Once having tried peanuts, many farmers think about how to grow peanuts in the garden. Despite the fact that South America is the birthplace of culture, the climate of the middle zone in Ukraine is quite suitable for growing peanuts at home. Especially for this, such varieties were bred: Valencia Ukrainian, Stepnyak, Krasnodar and others. It is enough to purchase the appropriate seed material and get acquainted with uncomplicated technology.
Peanuts need to be planted in warm soil, seed germination occurs at a temperature of +12 +14 ° C, the ideal temperature will be +25 +30 ° C, frosting for peanuts is destructive, so wait for stable warm weather. This is usually the middle of May after the planting of melon crops.
Peanuts like intense lighting and good ventilation, choose to plant open areas without a shadow.
When growing peanuts in the country, it is necessary to ensure crop rotation, it should be planted after cabbage, cucumbers or potatoes fertilized with organic matter. Can not be planted after legumes.
It responds well to phosphate fertilizers, this should be taken into account when preparing the soil in the spring and make a nitrophosphate at the rate of 50g per 1 m².
Sowing crops with purified seeds improves germination. Choose large seeds for planting, it will also improve germination and, as a result, yield.
Sow peanuts in open ground need wide rows of 60 cm - 70 cm wide, with a distance between the bushes of 15 cm - 20 cm, to a depth of 6 cm - 8 cm.
Care of crops
It is not at all superfluous to keep the soil loose and moist; before germination, you can harrow with light harrows. Further care is hilling plants, the first hilling should be carried out 10 days after the start of flowering, to a height of 5 cm - 7 cm. In the future, pile another 2 to 3 times every 10 days, gradually falling asleep plant stem. Each hilling is best done after rain or watering.
We grow peanuts without using watering at all, in central Ukraine there is enough moisture for good growth of this crop. Watering can increase yields with a lack of natural rainfall. In arid regions, water can be watered throughout the growing season, every 10 to 12 days (including rain), and after flowering during the formation of fruits, watering can be increased. Ensure that the soil is moistened, but not flooded.
When to remove peanuts
When the leaves of the plant turn yellow, and the seeds are easily husked from the beans, it is time to harvest. But be careful, do not tighten with cleaning the peanuts until the cold, because when you freeze the seeds lose their germination and gain bitterness, becoming unsuitable for food.
Cleaning takes place in two stages, first peanuts are dug to the surface, folded into rolls and allowed to dry, after the beans are separated from the roots and sent for drying and storage. Peanuts can be dried at a temperature not higher than 40 ° C with ventilation. It is better to store peanuts in beans at a low temperature of +8 ° C +10 ° C, in a well-ventilated room, on racks with a layer of no more than 10 cm or in rag bags.
As you can see, the cultivation of peanuts is not at all tricky and, with due desire, you can get a good harvest of this seemingly exotic plant on your plot in Ukraine. The main conditions for success: high-quality seeds and following technology.
If you have any questions or you want to order peanut seeds, please contact us at the contact numbers listed on the order page.
Even for beginners from the first time it will be clear how to plant peanuts at home. The plant is not whimsical and does not require special attention and care. In the agricultural industry it is cultivated in hot countries with a tropical climate. Freshly harvested fruits can be obtained at home, even in indoor conditions. In the fall, get your own harvest - a handful of these peanuts nuts.
It is recommended to buy peanut seeds for planting in a specialty store. Selection of quality planting material from the fresh crop is allowed. In the choice of kernels, it is better to give preference to whole and not small nuts. Moreover, they should not be subjected to heat treatment. The optimum time for sowing is considered mid-April.
Seeds before planting must first be prepared:
- The kernels are removed from the shell.
- Fold the gauze well moistened with water in a few layers on a saucer and place the seeds in it.
- In order for the seeds to sprout faster, a few drops of a special solution that stimulates growth should be added to the water.
- When the spine hesitates and reaches 1-1.5 mm, it's time to plant in the ground.
- For the best effect, seeds are planted in peat tablets. In this case, in the future they need transplanting. You can land immediately on the planned permanent place.
Gardeners are often interested in planting peanuts in open ground. To do this, you must follow some rules:
- To get peanuts as a result of planting, the plant must be grown in an open area. It loves the sun's rays and not a drop of shadow. Buildings or other plants nearby are unacceptable.
- The optimal temperature regime should not fall to the limit of 20 degrees, even for a couple of positions. This may be the reason for the cessation of growth.
- You need to pay attention to where they grow peanuts most often. In the Ukrainian lands and other warm areas it can be sown in the ground during the flowering of acacia. In cooler areas, if desired, still achieve results, it is recommended to grow from seedlings.
Before you plant peanuts in the garden, the soil must be prepared in advance. In the autumn digging is to make 1-3 kg of humus per 1 sq. M. A depth of at least 25-30 cm is recommended. In the springtime, the garden is again dug up and the nitropho is added in the same way, 50 g per 1 sq. M.
Gardeners know how to grow peanuts at home and what should be the soil when planting. It is important that it is moist, neutral and light, containing a large amount of magnesium, calcium and humus. The best options are sandy or black soil. Saline soils should be avoided. If the soil is acidic, before planting it should be lime.
