Good soil for growing seedlings is just as important as creating optimal external conditions. If the seedlings will receive a sufficient amount of light, moisture, air, but are forced to stay in the poor land, there will be no sense from such plants, and it is unlikely that they will count on a rich harvest. About what kind of soil is needed for seedlings, and how to prepare it yourself, described in detail on this page.
What soil soil for growing seedlings is better?
So, what is the best soil for seedlings, in which particular land should the seeds be sown? In the literature devoted to the problems of vegetable growing, one can find quite a few recommendations on the preparation of soil for growing seedlings, their composition depends on the biological characteristics of the crop, its cultivation period and on the components available.
Start talking about the seeds should be the fact that they, having a supply of nutrients, at first do not require fertile soil. Mostly they need water and air. To use them fully, the soil for seedlings should be, first of all, loose, porous, moisture-absorbing, air-permeable and permeable. Then the seeds germinate without problems, throw away the cotyledons and in excellent condition will approach the pick.
The described general methods of growing seedlings are suitable for almost all vegetable and flower crops, however, each plant needs a special regime and duration of cultivation, watering and additional feeding. A brief description of the agrotechnology of growing various crops is shown in the figure.
Conditions for growing seedlings of vegetable crops
If you respect the planting dates and fulfill all the recommendations for the care, you can get a strong and healthy seedlings, which quickly take root and give a good harvest.
How to calculate the timing, what to soak in, what soil to choose, what to grow seedlings
The planting time of a seedling depends on many factors: on the climate, on where the plant will grow (in a greenhouse or open field), how long the ripening period is (early variety or late). Usually calculate the time of planting, based on the recommended age of seedlings for planting in the ground.
Here is a small cheat sheet that will help determine the beginning of the planting season:
- early ripe tomatoes - 40-50 days,
- middle-ripe tomatoes - 55-60 days,
- late ripening tomatoes - 70 days,
- sweet pepper - 50-65 days,
- eggplant - 45-60 days.
Do not forget to add the seed germination time to these dates:
- Tomatoes - 4-6 days
- sweet pepper - 12-15 days,
- eggplants - 8-10 days.
Knowing these terms, it is easy to calculate the dates of sowing of a particular culture. So, if you plan to plant seedlings of pepper in a greenhouse in early May, then it is necessary to sow seeds for seedlings in mid-February.
You can play with cucumbers. Part of the plant earlier, part - later a couple of weeks. Then the fruiting will last, and notthere will be a single large number of cucumbers, which you do not know where to put.
Supplement reduces the time of growing seedlings.
60 days, if without additional lighting, additional lighting allows you to grow exactly the same seedlings in 40 days, tested by two seasons.
If you do not take into account this fact, you can create yourself a big problem. So, Anmik He sowed tomato seeds on March 5, by mid-April, the seedlings rose to seven sheets, and by April 25, the glasses with seedlings began to fall.
It was necessary for the first time in my life to plant seedlings on April 25 in an unheated greenhouse, and in May we have nights to -10 degrees. Namuchalis saving seedlings all May.
By the way, about the glasses for seedlings - they should not be small. The fact is that having filled the entire capacity with roots, the seedlings begin to grow vigorously. And growth is needed already on the bed - at the seedling stage, a good root development is more important. In the ground, short plants with a developed root catch up with the “giants” in a matter of days.
Watering seedlings is better through the pan, then the ground will not exactly mold from above, and the root system with this method develops better.
Recently, many gardeners began to grow seedlings in rolls, this method also has the name “Moscow-style seedlings”.
In rolls, you can both soak and germinate seeds,
and, adding land, grow the seedlings to the first true leaves.
Subsequently, the plants are spiked one by one into separate rolls of earth, the earth must be periodically poured.
By spinning a roll, you can pour the ground from the bottom, top or side. Usually one bed is enough for all the time.
Plants are in this form before planting in the ground.
Advantages of this method:
- saving space - already big seedlings “sit” three pieces in one cup,
- soil savings
- more buds of lateral roots are formed. By the time of landing in the ground, the root system of the beam than the seedlings from the cups,
- easier watering.
Many gardeners place high demands on the soil for seedlings. Those who are not satisfied with the purchase of the soil, prepare the land themselves. For example, this is the composition: a mixture of tofs + ground from under the nettle + a long-rotten sifted manure is spilled by Baikal and stored in black bags for 2 weeks in heat, then in the cold. Frozen ground is recommended to warm - shed with hot water. “Glued” or dry seeds are sown in a still warm soil.
Strictly speaking, all these dances around the ground are redundant. Before the first true leaf, plant consumption of minerals from the soil is minimal.
And then we need either a substrate with "mineral water", or the soil in which all this is contained.
