A very flowering plant, very popular among gardeners. Care for marshmallows at home is elementary, does not require specific knowledge and requirements. The flower is not capricious, it gratefully responds to the creation of favorable conditions. How to grow it?
Description and origin
Bulbous perennial of amaryllis family. It grows in a humid tropical climate. He likes to settle in the swamps and peatlands. In warm areas it is cultivated as a garden crop, in temperate climates mainly as a pot plant.
The flowers are wide open, crocus, different colors. Beautifully look the groups consisting of different grades. During the rest period, all the aboveground parts die off. Onion remains in the ground. After resting, she again releases leaves and flower stalks.
Interesting! In the people the flower is often called the upstart. The reason for this is not a foolish character, but a feature of flowering. Peduncle grows very quickly. Literally one day after the appearance of the peduncle, a beautiful flower, similar to a lily, blooms.
Popular indoor varieties
Together with hybrid varieties, there are about 90 varieties. Many of them are grown in artificial conditions. By coloring, varieties and varieties can be divided into three groups.
With pink flowers:
- Zephyranthes pink. A small bush about 20 cm. The leaves are dark, shiny. Small flowers, but very tender. Blooms in spring and summer season.
- Zephyranthes grandiflora. Bulb round, large. Leaves are leaf-shaped up to 40 cm. Tall peduncle, ending with large funnel-shaped flowers. The flowers are pink, orange stamens in the center. It blooms from mid-spring.
- Zefirantes robustus. Translated - "powerful." Blooms later - from the middle of summer. Peduncles long, flowers pale pink.
With white flowers:
- Zephyranthes of Atamas. Blooms in early spring. The bulbs are medium-sized, egg-shaped, the neck is short. Flowers are white, medium size.
- Zephyranthes is white. Tubular leaves - narrow, long. Bulbs rounded. When planting, they are completely buried in the soil. Funnel-shaped flowers, rather large. Perianth white, rarely reddish from the outside. Flower stalks of medium length. Flowering in the second half of summer or autumn.
With flowers of yellow color:
- Zephyranthes yellow or golden. Bulbs medium-sized, ovate. Leaves are linear, not very long. The flowers are yellow, in the middle part a little wider, large. It blooms in the middle of winter. In the south of the country can be grown in flower beds.
- Lemon Zefirantes It blooms in the late summer with lemon-yellow flowers. Peduncles long, flowers expressive.
Important! Contains toxic substances! Despite the toxicity, it is used as a therapeutic agent in alternative medicine. Often used as an external means in the form of compresses. It is considered effective for abscesses, hepatitis, cancer, diabetes and tuberculosis.
Types of Zephyranthes
Zephyrantes Atamas leaves of narrow linear elongated shape, dark green. It blooms in spring (March, April) in cool rooms. It has white flowers (up to 4cm long). The bulb is in the shape of an egg, with a diameter of about 2 cm.
Zephyranthes white (snow white) the leaves appear simultaneously with the inflorescences (white, sometimes with a slight pink tint at the edges), 30cm long, thin, tubular. Suitable for cool rooms. It blooms from July to October. Bulb round (3 cm in diameter) with a long neck.
Zephyranthes golden (yellow) It has sheets of rectilinear narrow shape (30cm tall). It can be attributed to the winter flowers. Since it blooms from December to January. Loves cool rooms.
Large-flowered Zephyranthes (Pink) oval bulb (3 cm in diameter) with a short neck. The leaves are elongated, thin, dark green color, 20-30cm tall. The flowers are bright pink, bloom in April-July.
Zephyranthes multicolored another winter representative, blooms in December. Outside has a reddish-green hue, and inside - white. Suitable for cool and moderately warm rooms.
Zefirantes robusta or powerful in everyday life it is called, simply “homemade narcissus”. It has long, thin, bright green leaves, reaching 30 cm and light pink flowers.
View of Anderson's marshmallows the flower leans slightly to one side, has a copper-red shade closer to the edge of the petals, and bright yellow inside.
Zefirantes Minima - this flower will appeal to lovers of miniature species.