If we say whether it is possible to grow peanuts at home after any crops at the landing site, then definitely not. Crop rotation is an important condition. After cabbage, cucumbers, tomatoes and potatoes, peanuts grow well, growing at home with this plant goes even better if organic-type fertilizers are added to the growth of these crops. Planting peanuts in the country after growing beans, peas, lentils or other legumes is not recommended. This can lead to the fact that the roots will rot.
Knowing how to plant peanuts in the garden correctly, there is a guarantee to get the highest quality crop in the end. And this is done as follows:
- The depth of the holes should be at least 10 cm.
- The holes are better placed in a staggered manner. The distance between them is about 50 cm.
- The distance between the rows is about 25-30 cm.
- After reviewing the nuances of how to grow peanuts in the country, it is clear that planting is possible in such a common way as square nesting. His scheme is 70x70 or 60x60.
- To get peanuts, planting and cultivation is allowed by the wide-row method. The gap between the rows should not be less than 60 cm. Plants in a row are planted at a distance of 15-20 cm.
- Usually growing peanuts in the garden requires abundant watering after planting seeds in the amount of 3 pieces in each well. It is important to prevent soil erosion.
After reviewing how to grow peanuts in the garden, it is worth noting that peanuts can be grown in a room. To properly grow peanuts on the window, you must:
- Choose seeds.
- Prepare a pot with drainage holes, about 17-20 cm in diameter.
- Buy ready-made soil or make a mixture of sand with high-quality garden soil.
- Soak 3 nucleoli in warm water until they swell.
- Place a drain on the bottom of the pot.
- Fill the pot with soil, leaving 3 cm above the soil.
- Spread the seeds in a uniform triangle and cover with soil.
- Water in such a way that all the soil is soaked with water.
Now it is clear that there are different ways to grow peanuts at home. The potted plant must also be maintained at a temperature of + 20 + 25 degrees. It is better to maintain the soil in a slightly wet, but not wet condition. For a plant like peanuts, planting and care must be followed according to all rules. Then shoots appear on the 5th day. After that, the plant needs a constant sunny place and moderate watering. After 45 days you can expect flowering.
Usually, if peanuts are grown for the plant in the middle lane, it is taken and bears fruit.
To know how to grow peanuts in the country is not enough, you need to be able and properly care for the plant.
Peanuts how to plant? Peanuts: planting, growing
Watering is carried out as drying. Only during the period of the formation of flowers and fruits watering is carried out more often. Hilling is necessary after the ovary has formed. Top dressing is carried out 3 times: during the period of formation of leaves, when budding and when the fruits are fastened. Weeding is obligatory after each watering and rain. Peanut crops are harvested most often after 4 months after sowing. A plant is considered ripe when its leaves turn yellow. During harvest time, the air temperature should be constant, not lower than +10 degrees. Bushes should be pulled out of the ground completely. Better that at this time the earth was dry. Fruits in the ground should not remain.
Where is it better to plant peanuts?
For peanuts, it is necessary to take the lightest area so that the landings are not in the shade. It is better if these are beds on which cabbage, cucumbers or potatoes were previously grown.
You can not plant peanuts after legumes.
It is desirable to fertilize the poor land on microelements:
- in the autumn - to bring organic matter under digging,
- in the spring before planting - sprinkle nitrophoska over the site (for each square meter of area, 50 g of the drug).
Selection and sowing of seeds
Start planting peanuts should be only after the soil and the air warms up well. This is usually the middle of May, when night frosts end, which can destroy the heat-loving shoots.
Before planting, peanuts are recommended to be peeled from the shell so that the beans sprout faster. It is desirable to use the largest copies.
Plant crops in two ways:
After a week and a half after the bushes bloom, they need to pile up. In the future, repeat the procedure 3 more times after the same period of time. This must be done to ensure that the beans do not crawl to the surface of the ground, where they can dry out, because the culture matures only in the ground.
Since peanuts love moisture, regular watering should be ensured, especially during the flowering and budding periods.
By September, the peanut ripens - the bush becomes yellow, and the beans can be easily removed from the shell. Now you can and harvest. To begin with, the bushes should be dug out and spread out to dry. Then separate the beans with the shells and dry them. It is necessary to store peanuts in a dry room, packed in fabric bags or in bulk in containers (layer thickness not more than 10 cm).
Seed preparation for planting
There are several methods of preparing peanut seeds before planting in the soil: germination and growing two week seedlings in peat cups. In the latter case, the period of maturation of the plant is accelerated, the plant is not damaged by a medvedka. To protect plants from this pest make bait: cleaning and defective root crops are added to the soil, then this place is covered with a sheet of roofing material and sprinkled with earth. Traps need to be checked periodically, collecting Medvedka.
Peanut seed soaking should be done at the end of April., and germination lasts 10 days. For disinfection of seeds using a weak (pink) solution of potassium permanganate. In the middle lane It is recommended to harden the seeds, do it as follows: in the afternoon, within 18-20 hours, the seeds are kept at a temperature of + 2 ... + 3 degrees, at night at room temperature.
The duration of hardening the seeds should not last more than three days.
After sprouting, seeds are planted in cups with previously prepared loose soil or in a permanent place, in unprotected soil. When planting plants in open ground between the plants leave a distance of 20 centimeters, between rows of 25 centimeters. Peanuts culture thermophilictherefore, it is better to cover the plantings with a film previously stretched over the prepared frame, and remove the film only after the weather has become resistant to warm weather.