I prepare a seedling substrate - soak coconut fiber (7 liters), add 3 liters of peat and 2 cups of biohumus. Sometimes even without peat, only more biohumus then, glass 3. The substrate is loose, the seedlings do not collapse, there is enough nutrition before disembarking. By the end of the feed Gumate K.
How to soak the seeds
Purchased colored seeds from good producers have already been processed, they do not need to be soaked, but experienced summer residents often do this anyway. What for? The fact is that this procedure kills several birds with one stone:
- allows you to determine the germination of seeds: good will sink immediately, those who do not drown within an hour, most likely, will not ascend,
- during the soaking, the seeds are disinfected: “who knows where they were grown, and what was flying nearby”,
- stimulates seeds, gives a good start to the seedling.
A strong solution of potassium permanganate slows the germination of seeds, so if you germinate seeds in potassium permanganate, the solution should be weak, a little pink, and the seeds in it should be no longer than 12 hours. Better than potassium permanganate, the result gives Appin (soak according to the instructions).
I always soak in HB101, 2 drops on a small glass (30 grams.) I keep the night, and then the water and the seeds - in the ground. The seedlings are excellent, they grow 100%, they didn’t hurt anything, they didn’t even notice cold snaps after landing.
Some FORUMHOUSE gardeners like to soak the seeds in a solution of melt water in half with aloe juice, both components of this cocktail are natural stimulants. It is better to take aloe from a large bush (a leaf is not younger than the seventh). Soak for 5-10 hours. Moreover, before soaking the seeds, the aloe leaf should lie for a week in the refrigerator for fermentation.
Most often, seeds are germinated in cotton pads folded in half. A number is written on the disk with a ball-point pen (the same number is written on the bag of seeds). The main thing here is not to let the germ sprout too much. You can germinate seeds in peat tablets: soak, cut in half lengthwise, plant the seed just for a few days, and immediately, without digging in, put in a glass. Before planting, do not forget to remove or at least cut a rag.
If your hand is full, you can not germinate, and soak the seeds. For example, here is a great way.
If the seeds are not soaked in anything, Zircon can be used for planting, 4 drops per cup (you cannot burn the seed at such saturation, and disinfect the soil): moisten the soil, put the seed, moisten it again.
In general, I soaked my three hot pepper seeds in the mix of forum tips: a pink solution of potassium permanganate based on melt water. Ground shed Zircon.
The FORUMHOUSE theme about garden signs will help you not to get lost in plant varieties - look, there are a lot of good ideas. Read also about how to make racks for the successful illumination of seedlings, and watch a video on how to care for adult seedlings.
1. Why do we need seedlings?
The seedling method allows us to grow plants in the open field of our strip, which require a long warm period to form a crop. We create a “race” in their growth and development from 20 to 60 days, and it is this time that the heat-loving cultures may not be enough for our short summer.
Many gardeners use window sills, verandas, balconies and other more or less suitable places for seedlings.
In addition, seedlings occupy small areas compared with adult plants. As a result, you can save space in greenhouses and greenhouses, using it for other crops. For example, before planting cucumbers and tomatoes, grow green crops in the greenhouse.
There is another factor. The last frosts end in late May - early June. This is the time of the longest days and the maximum arrival of solar radiation. And it’s good if we plant a mature plant with a lot of leaves to turn the generous June sun into a crop.
2. Where to grow seedlings?
The quality of the seedlings depends on the harvest itself, and the timing of its receipt, so the seedlings must be healthy, squat, with a well-developed root system and leaf apparatus. Best to grow it in greenhouses, more difficult, but it is possible to create conditions in the room for her on the windowsill.
Many gardeners are forced to use window sills, verandas, balconies and other more or less suitable places for seedlings. Best if windows are facing to the south, or at least southeast or southwest the side. The basis for obtaining high-quality seedlings material is high and long lasting. illumination and low night temperature.
For the seedlings from the fall, they harvest fertile, loose soil or acquire specially prepared seedlings in the spring.
4. In what capacities is it better to grow seedlings?
To reduce the growing area at the initial stage, you can use a seedling cassette with 2x2 or 3x3 cm cells.
All cultures, even cucumber, are well transplanted. in large pots, if the root system is in the earth and is not damaged during transplantation.
To reduce growing area, use cell transporters
Seedlings of tomato, pepper, cucumber, zucchini are best grown in large pots - a volume of about 1 liter. Celery, lettuce, and Peking cabbage can be planted in small pots or cassettes 3x3 or 5x5 cm.
