Currently, it is known about the existence of a huge number of different plants, and some of them, unfortunately, are listed in the Red Book. Among the rare and endangered species is the Mountain Peony.which in the wild began to occur less and less.
Description of the species
Mountain peony is a perennial plant with good frost resistance and capable of carrying even the most severe winters in the wild.
The rhizomes of such a plant are arranged horizontally and resemble a brush in appearance. Stem single, erect, in height reaches 30-60 centimeters. A characteristic feature is the presence of edges along which the pigment strip of purple color flows. At the base of the stem are large (diameter 4 centimeters) cover the scales of a bright, red-crimson color.Crimean Mountain Peonies
The leaves are triply trifoliate, oval-shaped, something resembling an inverted chicken egg with a pointed tip. To imagine the size of the leaves, it should be noted that in diameter they range from 18 to 28 centimeters. Another distinctive feature is the color of the foliage, the plate itself is painted in a dark red tint, with bright, purple veins stand out as a bright spot on it..
The flowers are arranged one by one, have a cupped shape, their diameter can be either 6 or 12 centimeters. A sturdy bud support is a dark green, concave, fleshy sepal.
The shape of the flower is simple, that is, the petals are arranged in one row and a separate copy consists of 5-6 petals of medium size (their length is 6 centimeters, and its width is 4). The wavy edges of the flower give it a certain charm and make it more interesting. Most often in nature can be found with a delicate, creamy bud, but in rare cases, the petals can be painted in a light pink color..
In the middle of the flower hides up to 60 short stamens, the base of which is colored purple, the top bright yellow and the base white. In addition to stamens, up to 3 pestles can be located in one bud (usually one). Flowering Mountain Peony occurs in May.Mountain Peony not only blooms earlier than other species, but also bears fruit.
The fruits of the plant ripen in late July - early August and are a single leaf, up to 6 centimeters long, with a bare surface of greenish-purple color. It opens arcuate, inside it can be from 4 to 8 seeds of dark, brown colorIt is also possible that instead of seeds in the leaflet, fruitless rudiments may appear that differ from mature seeds only in a bright, crimson color.
Where can I meet the Mountain Peony?
It grows mainly in the eastern part of Russia, namely:
- Vicinities of the city Nikolaevsk-on-Amur,
- Primorsky Krai, near Vlalivostok,
- Khasansky district
- Shkotovsky district
- Tetyukhinsky district,
- Nevelsky district,
- Poronaysky district
- Tomarinsky district,
- Kholmsky district
- Shikotan Island,
- Iturup Island.
In addition to the territory of the Russian Federation, the Mountain Peony can be found in China, Japan and on the Korean Peninsula.Mountain Peony within Russia occupies not too vast territories
Based on the preferences of this plant, it can be found in mixed forests, where both coniferous and deciduous trees grow. Predominantly grows in shady places, namely in the floodplains of rivers and on gentle slopes of.
Why is the plant listed in the red book?
There are quite a number of factors by which Mountain Peonies are rapidly disappearing.:
- Many people mindlessly tear flowers, wanting to make a beautiful bouquet or composition, but no one even thinks about the harm it causes to nature. After all, beautiful flowers will wither very soon, and the consequences of such an act will be the disappearance of the whole species,
- Gardeners dig up plant rhizomesto grow them yourself, but such a venture rarely ends with success,
- Deforestation also negatively affects the safety of grassy vegetation, including Mountain peonies,
- Forest fires kill a huge number of forest dwellers, while it is worth noting that most often they occur through the fault of man.
From this we can conclude that the disappearance of various plant species most often occurs through the fault of manwho does not even think about the consequences of his, it would seem, innocent actions.
To preserve the plants, specially protected natural areas (PAs) were organized, where species conservation, study and reproduction activities are carried out. Such territories are located in Primorsky Krai and Sakhalin.
Is it possible to grow at home?
Mountain peonies are extremely rarely found in private areas, although growing them vegetatively is still possible.The main points of cultivation of the Mountain Peony are botanical gardens.
