to recover, so after some time the territory is covered again with a bright green carpet.
As for grass mixture, certainly, a mixed type of lawn looks much prettier, but some herbs will require more care than a pure variety of ryegrass.
Material for planting can be purchased at stores selling garden plants. When ryegrass is already growing on the plot, you can stock up on your own with seeds. When mowing, just leave a small area of grass intact for ripening spikelets. After they turn yellow, the spikelets are cut and take out the seeds.
Pasture ryegrass does not tolerate growing in lowlands and in areas prone to flooding. The plant is unpretentious to the choice of soil, but will not grow in acidic soil. Fertile and loamy soil types are well suited for this lawn grass.
The first thing you need to pay special attention to is regular watering of grass. Ryegrass reacts poorly to drought, and excessive waterlogging of the site can cause the death of the roots. Before planting, it is also necessary to soak the soil well with water. During the growth of the lawn, organic fertilizers are applied to the soil.
Do not be afraid of frequent mowing the grass, because it can quickly grow and move around to cover the garden area. The plant is resistant to pests and diseases. This lawn grass practically does not get sick.
Frost, snowless winters, during which a large percentage of vegetation is lost, pose a danger for growing pasture ryegrass. Young shoots may die during the late spring frosts. If the area where the grass grows, voids become noticeable, then such gaps are filled with seeds.
The best conditions for growing are moderate climatic parameters. Lawn grass roots can withstand no more than -18 degrees of frost. If the surface of the site is protected by thick snow cover, the chances that the lawn will be preserved increase.
Ryegrass in landscape design
This pasture perennial serves as an excellent decoration as a natural landscaper. It is planted in parks, gardens or on sports fields.
Райграс прекрасно соседствует с люцерной и розовым клевером, а такие злаковые культуры, как мятлик луговой, овсяница или гребенник, будут дополнением к травяному покрытию.
Райграс пастбищный зачастую встречается в сельском хозяйстве. Бурный рост травы начинается с апреля. В мае газон можно использовать в качестве пастбищных угодий. The plant gives a rich harvest in the form of dense nutritious greens, which serves as food for cattle, horses or sheep. Under favorable conditions, up to 400 kg of grass mixture is obtained from one hectare of land. The same area of the plot gives from 90 to 100 centners of hay.
Ryegrass has a positive effect on soil structure and improves its fertile qualities, reduces the risk of erosion.
Types and grades of grass ryegrass
Breeders from around the world have tried to bring a lot of different green coatings that are able to decorate sports fields and recreation areas. They are sown with separate crops or use grass mixtures.
Grass mixtures labeled “Sport” include the following lawn varieties: Greenfield van, Henrietta and Roadrunner. In addition to them, perennial ryegrass, derived by domestic breeders is no less popular:
- Leningrad - this variety is distinguished by smooth light green shoots and is grown mainly in the north-western regions,
- Phoenix - characterized by creeping shoots, grows in the north and north-west of the country,
- Cinderella - called frost-resistant and unpretentious in the care of a high variety of lawn grass. However, after mowing, updating shoots takes a long time,
- Voronezh - considered one of the most reproductive varieties.
Chaff as animal feed
Perennial ryegrass root has a complex structure that allows the plant to extract useful elements from the depths. Eating this grass, animals receive all the necessary vitamins and quickly digest food. It is best to feed the animals with rye grass mixed with clover.
In a month - a half after sowing chaff ready to graze animals or mow to feed them. Such a fast life cycle of the plant makes it the best budget forage grass.
If you use the correct mineral fertilizers, rye grass can be mowed for a season from two to four times. In this case, the first three years of the grass will be most. After three years it is better to plant a new grass.
For feeding animals, chaff is best sown before winter. In the spring, the chaff grows rapidly. To get plenty of grass suitable for feeding, ryegrass should be mown as early as possible. After the bevel, it will quickly recover, and you can mow the plant again.
The ability of ryegrass to restore the upper parts is called otazhnost. To get enough crop feed, use special varieties of chaff with a high rate of return and low flowering value. After all, animals do not eat flowering plants.
Varieties with high index of abstinencerecommended by experts as food:
- Weimar. Does not bloom in the year of sowing. Gives feed about 60 t / ha. Recommend to use in regions with high humidity.
- Zaran. Forms inflorescences in the second year after sowing. Occurs in early spring. Suitable for grass feed gives 40-50 centner / ha. Use in the central regions of Russia.
- Kantar. Blossoms irregularly. The rate of edible grass reaches 60–70 centners / ha. Suitable for the central area.
- Kid. The ability to bloom is the lowest. Harvest dry grass - about 50 kg / ha. Recommended for growing in cold areas.
Chaff as a lawn surface
The ryegrass forms a uniform green patch.. As a lawn grass, rye grass is used in special lawn mixtures. For example, in such as:
Ryegrass, especially in the composition of the mixture, completely unpretentious to care. However, it does not tolerate severe drought or abundant humidity. The main condition - water the lawn in the particularly dry summer period and leave the grass alone during the rainy season. The grass does not tolerate low temperatures, so in winter, especially without snow, it can partially die. Therefore, before the next season carefully inspect the lawn and annoy the missing areas.
During planting, the chaff should be fertilized with mineral fertilizer. Never need additional feeding. Diseases plant steadily better than other types of lawn. Ryegrass can safely cut, after which he quickly restores the soft green color.
We reviewed the plant chaff pasture and its scope. For whatever you decide to use the chaff for many years, you make the right choice. After all, it is the most sustainable grass for both pastures and lawns. It’s not so easy to kill with disease or bevel. A matte green color will always leave a pleasant aesthetic impression.