5. When to start sowing vegetables for seedlings?
Sowing time of seedlings is determined by the time of planting in open ground or greenhouse. By this time you need get seedlings of optimum age. Late sowing leads to a delay in development, and we will be forced to use non-young plants for planting. Too early sowing is the reason for the emergence of stretched and weakened plants.
It is believed that:
- tomato must be sown 55-60 days before disembarking,
- pepper and eggplant - for 65 days,
- cucumber - for 20-25 days,
- leek - for 75-80 days.
The time of sowing seedlings is determined by the time of planting in open ground or greenhouse
Premature seeding dramatically negatively affects the quality of seedlings: in tomato, for example, because of the strong pulling of the stem, the buds and flowers of the first inflorescence often fall. The root system dies off the cucumber, if the seedlings are not planted before the appearance of the first six leaves.
I personally think that it is better to plant a seedling seedlings than overgrown. Overgrown seedlings are often sick, and little plants, especially if June is warm, grow well and even outpace the overgrown ones.
But when to sow, there is no universal recipe. There are many factors involved:
- your apartment is warm, or cold,
- you have a southern window or not
- do you seed well or not,
- you have a very fertile land or not ...
Just do not take into account, therefore it is better to sow in several terms, at least twobut. And when you sow vegetables for seedlings, the article When to sow vegetables for seedlings will help orient yourself in choosing the time of sowing taking into account your real conditions.
6. Do I need to process the seeds before sowing?
The selection of seeds for seedlings spend more carefully. Pre-expedient germinate seeds to naklyuvuschegosya state (except cabbage crops). Begin to sow when the first seeds germinate, preventing them from growing over. The optimal sprout length is 2-3 mm. Those who want to learn more about different types of seedbed preparation should get acquainted with publications. Seed preparation for sowing - a selection of videos and How to prepare seedbed preparation.
7. How to care for seedlings?
After sowing, boxes or pots are placed in a warm place, you can even dark. Our goal is to achieve fast shoots. Do not forget to maintain optimum soil moisture, but do not over-wet. Over-wetted soil cools rapidly and there is little oxygen in it.
After sowing, boxes or pots are placed in a warm place, dark
Closely monitor the emergence of shoots. As soon as they begin to appear, we immediately transfer pots or boxes. in the most light and relatively cool place.
- for tomato, pepper, eggplant and physalisin the afternoon: +20. +22 ° C (on cloudy days - +16. + 18 ° C)
- for cucumber, respectively, +22. + 24 ° C on a clear day and +18. + 20 ° C to overcast,
- at night temperature is maintained as on an overcast day: for tomatoes +16. + 18 ° C, for cucumber - +18. + 20 ° C. You can and a couple of degrees lower.
If the land without pathogens, the seedlings will not get sick, will be stocky. If lowering the air temperature is not possible, significantly reduce watering.. This is especially effective in solanaceous cultures. Tomato can be dried even before the leaves twist and lose their elasticity - after watering everything is restored.
Cucumber strongly in the watering is not limited. But soil moisture always and in all cultures should be moderate. Waterlogging, especially in combination with low light and high temperature, leads to the fact that the stem is strongly drawn out, its diameter decreases, and the development of the root system is weakened. In such conditions it is impossible to get good quality seedlings.
If there are no pathogens in the land, the seedlings will not get sick
When using fully fertilized soil feed the plants not necessary. Excessive feeding can cause rapid growth of seedlings and lead to a decrease in its quality. But if your seedlings do not grow at the optimum temperature, use top dressing when watering: dilute from 1 to 3 g of complex fertilizers per liter of water and water as usual.
10-15 days before planting in the open ground proceed to hardening seedlings tomato, pepper, eggplant, cabbage, celery, lettuce, onion and leek. To do this, gradually reduce the temperature:
- for cabbage and onion crops - from +16. + 20 ° C to +8. + 12 ° C,
- for cucumber, pepper, tomato, eggplant - up to + 16 ° C.
Well seasoned seedlings quickly take root.
During last 3-5 days before disembarking It is advisable to make seedlings under the open sky at first for 3-5 hours, then for half a day, for the whole day and for the whole day, not exposing only to the effects of frost. Slow decrease in temperature, exposure to direct sunlight and wind lead to a restructuring of the physiological processes in plants, increasing resistance to harsh open ground conditions for them. Well-hardened seedlings quickly take root and are able to withstand short-term frosts and other extreme factors almost painlessly, easily adapt to new conditions and actively enter growth.
With the arrival of spring, do not forget to read, When to plant vegetable seedlings in the ground and in greenhouses and How to properly seedlings in open ground, so as not to spoil the results of their labors for growing healthy and strong seedlings. And do not make any of the 15 most serious mistakes in growing seedlings - they can all be prevented.
I wish you to grow quality seedlings and get a high yield.