According to popular belief, peanuts in the southern regions can be planted without the use of protective structures - this time comes with the flowering of viburnum.
Agricultural technology for growing peanuts
The main event in the cultivation of peanuts is its hilling, and the amount of the crop depends on the number and correctness of hilling. Peanuts are blooming in the last decade of Juneand continues to bloom almost until the end of August. At this time, experienced gardenersspend several hillers peanut plants. For the first time, it is recommended to add bedding of the root zone of plants for about 3 centimeters with a mixture of garden soil and compost. In August, you need to spend two more hilling the same mixture, adding up to 2 centimeters of the same bedding.
Peanut harvesting start with the beginning of the yellowing of the leaves in September.
Peanuts: outdoor cultivation
The plant must be carefully dug to not damage the fruit and shake, removing the ground. Dried beans in the sun, together with the aboveground part. In about two weeks, the fruit is ready for further use. It is recommended to keep nuts for sowing with the skinso they are better preserved.
Coffee, cocoa are made from peanut fruits, halvah is eaten raw or fried, salted and served with beer, used as an additive to chocolate and other products. Nuts contain linoleic acid, vitamins B and E.
Ground Peanut Description
Peanut - annual plant, legume family up to 60 cm. The root system of the plant is up to 1 meter in diameter, which causes high resistance to drought.
Peanuts bloom with whitish or yellow-red flowers since the end of June. One flower blooms just 1 day and then fades. Fruits oval beans up to 6 cm long. When ripe, they sink into the ground and ripen there.
Types and varieties of peanuts
Conventionally, all cultivated varieties of peanuts can be divided into 4 groups.
Group Spanish - small peanuts with high oil content. Kernels in a pink-brown shell. This type is used for the production of peanut butter, salted and candied nuts.
Group Valencia - varieties with large kernels. Plants tall with smooth fruits of 3 seeds each.
Runner Group - varieties of this group are superior to Spanish varieties in taste, and also give high yields. This peanut is used for the production of peanut butter, salted nuts to beer.
Virginia Group - large, selected peanuts which are used for confectionery.
Peanut Growing Technology
The land for growing peanuts should be well lit, without shading and with good ventilation. The soil is light, black or neutral, with a high content of potassium, magnesium, and humus. Peanuts can not tolerate soil salinization.
Peanut planting produce in warm soil. Seeds germinate at a temperature of 12-14 degrees, 25-30 degrees is considered ideal.
Be sure to wait for the settled warm weather, peanuts can not stand frost. Usually, peanuts are planted in mid-May, after sowing of melons and gourds.
The best predecessors of peanuts on the site are - cabbage, cucumbers, potatoes.
Do not plant this crop after legumes.
In the spring, prepare the soil before planting - add 50 g per 1 m2 of nitrophosphate. If you prepare the soil in the fall, you can add humus under the digging to a depth of 25-30 cm at the rate of 1-3 kg per m 2.
For sowing, seeds can be purchased on the market, only raw peanuts - not fried or salted.
Seeds before sowing is better to clean, so germination is better, choose large seeds. Although you can sow whole beans.
Watering peanuts carried out in different ways - drip or irrigation along the furrows. In hot and dry weather, watering is done every 10-15 days, and the water should be warm.
Peanuts require high soil moisture, especially during flowering and the formation of beans. In September, when it is time to harvest, watering is reduced to ripen the seeds.
Sowing Peanuts on the site it is better to do in the square-breeding method 60x60 or 70x70 cm in 5-6 plants per nest.
There is also a wide-row method of sowing peanuts - between rows 60-70 cm, between plants 15-20 cm and embedding depth 6-8 cm.
Посев арахиса осуществляется также в шахматном порядке с расстоянием 25-30 см между рядами, 50 см между растениями и глубина заделки бобов 10 см.
В каждую лунку положить 1-3 крупных семени и заделать почвой. После заделки обильно полить грядку через насадку для душа, чтобы не розмыть почву.
Болезни и вредители арахиса
Peanuts are being infected alternaria, powdery mildew, gray mold, fusarium wilt.
Mealy dew - the appearance of white spots on both sides of the leaf, which increase with time and the leaves dry out.
The disease is capable of infecting stems, and even fruit to be tied. Plants with strong infection are treated with fungicides - Kvadris, Topaz, Ridomil, Switch, Horus.
Alternaria (black leaf spot) - often manifests itself at the end of the growing season in wet and warm weather. The formation of black spots, which grow over time, the leaves die off. To prevent the occurrence of the disease, observe the agricultural practices of the species.
Fusarium wilt - manifestations in the form of root rot, the growth and development of plants stops, the ground part is yellower, a rapid death occurs.
Observe agrotechnology and timely harvest.
Gray rot - occurs at the end of flowering peanuts. Rusty-brown spots appear, from the leaves they pass to the stalks, then to the stems. The plant fades and dies. Fruits that had time to form are deformed. The disease manifests itself during wet and warm weather at the end of summer.
Pests harmful to peanuts - aphid, thrips, caterpillars. If you find aphids and caterpillars in the area you need to sprinkle the bed with a mixture of tobacco dust and wood ash.
