- Manchurian Nut Growing: Planting and Care
- How to grow a walnut tree
- How long does a walnut grow before fruiting?
- How to grow almonds
The majestic fruit tree with sprawling branches and dense juicy crown will aesthetically form any decorative corners on the plots, especially if alternating when planting next to conifers, against the background of a mowed thick lawn, to create a garden design. And the Manchurian nut has a lot of healthy properties:
- fresh leaves, like plantain, pressed against open wounds for disinfection
- decoction of fresh leaves helps to cure a disease of the gastrointestinal tract, inflammation of the gums and from bending the feet (immerse the feet in the decoction for 30 minutes for several days in a row)
- kernels of nuts contain many vitamins, 50% polyunsaturated fats (consumed raw)
Seedlings are almost impossible to transplant without loss, therefore, for a seed of a Manchurian nut, you should immediately choose the final planting place. Nuts love sunny places, reach for the sky, if there is no shadow. Allowed to plant in the lowlands, but only on the rich minerals, oily soil. The root of the tree is very deeply and widely spread, so it is better to plant the tree away from the basement of the house and other buildings.
To plant a seedling should be either in early spring (early April), or in September. Dig a hole 100 cm deep and 50 cm wide. As a drain, a split brick or crushed stone is suitable. Then there is a layer of land for drainage and planting mixture (in case of poverty of the soil). Cover the pit with a seedling with a mixture of soil with humus and sand. It is recommended to add fertilizers phosphate and potassium, wood ash (from 1 cup).
Usually they plant 2-year-old saplings, after planting, they should immediately be tied to a peg. Before filling the soil mixture into the hole in the root, pour in a bucket of water. Then pour in the ground, carefully crush it and pour another bucket. Around the trunk sprinkle a mixture of peat and sawdust, compost.
Saplings for the winter for preservation should be warmed. In young Manchurian nuts, the tips of the branches are often frozen. Barrel wrapped net from mice and rats. The net needs to be stuck in the ground and well trampled.
Reproduction of a tree is possible in another way - with seeds. To do this, choose the best tree nuts 1-2 years of storage. You can plant them either in spring or autumn. You should know that the Manchurian walnut does not tolerate sour soil, so when planting you should sprinkle the hole with wood ash. The depth of the fossa is from 6 to 10 cm. Before planting, it is advisable to wet the nut with kerosene so that it appears unpleasant for mice. In the spring, under favorable conditions, well-watered fruits will give a powerful sprout.
When transplanting to a permanent place the seedling should preserve the initial orientation of the tree in relation to parts of the world. So it will take root faster and get stronger. The plant loves moisture and frequent watering. The soil of a young tree should always be watered. Regular watering is 3-4 times a month, but not before the formation of a puddle, without pouring. By the third year should be watered less often - up to 1-2 times per month.
After the fourth year, the plant is watered only once a month. Wet soil at the roots should be loosened. With this treatment in the fourth year, the Manchurian nut blossoms and enters the fruiting stage with edible nuts.
In the first years of growth, regular fertilizing with phosphate-potassium fertilizer was recommended once a summer. It is advisable to pour at the root of the entire diameter of the shovel of wood ash, this will allow the culture to properly develop and form a beautiful crown.
Trees perfectly tolerate dry and light flooding. To prevent burns, the barrel must be leached with clay.
Another important point in the care of the Manchurian nut is the pruning of the crown. In fact, the artificial formation of the top of the nut is not required. He is able to grow himself a round and very flat crown. However, it is still necessary to cut dried and too curved branches. And if the nut grows in a small area, then you cannot do without trimming the entire crown, because it is necessary to give the opportunity to grow to the neighboring cultures.
Place and time of landing
Landing should be dug 10 cm deep and then, adding wood ash, loosen the prepared soil.
Next, you need to identify the holes, the distance between which should be ten meters or more, since the Manchurian nut is a very large tree.
On the cultivation of the Manchurian walnut also look in the video:
Manchurian nut, both in planting and in care, has several features:
The plant must be watered often, because it loves wet soil. With a normal amount of precipitation, the procedure is carried out about 5 times per season. When watering seedlings that are 2-3 years old - seven or eight times per season. If the year is dry, then use about 20 liters.
Weeds are regularly removed and the soil is loosened, this helps to avoid stagnant water. The land is mulched to protect against rapid weed overgrowing.
After the growing season watering is carried out less frequently. Thus the nut is prepared for wintering. It is resistant to sub-zero temperatures, and if it is cold, it quickly leaves and begins to bear fruit.