Cultivated flowers differ from wild ones.:
- Leaves and Buds A bit more,
- Root system more developed and powerful
- In some cases bloom comes before, instead of May, it occurs in mid-April.
- Especially successful is the cultivation, during which peony forms seeds.
Usually, the mountain peony species is grown in botanical gardens, where, at the same time, they are growing.
Mountain Peony is a very rare and beautiful plant that is found in the eastern part of the country.. In order to preserve this flower, each person must make certain efforts, namely, not to destroy the surrounding nature.
The flowering period of the mountain peony begins in April or May. Its fruits ripen closer to August, at the end of July.
Mountain peony cultivation
In addition to protecting the endangered species, carry out activities to recreate it.
In private farms and botanical gardens is the introduction of the flower. In other words, it is relocated beyond its natural habitat to artificial (to the beds). Difficulties with such planting, he does not cause. Under certain conditions, corresponding to its growing season, flowering occurs in a month, and the flower itself withstands about a week. The introduction will be successful if the plant will give seeds during this period.
But no matter how hard the experts tried, a peony grown in this way is different from a wild plant:
- Flowers and leaves are larger,
- The root system is much more powerful than the original.
- Flowering occurs earlier - not in May, but in mid-April,
- In captivity, seeds are formed more often.
Despite its rarity and scarcity, the mountain peony is unpretentious, therefore it is optimal for planting in the country. Of course, if you buy seeds or an adult plant in nurseries, and not pull it from its natural habitat.
In order to preserve the mountain peony and continue to admire the beauty during its flowering period, a person needs to learn to appreciate the world around us and not cause useless harm!
The most common limiting factors are considered to be:
- collecting flowers by people to form bouquets,
- extensive deforestation
- frequent forest fires
- digging rhizomes - this is because the plant has a large number of medicinal properties,
- economic development of the areas of germination.
To save the population, strictly protected natural reserves have been created - they carry out work on a more detailed study of the species and the possibility of its increasing its number.
Mountain peony is a perennial flower, the rhizomes of which are arranged horizontally. Its stem is solitary and erect, which can reach half a meter in height.
A distinctive feature of this type is the presence of so-called ribs - a pigment strip with a violet shade flows along them. At the very base are quite large scales, in diameter up to 4 centimeters, red or crimson.
In addition, the features of this flower can be considered:
- the leaves are triple and oval in shape. Their length can vary from 18 to 28 centimeters. The foliage plate is colored dark red. There are also veins of a purple hue,
- flowers - are characterized by a cupped shape, and in diameter are about 10 centimeters. The basis is the sepal - it is dark green in color, concave and very fleshy. The form of the flower is simple - this means that the petals are arranged in one row, in which there are 5-6 pieces. Their length is 6 centimeters, and the width is 40 millimeters. In nature, the flowers of a delicate light pink shade are most common,
- stamens - they are located in the middle of the flower, and in total there are about 60 of them. Their base is purple, and the top is yellow,
- pistils - in one bud often there are not more than 3 of them. Often only one pestle is found.
The flowering period falls on May, and the fruits mostly open towards the end of July or the beginning of August. The fruit stands odnolistovka, the length of which does not exceed 6 centimeters. His surface is naked with a greenish-purple color. Inside there is from 4 to 8 seeds of a brownish shade. Instead of seeds, the fruit may contain infertile primordia.
Classification by type of flower
Immediately, we note that this classification is more suitable for garden, rather than wild types of pions. But still bring it worth it, so you understand the difference in the form of flowers. Moreover, wild peonies have become the starting point of all garden varieties.
The classification of all varieties of peonies includes the origin and shape of the flower. According to these characteristics, pions are divided into 5 groups:
- A simple flower shape with one, maximum two layers of outer petals. Without inner crown.
- The semi-terry form having from three to five rows of external petals. Without inner crown.
- The Japanese form (the ancestor of the pion is lacticula), several external rows (1-2), inside the transformed stamens, in the form of narrow reed petals.
- Anemonovidny form. 1-2 circles of external petals, inside shortened stamens, so-called petalodies.
- Terry shape. In this case, most of the volume of the flower is filled with petals that cover the reproductive organs.