To combat thrips use insecticoacaricidal drugs.
Most harm wirewormswhose larvae live in the land. They easily gnaw the beans and feed on peanuts.
To destroy the wireworm arrange pit-traps in the ground. They put carrot, beetroot and potato pieces in such traps, cover them with a board, a piece of slate, and after a while the wireworm larvae open and destroy, which slid down to eat vegetables.
To prevent the appearance of pests and diseases in the beds with peanuts, always observe the agrotechnology of the species and crop rotation, in time remove the weeds in the garden.
Cleaning and storage of peanuts
After yellowing the leaves on the plants, dig a couple of beans and if the seeds are easy to get - it's time to harvest.
By the time of harvest, the temperature stably keeps around 10 degrees. But it is also impossible to tighten with cleaning, with a cold snap peanuts are gaining bitterness and become unsuitable for human consumption.
Peanut harvesting produce forks, digging bushes. The beans are separated from the stalks and dried in the shade in the fresh air.
After drying, the beans are placed in a fabric bag and stored in a dry room with ventilation and a temperature not higher than 10 degrees.
The beneficial properties and harm of peanuts
Peanuts are very useful.. It consists of linoleic, pantothenic, folic acids, vegetable fats, easily digestible proteins, glutenins, starch, vitamins and macronutrients. Antioxidants in the composition of peanuts make it an effective means of preventing cardiovascular diseases.
Squirrels perfectly absorbed by the human body due to the optimal ratio of amino acids.
Folic acid promotes cell renewal, and fats have a slight choleretic effect.
Peanuts have a calming effect on people with increased excitability, helps restore strength, improve memory, increase potency, and eliminate insomnia.
A large amount of protein increases the feeling of satiety. Peanuts do not contain cholesterol.
Even such a product can not be used in unlimited quantities, especially those who suffer from excess weight.
When eating peanuts with skin containing strong allergens, people who are prone to allergies suffer.
Moldy Peanuts may cause poisoning.
Optimum landing times
Experienced agronomists are confident that the most suitable time to plant peanuts in open ground is May: at this time the soil is already warm enough and will not harm the seeds. However, you should still focus on the growing region. If there are frosts in your area even at the end of spring, it is better to postpone the landing to the beginning of summer.
Before you plant a peanut, you need to find a good place in the garden and create optimal conditions for it.
When choosing a place it is important to consider that photophilous plantHowever, a little shading is also calm. For spring planting, it is imperative that the site get rid of snow and dry as soon as possible. Cold winds are reflected negatively on yields.
Peanuts love light and warmth. Even the slightest shading will lead to the rapid growth of the plant, slowing the development of vegetative organs, as well as reducing the number of fruits. The need for heat is maintained throughout the growing season.
Since peanuts grow directly in the ground, its quality and structure are key. This plant needs soil with neutral pHwhich is rich in calcium and magnesium. Ideal - light and very loose earth, which passes air and water well. In addition, it should be some amount of sand. Before planting, the soil is necessarily enriched with organic matter.
For a good harvest, not the last place is occupied by plants that previously grew on this earth. Peanuts develop best after cabbage, tomatoes, potatoes and cucumbers. But legumes, on the contrary, may lead to the development of rot on the roots, so it is better to refrain from planting peanuts in their place.
Site preparation before planting
Basic soil preparation is to layered stubblethat will allow to remove the weeds as much as possible, and raising the zyabi to a depth of 30 cm. The first works are carried out immediately after the harvesting of the predecessors, the depth of the first treatment is 6 cm, the second is deeper: 11 cm
In early spring, harrowing is carried out across or diagonally. Early treatment is carried out during the emergence of annual weeds. Cultivation should be carried out only on dry land, it is recommended to do it 30 minutes before sowing.
Scheme and depth of sowing peanuts
Landing peanuts in open ground is best done in a square-nesting way. Most often use the scheme 60 × 60 cmhowever, no one forbids planting in other ways, for example, wide-row, when the width between rows is 65 cm, and the distance between plants is 20 cm. To obtain good seedlings, only large seeds are used, which are planted to a depth of 7 cm. At least three seeds are recommended to be placed in each well.
Complete planting abundant irrigation. Water pressure should be low, so as not to erode the soil and not bare the seeds. It is better to repeat the manipulation several times before the pools appear in the beds.
Watering, weeding and loosening
Ground peanuts are watered as needed, the plant loves moisture, but not when the land is too wet. During flowering, it is better to carry out wet procedures twice a week. Do it better in the morning. After the flowers disappear, watering can be reduced, at this time it is recommended to carry out more spraying. Similar procedures are carried out in the evening and do it every other day.
Weeding should be carried out often, so that the weeds do not clog peanuts and do not absorb nutrients. Loosening is carried out after each irrigation in order to increase the amount of oxygen in the ground, as well as to reduce the evaporation of moisture.
Peanut positively responds to the introduction of mineral fertilizers into the earth.
On average, the need for batteries in the phases of development is as follows:
- seedlings before the appearance of three leaves - phosphorus,
- branching - potassium and nitrogen,
- the appearance of buds - nitrogen,
- flowering period - phosphorus,
- bobo formation - nitrogen and potassium.