If it happens that the tree is damaged by fire, the trunk is cut off and the stump is left. Handle circles with the trunk, loosen, mulch. After this, new processes appear at the base of the stump.
In order to hide the leaves from the aggressive influence of the sun's rays, a pine, spruce and spruce are planted nearby. And to save the trunk from the south place irgu or viburnum.
A seedling for up to three years is covered with peat or burlap, and at the end of the summer they are fed with either ash or superphosphate.
Manchurian walnut basically does not require special assistance in the formation, he copes with this on their own. The best time for pruning is the moment when the buds have already blossomed. After that, this procedure is no longer carried out until the second half of August, in order not to provoke the appearance of new buds, which will simply freeze out in winter.
Diseases and pests
Above it was mentioned that the plant produces active biological substances that help to protect themselves from attacks of pests. But it also happens that the tree is still sick. In the case of blackened leaflets, it should be treated with Fundazole or any copper-containing agent. Most likely, this is a fungal disease that has damaged some walnut segments. The treatment procedure is carried out 2 times with a break of 2 weeks.
Manchurian nut can suffer from gall mites and walnut cracks. The first of the pests, the tick, waits the cold season of the year in the kidneys themselves, and lays eggs in them. Females fall into the leaves and they are visible tubercles. In this case, the diseased tree should be treated with colloidal sulfur (100 grams per 10 liters of water) during bud break. In mid-summer, you can spray Fufanon (0.1%) every 10-12 days. Abamectin is considered a good remedy, for ticks from neurotoxic. Branches that are badly damaged are cut and destroyed by burning.
Walnut should not be treated with drugs that contain pesticides, it can poison the tree and make it poisonous.
The second major pest for this tree is a nut tree. It has wings and inflicts damage to the bark of the shoots, leaves, flowers, creates galls in them. The most benign method of dealing with it is simply the destruction of the affected branches. When adult insects appear, the tree is sprayed with a solution of Chlorophos or Karbofos (90g per 10 liters of water).
Under the green shell is a hard shell and a nut is placed in it. Its appearance resembles a walnut.
Nuts begin to ripen in autumn, namely in September. The shell that covers the shell begins to turn brown. This indicates a willingness to harvest.
A bountiful harvest of the tree brings every two years, and actively bear fruit to reach the age of 8.
One plant gives about 80 kilograms of nuts per season.
Choosing a place to plant a nut
- For landing, you need to find a spacious place.. It will take several years, and the sapling will turn into a big tree. With its crown, the nut will inhibit the growth of any plants within a radius of up to 10 m. Powerful roots can damage the foundation of a small building if it is within their reach.
- Open to sunlight. This is important in the early growth of the tree, the first 2-3 years.
- Lowland, downwind, gassed city boulevard - manchurian nut is picky. The exception is wetland or hill top in the north. The most suitable place is a neighborhood with a pond that does not freeze in winter.
- To grow walnut is needed fertile and deep landhaving a neutral or alkaline reaction. For liming, if the reaction is acidic, suitable humus mixed with sand and turf ground in equal proportions.
How to plant a Manchurian nut in the suburbs
Landing is done in spring, in April, when the earth warmed, or in autumn, in September.
It is necessary to purchase a sapling in the nursery. One should choose one-year-old, even, up to 1 m high. Roots should be packed with a clod of earth.
A pit is prepared for the seedling: the depth is about a meter, and the width is twice as large as the earthen clod of the seedling. The bottom is laid out twenty-centimeter layer of pebbles, it will be drainage. For this purpose, you can use broken brick, fragments of ceramic tiles, which is suitable at hand.
Drainage sprinkle fertile soil with a ball of 10 cm. You can use organic additives in the form of ripe compost, humus. They also feed in the first years of tree growth, this is 40 grams of phosphate fertilizers, as many potash fertilizers. Be sure to mix ash or lime if the soil is acidic.
Before the landing, you should examine the tip of the central root, it should be shortened, if it was not done in the nursery. By shortening the tip, you will create an incentive for active growth of the nut.
It is necessary to place the seedling in the center of the pit; the root neck should be flush with the ground surface. In advance hammer in the support peg, to which the tree is tied.
Half of the pit is filled with prepared and fertilized soil, then poured a bucket of water. Fill the remaining space with earth and slightly compacted by hand.
Mulch pristvolny circle, you can use peat, foliage or sawdust, but not with coniferous trees. It remains to once again moisten the earth.
