Mature grapes are rationally moved to a new place of residence in the fall, after the leaves have fallen. In this case, you need to catch up to the first frost, so that the fragile rhizome does not suffer.
Some professionals transplanted bushes in early spring, before the movement of juice began. This period is successful, because the grapes have not yet awakened after hibernation. Typically, these bushes are painfully experiencing the move. The optimal time for work is April 25-28. Since weather conditions change every year, these dates are relative. The most important thing is to transplant the plant before bud break.
In both cases, the old grapes are moved along with a clod of earth. If the work is done in the springtime, dug a hole doused with hot water. The grapes are plastic, usually take root well. But no one is immune from mistakes. You can ruin the plant, leaving many vines and old roots, allowing it to form fruits early.
You can transplant grapes both in spring and autumn, choosing the best time for this.
How to move the vine?
- For work you need to prepare:
- Potassium permanganate
Trying not to touch the rhizomes of the neighbors, the selected plant is digged (radius 50 cm). Completely get the roots is unlikely to succeed. On sandy soils, they reach 1.5 m in depth.
Shrubs that are 5 to 7 years old are carefully freed from the ground. The old parts of the rhizome are removed: it is necessary to leave only strong young processes. The underground part of the grapes is placed in a pre-prepared mixture of clay and manganese dissolved in water.
The excess vines are cut off. Leave no more than 2 sleeves. On each - 1 or 2 young vines. The tops of the grape branches are shortened. The cut is sealed with wax. Next, the bush is moved to a prepared pit. In a water-drenched recess is placed: clay, soil with sand and gravel.
The plant will be easier to settle down if you add barley grains to the pit. Soil, poor in iron, can be enriched. To do this, they burn nails and cans on the fire and place them near the rhizome. Fertilizer is added to the ground where the roots will fall asleep.
The prepared planting material is placed obliquely in the pit, the roots are straightened down. Deepening fill, young vines bring a little to the surface. Bush immediately watered. To further the plant enough moisture in the pit set pipe section.
In the first year at the new place all the formed inflorescences break off. For the next season, they leave only a third of them. Such actions will help the grapes to recuperate faster.
Young 1 and 3-year-old bushes are transplanted along with a clod of earth into a hollow of a larger volume. This method is called transshipment. So that the soil does not crumble, the grapes are not watered for several days and the rhizome is not shortened. It is not difficult to properly transplant a grape bush, if you follow all the recommendations of experienced gardeners.
The method of transplanting layering and cuttings
When the old plant needs to be moved a small distance, it is completely irrational to dig it out. Effectively grow otvodok. This movement and rejuvenation.
Vines are not separated from the parent plant, but simply added dropwise. The branch is gradually taking root. It feeds on its own, and at the expense of the old bush. Conveniently, if the grapes immediately have a vine of the desired length. Too short shoots lengthen, grafting cutting. And it is possible to form a layer several times. An overly long vine is simply wrapped around the stem of the mother plant.
Cuttings for transplant harvest in the fall, pruning adult bushes. Shoots that are 1 year old will fit, about 10 mm in thickness. They are put on the ground and sprinkled with sand. The thickness of the layer is 15 cm. This is how grapes are stored until February.
Next, the cuttings reach and separate the kidneys, leaving only three. The tips of the shoots are placed in water with a growth regulator. They are ready for planting, if pressing a slice shows a light green tint.
To continue the successful development of the seedling is placed in a container filled with a specially prepared mixture. This is sod land, humus, sand and sawdust in a ratio of 1: 1.5: 0.5: 1.
Stalk after planting generously watered. He does not like liquid to stagnate. In spring grapes can be safely placed in the garden.
There are great ways to transplant grapes without digging up an old bush.
Virtually any irrationally planned vineyard can be streamlined. Both young and old plants are easy to transplant and take root.
Tested grape transplantation method on video:
When can grapes be transplanted
Universal dates, when it is better to transplant grapes, does not exist. A gardener needs to be guided by his region and specific climatic conditions.
The best time for planting and transplanting is autumn and spring. In the fall, work begins after leaf fall and continues until frost. In the southern regions, where the soil does not freeze through in winter, it is permissible to plant during long thaws in January and February.
In the spring, they wait for the soil to thaw. It is important to have time to transplant before the budding eyes. In spring, the soil is well saturated with moisture, which plants use for their development.
Important! The earlier the bushes are planted (if there are favorable conditions), the better they will take root.
When deciding how to transplant grapes correctly without loss to the crop, the grower must take into account not only the time of the operation, but also the age of the plant.
Ways to transplant different age adult grape bushes
The first three years of life a young plant is considered a sapling. During this period, he is actively forming roots. With age, the old roots thicken, the life potential of the grapes and its ability to regenerate decreases. This means that the older the plant, the worse it takes root in a new place. Nevertheless, even adult bushes of 7-10 years old are capable of producing good yields after transplantation.
How can you transplant an adult vine bush:
- with a lump of earth,
- with an open root system.
For adult bushes, the first method is optimal - with a clod of earth and an intact root system. However, this is not always feasible without special equipment.
Thus, depending on the type of soil and climate, the root system of the grape bush penetrates the following depth:
- in humid cool climate - 20-40 cm,
- in the south - 40-120 cm
- on sandy soils - 1.5-3.5 m,
- on the rocks in the southern regions - 3-5 m and more.