Throughout the growing season, peanuts are spud about five times. The correctness and frequency of execution directly affect the yield. The first time such work is carried out on the tenth day after the completion of the flowering period, when the fruitful shoots sink into the ground.
Before creating a sufficiently high slides (6 cm), it is recommended to carefully water the ground. This will increase the number of tiers in which the future harvest will be laid. Further earthing up is carried out every 10 days.
Pest and disease control
To avoid the defeat of chalcosporosis, you need to monitor crop rotation and isolate new crops from last year’s crops. If this does not help, it is recommended to treat the area with a 1% solution of Bordeaux mixture or available substitutes. In order for plants not to fall ill with Fusarium wilt, cabbage cultures should be included in the crop rotation.
Peanuts can suffer from powdery mildew, alternariosis, phyllossticosis and gray mold. Get rid of these problems by handling approved fungicides. Dusting earth with ash or tobacco is suitable against aphids and caterpillars.
Harvesting and storage
Begin harvesting when the leaves change color. The beans are dug out of the ground, separated from the stems and laid out on a flat surface, on which the sun's rays do not fall, for drying. After the shell dries, take out nuts from it.
After harvesting, it is worth considering how to store peanuts at home. In order to extend the storage time, you need to consider the following factors:
- Humidity. The most important factor, since an overabundance of moisture spoils the fruit and makes it unsuitable for consumption. In addition, such conditions lead to the appearance of a parasitic mold.
- Heat. The higher the temperature in the room where the crop is stored, the more intense the metabolic processes. They slow down only at temperatures up to 5 degrees.
- Nut ripeness level. With the wrong harvest, when they continue to undergo active physiological processes, proper storage is impossible. As a result, the nuts will deteriorate very quickly.
- Impurities. The presence of a large amount of minerals and other particles may result in hot spots that will damage the entire crop as a result.
- Microflora. The presence of fungi and bacteria has a different effect on nuts. Most often they lead to the appearance of disease. Moreover, the presence of even a few diseased nuts lowers the quality of the entire batch, as it is quickly passed on to others.
It is best to store peanuts in a dry room that is ventilated with cooled air.
Despite the fact that peanuts are considered a nut, in fact it is a distant relative of the beans. This is a one-year-old legume culture with a height of about 0.5-0.6 m, having a taproot, which, in turn, goes deeper by 1.5 m. The diameter of the upper part of the rhizome can reach 1 m, which, in fact, explains droughts.
Leaves are pinoperous, have a dark green shade. Flowers are collected in inflorescences in the leaf sinuses and are orange or yellow. One flower develops in the inflorescence, due to which the flowering phase lasts from the last days of June until the onset of autumn cold weather. Flowers open at about 7 am and bloom until noon.
Note! Each bush produces an average of 30-70 beans and about 2,000 flowers.
A few days after flowering at the site of each flower, a young ovary begins to develop, which is a kind of aerial "root", bending and heading towards the ground. In the language of science, these ovaries are called ginofors and are intended to protect offspring from drought and heat. The upper part of the ginofora after penetration into the ground quickly grows and forms a bean, which has the shape of a cocoon or cylinder (for this reason, when cultivating a crop, soil looseness is so important). From 1 to 4 pink seeds of an oval form are formed in each such bean.
Basic requirements for growing peanuts on the site
Consider what conditions should be provided for the normal development of culture.
- If peanuts are grown in large quantities in order to obtain butter, then it should be borne in mind that the color depends directly on the soil. The oil obtained from the beans planted in the light soil will be light, and in the dark - respectively, dark.
- Nuts are formed in the ground, so it must be loose. As for a specific type, black earth, neutral or sandy soil is most suitable for peanuts.
Soil should be loose
Do not let water stagnate
Peanuts grow well in sunny places
If at least one of the above conditions is violated, then the culture will start to hurt - spots are formed on its sheets, indicating the development of root rot.
Stage one. Preparing the plot
Start preparing the beds in the fall. Dig the selected area to the depth of a bayonet spade, then apply organic fertilizer - compost, humus or wood ash at the rate of 2-3 kg / m². In the spring, cultivate the plot (to a depth of no more than 10 cm) and remove the weeds together with the roots. It is also advisable to add a nitrophosphate (approximately 50 g / m²).
Stage Two. Choosing and preparing planting material
To get the greatest yield, give preference to zoned varieties. Buy them in a reliable gardening shop or, as an option, from friends or neighbors. As seeds can be used not only beans (crushed / whole), but also husked seeds.
The most common varieties of peanuts in temperate climates include the following:
Note! When buying, show utmost care so that you do not slip on fried or something processed grains. Otherwise, time and money will be wasted.
Preparing Peanut Planting Material
Ground nuts can be grown either by sowing in open soil or through seedlings. If you prefer the first option, then use only those seeds that were collected no more than 2 years ago (germination is lost over the years). Regardless of the method chosen, the grain must be germinated around the last days of April. To do this, follow the instructions below.
Step one. Take the seeds and put them in a weak solution of potassium permanganate for 15 minutes to disinfect.
Step two. Rinse seeds with running water and soak for germination. After 10 days, the first shoots are formed.
Step Three. Harden the resulting sprouts. To do this, keep them in the afternoon in a room with a temperature of about 3 ° C for several days, but at night, transfer to where the room temperature is.