Ryegrass the long-term description for a lawn
Grass ryegrass perennial characteristic for lawn photo
To create a lawn of any type suitable for trampling ryegrass pasture, which is an integral part of lawn mixes with the note "sport". This is a perennial herbaceous plant of the cereal family. It forms numerous short shoots covered with brilliant leaves of rich green color.
- Thanks to a well-developed root system, it grows quickly. Presentable appearance is maintained until late autumn.
- It has a high rate of regrowth after mowing.
- High-quality herbage without updating will please for 4-6 years.
- The most important advantage of lawn grass ryegrass perennial pasture is resistance to trampling.
- Pasture ryegrass has a low resistance to flooding: it does not tolerate long-term stagnation of flood waters and close occurrence of groundwater.
- Low frost resistance: without shelter and snow cover tolerates frosts down to -18 ° C.
Perennial ryegrass (lat. Lolium perenne) has a number of names: perennial chaff, English or pasture ryegrass.
In the natural environment it is distributed in Europe, Western Asia, North Africa, it is found in some regions of Eastern Asia (up to western Siberia).
Planting lawn grass ryegrass perennial pasture
Sowing lawn grass ryegrass perennial pasture photo
Planted rye grass perennial seeds in the ground. In advance carefully cultivate the area from perennial weeds, plow and level the ground, remove all stones and large roots, allow the ground to settle, and just before sowing, compact the soil. To get a beautiful lawn, the surface should be perfectly flat, and the slopes should not exceed 30 °, the sloping surface is reinforced with a special mesh so that there is no creep.
Start processing the site in advance. Apply potash-phosphate fertilizers for plowing in the fall, and feed the soil with nitrogen in early spring.
- Sow perennial ryegrass in early spring - seeds germinate at an air temperature of 2-4 ° C. If possible, watering can be sown pasture ryegrass until the end of summer.
- Depth of seeding is 2-3 cm.
- It is enough just to scatter the seeds evenly over the surface of the earth and close up with a rake.
- Depending on weather conditions, shoots will appear in 7-10 days.
With the heat set, periodically water the lawn so that the perennial ryegrass will quickly grow and form a dense, thick turf. During the season you should spend at least two mowing before you start preparing the lawn for the winter.
Ryegrass grazing rate per 1 ha
The seeding rates of ryegrass for perennial grazing differ depending on the type of mixture. If you sow ryegrass in its pure form, the consumption per 1 ha will be 12-14 kg. When sowing grass mixture - 8-10 kg.
Already in the first year of life will form a thick coating. Mowed with a lawnmower. Shoots grow back and forth, covering the plot with a fluffy carpet.
Regarding grass mixtures: mixed lawn looks attractive, but individual herbs can be more demanding to care than rye grass.
Seed material is purchased at specialized points of sale. If you are already growing ryegrass, try to collect the seeds yourself. To do this, leave a part of the crop that is not mown to get a flowering. Spikelets ripen in July - when they turn yellow, cut, dry and remove the seeds.
How to care for grass ryegrass perennial pasture
Grass ryegrass perennial pasture lawn photo
Basic care is reduced to constant moderate watering. Drought absolutely does not tolerate, and excessive moisture provokes rotting of the root system.
Be sure to feed the soil before sowing. During active growth, apply biocomposite fertilizer.
Do not be afraid to podkashivat often and cut ryegrass - it is quickly restored, even after a strong mechanical impact.
Resistant to diseases and pests.
Ryegrass is resistant to many diseases of herbs. During the entire growth period, the grass is very rarely sick.
Winter hardiness of lawn grass ryegrass perennial
Multi-cut ryegrass perennial frost resistance and characteristics of lawn grass photo
Low temperatures adversely affect the plant. Rye-rygrass does not tolerate snowless winters; during severe frosts, it can lose up to 30% of vegetation. Young shoots are sensitive to late spring frosts. In the spring, carefully inspect the lawn and, if necessary, fill in the gaps with seeding.
Grows best in mild climates. Without a snow cover, it will withstand a drop in temperature to -18 ° C, but if there is an impressive layer of snow, the viability increases.
Ryegrass perennial pasture in landscape design
Lawn grass ryegrass pasture in landscape design photo
Being a high-yielding perennial crop, pasture ryegrass is perfect for creating a decorative lawn on a plot, it is planted in a park zone, and is used for landscaping sports fields.
Ryegrass pasture for a lawn of a photo in landscaping
In grass mixtures it goes well with alfalfa, pink clover, horned iceworm.
Against the background of the lawn of ryegrass, such cereals as grass bluegrass, fescue, and comb are appropriately looked.
Ryegrass is pasture cultivated in agriculture.
The grass begins to grow actively since April, and in May it is suitable for pastures. Due to the high stable yield and nutritional value of greenery (not inferior to meadow and timothy grass fescue) it is used for feeding cattle, horses, sheep and goats.
If we talk in numbers, pasture ryegrass gives 400 centners of green mass per 1 ha of area. From the same area for the season receive 90-100 centners of hay.
Culture improves soil structure (prevents erosion), increases its fertility.
Varieties of lawn grass ryegrass perennial
Ryegrass pasture perennial landscape design photo
Created many artificial surfaces for sports fields, but still natural grassy highly valued. Lawns for recreation and sports are sown with a monoculture or a mixture of herbs.
Ryegrass varieties such as Greenfield van, Henrietta, Roadrunner are most often found in grass mixtures marked “Sport”.
Ryegrass - Recommendations - Photos
Ryegrass is recommended: for making turf coverings such as lawns, lawns in park areas, ordinary meadow lawns, it is applicable for parterny lawns only if it is necessary to accelerate the formation of grass-turf covers or when there are no rhizomatous and shrub species.
Ryegrass Grazing - Seeds - Photo
Pasture or perennial ryegrass seeds
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