In the first year and later, even a beginner, inexperienced gardener will be able to care for this tree.
- The first two winters recommend walnut warming.. Burlap is well suited for this. It should wrap the trunk and lower branches of the seedling, but do not overdo it, do not wrap the branches too tightly.
- It is necessary to mulch the area, quite a thick layer of about 10 cm. Recommend rodents to wrap the trunk with a metal grid and put poison next. With the arrival of spring, everything is cleaned, including mulch.
- In the first year of life, the nut must be systematically watered.. Every 15 days, subject to the absence of precipitation, pour a bucket of water under the seedling. The second and third year of growth is watered once a month. From the fourth year, additional watering is done only in the summer months, if summer is dry. An adult nut can not be watered at all or watered if it has not been raining for more than a month and the earth has dried up.
- To prevent the formation of crusts after watering should loosen the pristvolny plot of soil. This will increase the oxygen supply to the roots and reduce the number of weeds.
- To facilitate the care of the nut pristvolny circle mulch bark or shavings of deciduous trees. This preserves the loose surface of the earth, prevents the appearance of weeds and increases the nutrition of the roots through the soil.
- Feeding is carried out in the summer, before the formation of the fruit. Before irrigation, phosphate and potash fertilizers are diluted in water.
- Recommend one once a year dig around the whole area under the tree, to the edge of the crown. If you decide to arrange a recreation area under a tree, try not to trample the entire area, the access of oxygen to the roots is very important in the life of the nut.
- From April to June is held sanitary haircut - This is a mandatory tree care procedure. To eliminate unnecessary load and better development, every dry, cracked and twisted branches, as well as those that grow in the middle of the crown, are removed.
- There is no need to carry out formative pruning of the crown, but there is a need create crownsuitable for harvesting or to reduce the space occupied.
Such pruning begin to hold from the age of two walnut. Each spring, after the average air temperature rises to 10 ° C and the appearance of buds, a crown is formed depending on the need:
Low Spreading Tree
Such pruning has several positive sides: convenient harvesting, easier to care for the tree, a good place to rest under the canopy, an interesting place for children to spend time with.
To form such a crown, the crown of the trunk is trimmed to the second lateral bud, and from the bottom all buds are removed up to one meter in height. This makes it possible to grow the necessary side branches and direct the growth of the leading escape to the side. Such a tree practically ceases to grow upwards, throws the crown to the sides, the lower branches can reach the ground.
High shtamb compact tree
Pruned in a similar way in the case when there is little space, I want to grow a nut and do not want to harm the surrounding plants.
Clear the buds and branches of the trunk to a height of one and a half meters, and the tip pinch off. Subsequently, the crown is strongly branched, and the form can later be formed at will.
This is the natural and only form of a nut in the north. This form is used for growing on the site when there is not enough space for planting a tree. And yet, by cutting a nut in this way, gardeners can save a lost tree.
The tip just cut down on a stump or pinch off, it stimulates the emergence of root shoots. Choose from them several, six or seven, straight, strong shoots for the skeleton of a bush. Further care is limited to thinning and keeping fit.
Independent cultivation of a sapling from a nut
Planting a nut is a fairly simple and quick process when compared to other fruit trees.
There are several methods for the independent cultivation of a Manchurian seedling:
- The easiest, natural way: to plant yourself in the ground in the fall.
- Nuts are stored in the refrigerator throughout the winter. Before disembarking, they are placed in warm water for 10 days, daily changing water.
- Fill with hot water and leave for a day. We plant in sandy soil, we expect shoots in 1 month.
Before planting, the soil is prepared in advance using ash or lime, and well watered. Planted to a depth of 8 cm, with a distance between the nuts more than 10 cm. To protect the nuts from rodents, seeds are dipped in kerosene and spread in the hole to the side. Seed should be filled using soil, sawdust or sand. It is recommended to mulch the landing site.
In the spring, those nuts that have been in the ground since autumn will be the first to grow; they have undergone a natural stratification in the ground.
It is considered the most correct to transplant a sprouted nut immediately after its appearance on the surface. Replanting to a permanent place, it is necessary to clearly consider the direction of light of its growth, noting, for example, where the first leaf is looking. This will help the seedling to adapt more easily on site.
When digging up a sapling for transplanting, it is worth remembering: the root is much longer than the stem, it should be shortened quite a bit, this is enough to stimulate the growth of the tree itself.
For a seedling, it is better if the pit prepared for planting is dug into a meter deep. The drainage layer created by the gardener will serve the tree throughout its life.