Method one. Planting in open soil
When the temperature regime is set at a minimum of 20 ° C (for the forest-steppe, as a rule, it is mid-May), and the earth at 10 centimeters warms to at least 15 ° C, you can begin sowing the germinated seeds. If the temperature is lower, the seeds simply rot, not having time to give shoots.
Prepare a plot for sowing, acting on one of two possible schemes:
- square-breeding (0.7x0.7 m or 0.6x0.6 m), in which 5-6 grains should be placed in the well,
- wide-row (the distance between the bushes - 15-20 cm, between the rows about 60 cm).
Peanut Peanut: Cultivation
Both in the first and in the second method, the sowing depth should be 6-8 cm. Take only large grains, since small or damaged seedlings may not give. After sowing, cover the wells with earth, slightly condense. It is worth noting that the shell of the nut contains many useful microorganisms, so many gardeners chop it and put it in the wells during planting.
Note! At first, protect the landing from birds (such as magpies, crows, etc.), because they can destroy not only young shoots, but also seed.
How to protect peanuts
To protect against a bear, you can make one simple bait: collect the grain and clean it, stick it all up on the garden bed, and then cover it with a piece of roofing material. Top with manure or plant litter. Make a few of these baits and from time to time look at them, collecting Medvedka.
Growing peanuts on the field
The second way. Growing seedlings
As noted earlier, peanuts can also be grown with seedlings. In this case, proceed according to the following algorithm.
Planting peanuts in a cup
Table. How to grow peanuts seedlings
Little about peanuts
Peanuts belong to the heat-loving cultures, so it is distributed in subtropical latitudes. Homeland plants - South America. From there, peanuts were introduced to the West Indies, and after that became widespread in Europe.
The largest peanut plantations can be found in South America. There, nature created the most favorable conditions for comfortable growth of this plant. Recently, however, gardeners are increasingly growing crops in temperate latitudes.
Peanuts belong to the legume family, but unlike other crops, its fruits form and grow underground. The annual plant forms a small shrub with branched stems. Its leaves are single-pinnate, flowers are small with a yellow color.
Peanut growing features
Peanuts, like other legumes, easy to grow. The plant develops well at temperatures above + 20 ° C. But if the air temperature drops below + 15 ° C, the growth of the plant stops. Therefore, in cool weather, peanuts, it is advisable to cover the film.
Landing can be made as soon as the temperature of the soil exceeds + 15 ° C. In order to increase crop yield, the seeds are planted in April in cups to a depth of 3-4 cm. (Pre-soaked), and then transplanted into open ground.
Peanut seedling. © Meighan
Landing scheme - 50-60 cm.between rows, 15-20 cm - between plants in a row.
Peanut has one peculiarity: it blooms one day. In the early morning the flowers bloom, and in the evening they wither.
Therefore, a day peanut flowers should have time to pollinate. As a rule, the plant blooms in late June. At the end of pollination, peanut ovaries burrow into the ground, where future fruits ripen.
After lowering the stem into the ground, the bushes must be spud, like potatoes.
When the peanut begins to bloom and during its flowering period, the plant must be watered. After cessation of flowering, watering should be carried out only during long droughts.
The first peanut sunrises must be protected from the attack of birds. Birds can completely destroy the landings of peanuts.
Care for peanuts classic: the plant must be weeded, watered and fed.
During the growing season, gardeners do not face the problems of plant diseases. When the peanuts begin to dry, the leaves and the stem turn yellow, it means you can dig up the nuts and harvest.
In our country, as a rule, peanuts are harvested in the second half of September. It is dug out, gently shaken off the ground, and placed in a dry place. Next, the plant is dried with a bush. After 10 days in the peanuts can be separated fruits.
Peanuts in the shell. © Texnik
The valuable properties of peanuts
Peanuts are valuable nutritious foods. It contains sugar, carbohydrates, large-scale protein, high-quality fats and vitamins and minerals necessary for the human body.
Not so long ago, a study was conducted in the United States that showed that peanuts contain a large amount of antioxidants that prevent the development of heart and vascular diseases. The use of peanuts - prevention of the development of atherosclerosis, malignant tumors and the delay in the process of premature aging. And its fruits contain vitamins E, B and linoleic acid, which has an anti-sclerotic effect.
For peanuts, it is better to pick sunny places with fertile soil. Southern culture enriches the land and gives health to the owners of the site. Try growing peanuts in your garden and, of course, share your experience with us in the comments to the article or on our Forum.
How and where does it grow?
Not everyone knows how peanuts grow. Visually, it is a small bush with a branched stem, reaching a height of 70 cm. It can grow both up and down the ground. The leaves are oval, planted alternately, grow on long petioles. A flower grows on its thin stem, which gradually slopes to the ground and digs into it, where peanuts grow.
It is inside the flower that pollination occurs, and nuts grow in the ground. The reason is the climate of those places where peanuts grow, and how it is destructively affected by high temperature. Because of the heat, the flowers die, which means their fruits do not develop. This extraordinary method of plant protects the fruit from drought. Penetrating into the soil, the ovary begins to grow rapidly at a depth of 5-10 cm, forming a cocoon-like bean with seeds. In one pod several “nuts” develop.
What family: peanut or legumes?