Zephyranthes lindley - large-flowered species of onion reaches 3-4 cm. It has dark green leaves with a width of 1-1.5 cm wide and large pink flowers with a diameter of up to 7 cm.
Zefirantes home care
Zefirantes loves sunbathing and is not afraid of even the bright sun, so it grows well in both the east and the south and west windows. In the summer it can even be taken out on the balcony or planted in open ground. In summer, the temperature should not exceed + 25 ° C, and in winter + 10 ° C.
Being in the summer in a room with dry air, the plant should be sprayed periodically.
During the active growth and flowering of zephyranthes. Adhere to moderate watering (the ground should be slightly wet). During periods of rest, the flower is occasionally watered. Except for situations when the plant begins to lose leaves, then it is impossible to wet the bulbs.
Ideal conditions for healthy growth can provide nutritious well-drained soil.
The composition may be the following: humus, sod land, sand (1: 1: 1) and some phosphate fertilizer.
The origin and description of the species
Zefirantes is a genus of perennial bulbous plants that belongs to the Amaryllidaceae family and includes about 90 species, including hybrid varieties suitable for indoor and outdoor use. This amazing flower grows in humid places, swamps and peatlands of tropical regions of Central and South America, Mexico, Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and West Indies. Locals love to cultivate it in areas near their homes.
Zefirantes have several “folk” names: upstart, flower of the western wind, rain lily. The thing is that as soon as the rainy season begins, the zephyranthes, who had been dozing before, suddenly unexpectedly let out arrows, topped with flowers like lilies, which bloom literally before our eyes. Flowering upstart begins unexpectedly and lasts very long - on average, 2 days. The name of the plant, which literally translates as Zephyr flower, was due to the fact that the vegetation and flowering period is due to the appearance of western winds (Zephyr is the god of the warm western breeze).
The flowers of zephyranthes are crocus-shaped, wide-open, with stamens of equal length. The color of the petals can be different - from white to lilac. Best of all marshmallows look like a group consisting of a large number of planted onions. In moments of drought, the plants are at rest, without leaves and shoots.
Zephyranthes have a “brother” - gabrantus, which is also called Argentine rain lily. How not to get confused?
The flower of zephyranthes always crowns only one erect flower.
Table: differences between marshmallow and gabrantus
Gabrantus peduncle can adorn from one to four flowers, inclined to the stem
Gabrantus first belonged to the genus Zefirantes, but, since the differences between these plants are sufficient, it was singled out into a separate genus. Zephyranthes and gabrantus belong to the Amaryllid family.
The color of the flowers are 4 types:
- Belotsvetkovye. The bulb is 2–3 cm in diameter, the leaves are narrow, the flowers are white, about 6 cm in diameter. It feels good in cool rooms. Blossoms in May and September.
- Yellow flowers. Bulb with a diameter of 3 cm, funnel-shaped flowers, yellow. It grows well in open ground in the Central and Central Black Earth regions. Blossoms in December-January on the windowsill, in May - in the open field.
- Red flowers. The flower is 8 cm in diameter, the bulb is 3 cm in size. It blooms in April-July.
- Bicoloured. Bulb elongated, 3 cm, with a dark outer film. The flowers are usually white, outside they are reddish-green. Blossoms in January. Suitable for moderately warm rooms.
Zephyranthes is successfully cultivated in our country both in indoor conditions and in the garden. Outdoors it grows in subtropical regions of Russia, namely in the Krasnodar Territory. The plant is unpretentious, well developed, requires minimal maintenance. With the cultivation of it any beginner florist can handle.
At home, all kinds of zephyranthes grow equally well, but on the windowsills you can often see the popular indoor varieties described below.
Zephyranthes white (Zephyranthes candida). Belongs to the group of belotsvetkovye. The bulb reaches the size of 3 cm. The leaves of the zephyranthes of snow-white appear together with the peduncle. Its flowering period is from July to October. Great for cool or moderately warm (22–25 ° C).
Golden Zephyranthes (Zephyranthes aurea). This plant belongs to the group of yellow flowers. Its bulb is round, yellow flowers are funnel-shaped at the base, then expand. It blooms from December to January. Zephyranthes golden is very popular for planting in open ground in areas with warm climates. We have a welcome guest on the windowsills.
