Magnolia is a beautiful tree that will fill the garden with a wonderful vanilla aroma during the flowering period, it begins in April. Most of the trees at this time are not yet covered with leaves, and the magnolia is fragrant with paints.
In nature, you can admire its beauty in the Crimea, this plant is for a warm climate. But, contrary to the general opinion, magnolia can be successfully grown in the conditions of central Russia. For this you need to know how to properly care for the plant. And it is quite easy!
The plant belongs to the family of Magnoliaceae, which has more than 70 species. Magnolia trees can be with a wide pyramidal crown or spherical. The height of the plant depends on the variety, some specimens reach up to 20 meters, but more often the magnolia does not grow more than 5-8 meters.
The color palette of the plant is diverse, there are trees with white, purple, pink, red or lilac flowers. Of the most varieties in the conditions of central Russia, only some of them can be grown; the others really do not tolerate a harsh climate.
Photo and description of magnolia varieties for cultivation in central Russia
In nature, magnolia is divided into several varieties:
The second group of plants is not able to tolerate frosts, so its cultivation is possible only in greenhouses at a special temperature.
In the conditions of Russia, deciduous magnolias are grown, which react to temperature changes less painfully, only flowering periods are shifted. From this group of plants we can distinguish winter-hardy and conditionally winter-hardy varieties. In the latter, only part of the flower buds freezes in severe frosts.
Winter-hardy varieties include:
1. magnolia cobus.
These are trees up to 10 meters high. They have a very interesting crown, which in the first years of cultivation has a pyramidal shape and changes to spherical in the process of growth. The plant is considered one of the hardy and winter-hardy varieties. The tree blooms with white luxurious flowers in April-May. In the summer, the color of the leaves is dark green, by autumn it changes to yellow-brown. Leaf fall in this species occurs closer to the middle of autumn. It is rarely grown from seed, since the first flowering occurs only after 30 years.
2. Magnolia is stellate.
It is a shrub up to 5 meters high with an oval crown. Flowering is remembered very persistent aroma that envelops the entire garden. The first flowers bloom in March. After flowering, the shrub dissolves dark green leaves, which by the autumn acquire a bronze shade.
3. Magnolia Lebner.
This is a hybrid of the above varieties, which took over the best qualities of the parent plants:
Magnolia Lebner - a tree with a spherical crown, which reaches a height of 10 meters. White flowers with a light pink haze, bloom from April. The leaves are dark, by the fall - bronze.
The less winter-hardy varieties are the most common varieties on the market:
1. Magnolia Sulanzha.
This species is a tree up to 5-8 meters tall. It blooms in April, very fragrant pink flowers that look like tulips. The leaves, like all varieties, are green, but in the fall they acquire a mustard shade.
2. Magnolia Ash.
It is not only hardy, but also a very beautiful deciduous tree. Flowering occurs in the second year after the planting in the garden. Refers to late blooming species. As a rule, blooms in late May, huge cream flowers. The leaves of the plant are similar to tropical, reaching a length of up to 70 cm. This type of magnolia almost does not suffer from return frost, which makes it most attractive to gardeners.
Magnolia Cultivation: All About Planting (Photos)
Successful cultivation of magnolia begins with the selection of seedlings. It is better to give preference to plants with a closed root system.
When planting magnolia you need to take into account its features:
• The plant does not tolerate drafts and cold winds. Consequently, the site must be selected protected
• grows poorly in areas with lime soil. You can correct the situation by adding sour peat to the ground,
• does not tolerate heavy and waterlogged soil. Pick up a place without stagnation of groundwater.
The best place for planting magnolia - the southern side of the site, well lit, but without direct sunlight. The soil is prepared fertile and very loose.
Landing pit preparation
A proper Magnolia planting pit should be three times the size of its root system. The soil is pre-mixed with compost and sand. Magnolia saplings are planted so that the root neck is above ground level. After planting, the plant is abundantly watered and must mulch the soil around it. To do this, apply peat, lapnik, sand.
Experienced gardeners prefer autumn planting when the tree has already stopped growing. It is carried out in the middle or the end of October, until it is very cold, but there is no sweltering heat.
Good results show planting magnolia in spring. But there is a risk that return frost will destroy a young plant. Spring planting is carried out in April. If the weather is favorable, and frost is not expected, then you can try this method, but at your own risk.
Important!100% survival rate of seedlings occurs only with proper autumn planting!
How to properly care for magnolia
From the right care depends not only the beauty of the tree, but also its frost resistance.
The plant does not tolerate drought, especially in the early years of cultivation. It is necessary to water magnolia plentifully, but not too often. In extreme heat, the root system should not dry out. Mulching will help to preserve soil moisture. It not only warms the roots in winter, but also nourishes the plant, improves the soil structure.
Nutrition and feeding magnolia
Magnolia loves a variety of feeding. Fertilizers can be made from early spring to autumn. Applying nitrogen supplements, you need to exercise maximum caution, because its excess leads to a decrease in winter hardiness of the plant. Nitrogen fertilization is completed by mid-July.
Important!In the first two years of growing magnolia is not fertilized. Make feed start with the third season.
For fertilizing magnolia seedlings use ready-made fertilizers or cooked on their own. From the store can be considered mineral fertilizer "Kemira Universal" or specialized fertilizer for magnolias, for example, from AGRECOL "For magnolia".
You can prepare the nutrient solution yourself. To do this, use 25-30 grams of ammonium nitrate, 15-20 grams of urea, 1 kg of mullein. All components are mixed and diluted in 10 liters of water. The fertilizer is watered at the rate of 40 liters per plant.
Tip!If the plant is overfed, then you can notice it at the end of July. Old leaves begin to dry out ahead of time. The situation can be corrected by abundant watering.
Magnolia Wintering: Shelter
In conditions of central Russia, even winter-hardy magnolia varieties are better covered for the period of cold weather. Spring return frost will ruin flower buds on annual growths and flowering can not wait.
For shelter apply burlap. She wrapped a tree trunk in two layers, I try to avoid branch injuries. Pristvolny circle should also be covered for the winter, but it should be done on frozen ground. Use a thick layer of mulch. If you cover a tree earlier, then mice will inevitably settle in it.
Magnolia is a deciduous shrub or tree. The bark is smooth grayish-ash or brown, may be scaly or furrowed. The height of such a plant can vary from 5 to 20 meters. On the surface of its stems are well distinguishable large scars from leaf plates, as well as narrow scars of annular shape from stipules. Kidneys are relatively large. Large leathery whole-leafy plates of greenish-emerald color have a slight pubescence on the seamy surface, and also, as a rule, elliptical or obovate. Fragrant solitary bimepole flowers can be axial or terminal, their diameter is about 6–35 centimeters, and color: cream, red, purple, white, pink or lilac. The composition of the flower includes from 6 to 12 wax elongated petals that overlap each other tiled. These petals are arranged in 1 or several rows. As a rule, magnolia blooms at the very beginning of the spring period, however there are species that bloom in the first summer weeks. This plant blooms so beautifully that every gardener would certainly like to decorate his own garden with them.
The fruit is a collective leaflet of a cone-shaped form, which consists of a large number of two-seeded leaflets. Black seeds have a triangular shape and red or pink fleshy prisymannik. When the leaflets are opened, the seeds hang on the seed threads.
Both shrubs and magnolia trees are very decorative plants. It looks most impressive in the springtime. A blooming magnolia is a most beautiful sight that every person who has ever seen it at least once could not forget. However, magnolia is a valuable plant not only because of its beauty. The fact is that in its fruits, flowers and foliage are essential oils that have a powerful antiseptic effect, they are used for hypertension, rheumatism and various diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.