To understand whether it is a nut or not, it is important to know to which family the plant belongs. It has other names: Chinese walnut, underground peanuts. As it is not surprising, but the plant belongs to the legume family, and the fruit is “peanut” or “cultural peanut”.
The product is rich in protein, and unlike walnuts it does not contain a lot of fat, so it is a dietary product.
How to grow in the country, in the garden?
The plant is unpretentious, so both experienced and novice summer resident can grow peanuts at home in the garden. With proper care, this process is not particularly difficult.
You can use two methods of planting: seeds or seedlings. In many ways, the choice will depend on the climate. In warm areas, you can safely plant peanuts in the garden as soon as the temperature reaches 15 degrees and the night frosts stop. Planting seedlings increases yields.
Here are the basic steps on how to plant and grow peanuts at home in the garden:
- Loosen the soil, prepare the wells.
- Place the seeds in 10 cm or transfer the seedlings together with a clod of soil.
- Provide proper care.
To grow peanuts in the summer cottage or in the garden you need to select the illuminated plot, remote from the trees. Uniform shoots will appear in 2 - 3 weeks.
Watering is an important factor in order to successfully grow peanuts in the country: as soon as the earth dries, it needs to be moistened. In dry periods, watering is necessary once a week, during the rainy season - as needed. After each watering you need to loosen the soil for oxygenation. In June, the peanuts will bloom with orange flowers that will reach for the sun. Flowering will last 14 days, after which they will begin to dig in the ground. Fortified bushes can spud like potatoes. At this stage, it is necessary to water the bushes only during long droughts.
The peanut’s peculiarity is that its fruits slowly develop underground, so long-lasting heat is very important for it. In cool weather it is better to cover it with a film. Knowing how to plant and grow peanuts, you can collect a decent crop. In early autumn, you can dig a test plant and check the degree of ripening of nuts. Dug bushes need to be dried for several days, then separated from the roots. If storage is intended, it is best to leave the seeds in the pods.
It is necessary to understand the peculiarity of growing crops in the northern regions. In autumn it is important to prepare the ground for a warm bed, having buried plant waste to a small depth, which will rot over the winter and begin to generate heat. It is also important to provide heat to seedlings and before growing peanuts, build a greenhouse, or simply cover the garden bed with foil. Good results are shown by peanuts planted in greenhouses between tomatoes or other tall vegetables.
How to germinate for planting?
How to sprout peanuts on your own for planting in order to get a good harvest is a matter of concern for many. First of all, you need to buy in the fall to buy unpeeled pods, in which seeds are preserved. The period of ripening of the ground nut is 130 - 150 days, so you need to focus on the climate of your region when planting seedlings.
For the cultivation of peanuts in the southern regions begin to land in early March. Not everyone knows how to germinate peanuts at home so that the seeds are not rotted.
A more benign method for sprouting peanuts: put a few nuts in a damp cotton pad, and then wrap all the discs in a bag. After 3-5 days, the seeds are folded, and you can put them in a box with the ground. You can try not soaking the nuts at all, but plant them immediately in the soil.
Before planting peanuts for growing seedlings, you need to prepare pots of sufficient size. It is better to put containers on a warm window sill so that the ground warms up. After three weeks, seedlings will grow to 10-12 cm and can be planted on the site.
How to plant in open ground?
Before you plant peanuts, you need to pay attention to planting material. You need to select intact, large seeds, clean them.
Choosing the most suitable plot for planting peanuts in the garden, it is better to focus on where the vegetables grew. If you plant peanuts after a leguminous crop has been harvested from the plot, there is a risk of getting a small crop. The place should be lit, ventilated, without shadow. It is necessary to clean it from the remnants of fertilizers.
Before planting peanuts in open ground, you need to make sure that the soil is warm enough. It is necessary to moisten the ground, carefully loosen and make shallow holes. To plant the peanuts correctly, it is important to maintain a sufficient distance between the plants: 50 cm between the holes. 3–5 seeds are placed in each hole, as weak seedlings may not grow.
After laying the seeds you need to plentifully water the bed, preventing its blurring.
Knowing how to plant peanuts correctly, it is also necessary to ensure proper care: before the first shoots appear, regularly loosen the soil. Requirements for the care of aloe vera.
Can I plant at home in a pot?
It is also possible to grow peanuts at home. For this you need to provide suitable conditions for the cultivation of peanuts, including:
- daylight access
- sufficient watering
- timely introduction of top dressing,
- optimum temperature.
For the cultivation of peanuts, peanuts should be watered abundantly, using water at room temperature. Ensure that no pests such as spider mites appear. When pests appear, the plant must be treated in a timely manner with systemic fungicides at the dosage indicated in the instructions. Before planting peanuts at home, it is important to take care of the right temperature. The plant is thermophilic and can die at a value below + 15.
For planting peanuts at home you need to take spacious containers with fertile, loose soil. Then perform the following actions:
- Moisturize the substrate.
- Place the walnut on the center and deepen by 2 cm.
- Cover with foil.
It is necessary to observe how the peanuts grow at home, to air the seedling, regularly removing the film. After the appearance of the first two leaves, you can remove it completely. Approximately six weeks after planting peanuts bloom, and growing is reduced to the successful rooting of ovaries.