Pink Zephyranthes, or Pink (Zephyranthes rosea). One of the most popular varieties. It belongs to the red flowers, has very bright purple-pink flowers.
Zephyranthes robusta. Its name speaks for itself. The bulb reaches 4 cm. The flowers are large, the length of their light pink petals can reach 7 cm. It blooms in April - July. The rest period is pronounced and runs from September to November. The group is red flowers.
Zephyranthes multi-colored (Zephyranthes versicolor). Zephyranthes multi-colored belongs to the bicoloured group. The bulb with a diameter of 3 cm has a dark outer film. The flowers are reddish outside and creamy white inside. The length of the petals is 5-6 cm. It blooms in January.
Of course, there are much more varieties of zephyranthes: out of 90 that exist in nature, about 10 are grown at home.
Planting and transplanting
Planting and transplanting zephyranthes is best done in the spring, after a period of rest. Onions need to be pre-processed: free from dead scales, remove rotted or dry roots, put in a fungicide, for example, Fitosporin, for half an hour.
- The capacity for this plant should be chosen wide, but shallow. As a rule, they plant several bulbs in one bowl.
- The soil should be loose and nutritious, and the pH should not exceed 6. During the preparation of the substrate, it is best to mix the sod land, sand and humus in equal parts.
- At the bottom of the pot lay drainage. The drainage layer must be at least two centimeters.
Fine claydite, brick chips, foam plastic will be suitable for this purpose, and eggshell will be appropriate if the pH of the soil is below 5.
Drainage - the obligatory contents of the bowl for planting marshmallows
There is no need to replace the zephyranthes purchased in the store if the onion has not yet occupied all the free space.
Watering and feeding
Watering zephyranthes should be carried out regularly, as soon as the topsoil dries. It is impossible to prevent stagnation of water in the bowl, otherwise the root system may rot, and the flower itself - get sick. After flowering, marshmallows are watered only after the earthen coma dries. When the leaves wither, watering should stop.
In very dry and hot weather, the plant can be sprayed from a spray bottle.
Feed the marshmallows once a fortnight with liquid fertilizers for flowering bulbous plants or universal complexes in the dosage specified by the manufacturer. Top dressing begins at the moment when the first leaves appear, and continue until they wither, so that the bulb can gain strength.
In the dormant period, the plant is not fertilized.
When exactly zephyranthes will bloom will depend on many conditions:
- individual flower features
- external conditions
- the duration of the rest period.
Some species shoot arrows along with the appearance of leaves, others - after. But always each peduncle crowns only one flower. Zephyranthes blooms no more than two days. In one bulb can hide several arrows, so the impression of continuous flowering.
Zephyranthes bloom looks amazing, but lasts only two days
After the marshmallows have faded, the peduncle needs to be cut, leave only 5-7 cm. When it dries, carefully unscrew it.
Dead plant parts should be removed in a timely manner so as not to leave material for the development of infections.
Why zephyranthes does not bloom and how to make it bloom
It happens that the upstart slumbers and is not going to produce flower stalks. What could be the reasons for this?
- Spacious pot: when there is a lot of space, the bulb “zhiruet”, so you need to transplant it into a smaller pot and do not rush to free the plant from its daughter bulbs. Many growers do not transplant zephyranthes for five years.
- Incorrect marshmallow location. If the whole day the flower is under the rays of the scorching sun, or is always immersed in the shade, it will not bloom.
- High humidity in the dormant period: it is absolutely not necessary for the plant “in hibernation”.
- The flower is “fertilized” with fertilizers: the more, the better - such an opinion is wrong, everything should be in moderation.
- The bulb is too deep: about the rules of planting is written above.
The dormancy period for zephyranthes usually occurs in September-November or December-February. When the leaves begin to wither and fall away, watering should be stopped. Put the pot with bulbs in a cool (12–14 ° C), dark place with low humidity for 3 months. It is recommended to trim the dried leaves to avoid infection of the flower.
Removing dormant bulbs from the pot is not necessary.