Thus, the task of the grower in transplanting is to preserve the maximum of the roots. The older the plant, the more voluminous the earth will be.
Annuals, dvuhletki, three-year
Young seedlings are planted from school to a permanent place at the age of 1-3 years. They can be either with a closed root system or with an open one.
In the specialized literature on viticulture advised to do this:
- Choose on the seedling 1-2 most developed escape, the rest to remove.
- Selected shoots pruned, leaving 2-3 eyes on each.
- Remove all roots located above the first-second node from the heel. This should stimulate the development of the main heel roots.
- Shorten heel roots to 20-25 cm when planting in the pits and up to 5-7 cm under the hydrodrill.
Transplanting seedlings in the fall
With the autumn transplant, a definite plus is that in the spring the bush starts to grow early and does not lag behind the rest. This means that in the first year after the operation a small crop can be obtained.
If you plan to transplant grapes with ZKS in the fall, be prepared that the plant will not have time to settle down in a new place and will not survive the winter. To avoid this, you need to carefully mulch the soil around the seedling and make a more thorough shelter.
As an option, in areas with little snow in the winter and possible frosts, it is recommended to dig up seedlings with PCL in the fall, and plant only in the spring, having organized a cool wintering in the basement or cellar. Bushes with ACS transplanted in the fall.
Differences in transplanting in spring and summer
With a spring transplant, it is likely that the bush will get used to new conditions for a long time, it will be late in growth and as a result the vine will not have time to mature. Harvest with this method of transplanting will have to wait longer.
Important! Planting vegetative grapes in cold land is more likely to lead to the death of the root system, and hence the entire bush.
The undoubted advantage of spring planting is that the plant well is harvested well in advance, even in summer or autumn. During the winter months, all the fillers in the pit are compacted and create a more uniform soil.
In the summer of transplanting adult bushes is undesirable. During the growing season, the plant will spend a lot of effort to restore the roots to the detriment of the development of the ground part and may wither. Young vegetative seedlings with a closed root system, which can be transplanted without damaging the roots, are moved to a new location in the summer.
Considering the fact that a grape bush, sufficiently mature, after a transplant, has been ill for a long time and may not even bear fruit anymore, it is recommended to resort to plant reproduction using layering. At the same time, by the end of autumn, the vine, sprinkled with powder, acquires a strong root system and an impressive green crown, and it can bear fruit the following year. Her food is due to the parent plant.
In order to achieve the fastest recovery of the grapevine in a new place, and so that it gains strength in a timely manner and starts bringing a good harvest, it is necessary to periodically feed it with mineral salts and fertilizers. They are brought closer to the heel roots of grapes. Also, do not forget about the need for frequent irrigation with rainwater. The process of proper fertilizer is as follows:
Transplantation of adult bushes
Replace if necessary, and adult bushes. This is done in the fall after leaf fall and in early spring before the start of sap flow. To plant such bushes in a new place, one should prepare a hole a little wider and deeper than usual, fill its lower part with earth containing nutrients. If the soil is not rich in them, add fertilizer to it. 6–8 kilograms of humus, 150–200 grams of superphosphate, 75–100 grams of ammonium sulphate and 30–35 grams of potassium salt are introduced into one hole. The latter can be replaced with wood ash (5-6 times more by weight than salt). Fertilizers should be well mixed with the soil. If humus and mineral fertilizers are applied together, the rate of the latter is reduced by half. The bush should be dug out of the ground so as not to damage the underground shtamb, its heel and to keep more roots. Then you need to cut the roots of the bush for 25-30 centimeters, and some of them with mechanical damage shortened to such a length that the damaged part was removed completely. Rosy roots, located under the head of the bush, should be cut out completely. After pruning, the roots are soaked in a talker, consisting of two parts of clay and one - of cow manure.
Fig. 9. A bush with dew roots under its head (a).
Fig. ten. Pruning a bush. Places for cutting are indicated by dashes.
Talker on the density should be creamy. With a good root system of the bush, you can leave several sleeves with replacement knots with two eyes on each. Everything else from the bush should be cut, not allowing fruiting in the year of transplantation. If the roots are weak or there is a need to replace the entire above-ground part of the bush with a new one, then the above-ground part should be cut off to the black head.
Fig. eleven. Pruning the bush "on the black head" (but).
Before planting a bush to a new place, you need to make an earthen mound at the bottom of the pit and put a bush on it so that the heel roots fit the mound on all sides. After that, the hole is filled with earth until the next tier of the roots, which are also spread on the ground and covered. After that, the soil should be slightly compacted and poured with water (1-2 buckets per bush), fill the hole up to the top and re-water it at the same rate. If transplantation is done in the fall, the bush must be covered with earth for the winter. In the spring, with a full cut of the aerial part, the head of the bush is covered with an earthen mound 10–12 centimeters high.
During the summer, the transplanted shrub should be watered several times so that the water reaches the heel roots. With insufficiently deep watering, young roots, formed after pruning old ones, sometimes develop not downwards, but upwards, where there is moist soil. This should be avoided because the root system, which appeared in the upper layers of the soil, is more susceptible to freezing. During the summer, it is necessary to feed the transplanted bushes two or three times and fluff the soil. When the shoots have reached a length of 20-25 centimeters, they should be sprayed with a prophylactic purpose with a 0.75% solution of Bordeaux mixture. After the rains during the summer, the bushes are sprayed with a one percent solution of this toxic chemical.