To successfully grow as much peanuts as you can in your home, you need to provide enough depth to bury the ovary. Nuts ripen at a depth of 10 cm. Further actions:
- When the leaves of the plant turn yellow and fade, you can harvest: shake out the contents of the pot.
- Free from earthen coma.
- Hang the bush in a warm and ventilated place.
After 10 -12 days, you can separate the pods from the roots and send nuts for storage. Knowing how to grow peanuts at home in a pot, you can without any trouble get a harvest of nuts on your own window sill. And how you can fry them delicious - read here.
Preparations for the storage of peanuts
All plants tie several pieces in small sheaves. Suspend in a well-ventilated area or under a canopy, rooted down for two weeks. The main thing that the temperature was not below zero degrees. During this period, peanuts will gain weight and finally ripen. Now you can tear the beans, place them in nets and rinse under running water.
An important step on the way to storage is the drying of this legume representative. If you do not do this, then very quickly all the pods will be covered with mold and the crop will be spoiled.
Peanuts can be dried in three ways:
- In electric dryers (if available). To do this, put the pods on the grill, but so that the layer is not more than 10 cm. Set the temperature to 60 ° С. Dry for two days. After that, check the pods: if they break well - with a crunch, and the nuts themselves are dry, then it's done. You can still trot the pod itself: you hear a thud of nuts inside - you can complete the drying.
- Near the heat source. In a large bowl or baking tray, place the peanuts, a layer no thicker than 15 cm. Put near the battery or the firebox. Dry for at least two weeks, stirring regularly.
- In the oven. Place the peanuts on a baking sheet with a layer of about 5 cm. Send to the oven, setting the temperature to no more than 60 ° C. Periodically stirring and checking the status. The process will take two days, several hours a day. This is necessary in order to give "reach" to the desired state in normal conditions, so as not to overdry the beans.
- You can store in two ways: In the pods, dumping them in canvas bags, peanuts are stored longer. In dry, ventilated areas, the pods can easily lie for a year, or even more.
Advice: so that the mole does not get through the bags and not spoil the nuts, you need to hold the bags in very salty water for half an hour before falling asleep the pods. Squeeze and dry them. And then fall asleep harvest for storage.
2. The nuts themselves, without the shell can be stored for six months. But there are some nuances:
- Store in a dry container (but not plastic) with a lid. Suitable glass jars, ceramic containers.
- You can use bags, processed as for the previous method.
- Plastic bags are not suitable for long-term storage: there is bitterness with time.
Harvesting peanuts is not difficult, you just need to know all the rules of harvesting and the time of ripening. Dry and store properly. By following the recommendations and tips described in this article, you can be sure that everything will work out.
How to grow peanuts?
It was always believed that this type of legumes can grow only in hot countries, so almost no one in Russia has ever tried to grow peanuts. However, modern possibilities of gardening allow us to successfully grow exotic plants, even in our difficult climate. There are brave farmers who even know how to grow peanuts in the Urals! But in this article we will grow it in mid-latitudes.
Planting and care for peanuts
It all starts with the right choice of soil - it should be loose and permeable. To grow peanuts in the open field, it is best to live in the south of the country, but in the middle lane you can succeed.
So, how and where to grow peanuts in the country? The main thing is to always be sunny at the planting site. Sow need to spring, but not too early - the weather should be steadily warm. Therefore, the middle of May is best for us.
The temperature of the earth should not be lower than 12 ° C. Prepare the holes in advance, placing them in a checkerboard pattern. The depth of the holes is 10 cm, and between them there should be about 0.5 meters, between the rows - 25 cm. Put 3 seeds into each well, it is not necessary to water it.
Peanut grows a month after planting. The height of the stems reaches 50-70 cm. When the stem fades, it leans to the ground and grows into it. And it is in the ground that nuts ripen, which for this they received the second name - earthen. When the foot has sunk into the ground, the bush should be tucked up like potatoes and not watered (only in cases of prolonged drought, you can slightly irrigate it).
It is time to harvest when the leaves have turned yellow. The bushes are broken in with pitchfork, the beans are separated and dried (but not in the open sun). From one bush you can collect about 0.5 kg of peanut nuts.
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Even for beginners from the first time it will be clear how to plant peanuts at home. The plant is not whimsical and does not require special attention and care. In the agricultural industry it is cultivated in hot countries with a tropical climate. Freshly harvested fruits can be obtained at home, even in indoor conditions. In the fall, get your own harvest - a handful of these peanuts nuts.
How to grow peanuts in your garden
Then shoots appear on the 5th day. After that, the plant needs a constant sunny place and moderate watering. After 45 days you can expect flowering.
Usually, if peanuts are grown for the plant in the middle lane, it is taken and bears fruit.
To know how to grow peanuts in the country is not enough, you need to be able and properly care for the plant. Watering is carried out as drying. Only during the formation of flowers and fruits watering is carried out more often. Hilling is necessary after the ovary has formed. Top dressing is carried out 3 times: during the period of formation of leaves, when budding and when the fruits are fastened. Weeding is obligatory after each watering and rain. Peanut crops are harvested most often after 4 months after sowing. A plant is considered ripe when its leaves turn yellow. During harvest time, the air temperature should be constant, not lower than +10 degrees. Bushes should be pulled out of the ground completely. Better that at this time the earth was dry. Fruits in the ground should not remain.