Propagated in two ways - kids or growing from seed. Vegetative method gives faster results.
- Children. Near the main bulb there are a lot of small onion-shaped kids. Separate them before the rest period and immediately planted in separate pots for several pieces. Up to 12 onions can be planted in one pot at a time. The degree of penetration depends on the shape of the bulb. Short necked onions completely. In elongated onions, the neck is left on the surface. Caring as for adult plants.
- Seeds. A good way to grow a new hybrid variety. Flowering will have to wait a long time. Young plants of seedlings bloom only for 2-5 years, depending on the variety and conditions of detention. Sown in the spring in a light ground. Until germination is kept under cover. Dive at the stage of two true leaves.
Why marshmallows does not bloom and how to stimulate flowering? Sometimes an onion can stay dormant for a long time. Possible reasons for the lack of flowering:
- Too large pot. In spacious pots, the bulb gains mass, but reluctantly forms flower stalks. Repot the flower in a cramped pot, do not separate the daughter bulbs for a while.
- Wrong location. In the shade or constant exposure to the sun the plant blooms rarely.
- Excess fertilizer. Excessive feeding stimulates the growth of leaves, but inhibits flowering.
- Excess moisture during dormancy, deep penetration of the bulb.
Optimal conditions for growing in the house
Despite its unpretentiousness, the plant will be healthy and abundantly flowering when fulfilling very simple requirements for lighting and temperature.
The flower during the growing season and flowering will be grateful for the bright sunlight scattered light. In summer, it can be easily landed on a balcony or in open ground. And indoors, select the lighted window for it: south, west or east. But there are species that shed their leaves for the winter and need to rest, because they are put in a dark room until spring.
Zefirantes is considered an undemanding home care plant, and the air temperature suits it the same as for humans.
The optimum summer temperature is 19–24 ° С, and in the rest period is enough 10–12 ° С, but here it is important not to overdo it and not lower the temperature below 5 ° C, otherwise the plant will die.
Peculiarities of home care
One of the main causes of wilting and lack of growth of zephyranthes may be improper watering or lack of fertilizer. Because it is important to know exactly how to care for the flower.
The plant likes abundant watering in the summer, and during the growing season and flowering. But you do not need to fill it and allow stagnant moisture in the pot.
Water the flower when the ground in the pot is a little dried. Зимой и в период покоя полив прекращают полностью, чтобы избежать загнивания луковиц, и начинают весной, или в конце февраля, при появлении новых листочков.
During the growing season and flowering Zefirantes are fed with a liquid universal fertilizer every 2 weeks according to the dosages specified by the manufacturer.
Transplant rules: soil and pot
Care marshmallow is simple, this also applies to his transplant. This procedure is carried out annually at the end of the rest period, usually in the spring. The pot is chosen not much larger than the previous one, it is better if it is clay and low. Flowering will be more decorative and lush if you plant not one onion in one pot, but several, leaving their tops 1/3 above the ground.
Soil for planting should be loose, can be combined in equal amounts of sand, leaf soil and humus. A good drainage is laid on the bottom to avoid rotting of the bulbs.
Possible difficulties: diseases and pests
Let's see why in the room conditions does not bloom zephyranthes, or fades and grows poorly.
The plant is quite stable against diseases, but such pests can appear:
- Spider mite Dry air in the house contributes to its development. A cobweb appears on the leaves and buds, they fade and may fall off over time. Rubbing with soapy water and further bathing the flower in the shower can help at the beginning of infection. If the process is aggravated, then Acartell, a widespread acaricide, solution of 0.15%, will help.
- The amaryllis scale is small, up to 3 mm, white oval insects, after the attack of which the flower fades, and the leaves turn yellow and fall. The excretions of this pest can provoke the appearance of a black fungus, which is much more dangerous than the worm itself. It is necessary to fight it with proven insecticides, such as "Aktara", "Fitoverm", "Aktellik".
- The shield is brownish small insect plaques that spread throughout the plant, feeding on its juice. The flower is in a generally depressed state, the leaves curl and dry together with the buds. She is also struggling with the above insecticides.