TO AUTHOR'S CERTIFICATE
908310 (6!) Additional to auth. Said-woov ”(22) For“ ”left 170680 (2 l) 2957020/28 - l 3 with the addition of the application M (5!) M. Cl.
USSR as a matter of izabrastany and discoveries (23) Priority
Published 280282 .. Bulletin W
Date of publication of the description 280282 (53) UDC664.81.
° 9 (088. 8) (72)
A, A. Buinov and A. A, Voylooko
Astrakhan Technical Institute of Fishery Industry and Industry (Vl) Applicant (54) AUTOCLAVE FOR HEAT TREATMENT
The invention relates to the technique of heat treatment of products and can be used mainly for the sterilization of products in various working environments in the canning and fish industries.
Known autoclave for heat treatment of products, consisting of a vertical cylindrical body with an airtight lid, autoclave Corvin 1, an annular manifold for feeding a working agent located in the lower part of the body, and vertical cylindrical tubes, the lower end associated with the collector (lj.
The disadvantage of this autoclave is the inefficient use of volume and the unevenness of the temperature field inside it.
The purpose of the invention is to increase the quality of heat treatment by creating a uniform temperature field and improving the conditions of mixing and circulation of the working agent.
This goal is achieved by the fact that an autoclave consisting of a vertical cylindrical body with a hermetic lid, autoclave baskets, an annular collector for feeding a working agent, located in the lower part of the body, and vertical cylindrical tubes connected to the collector end, is equipped with a steam ejector , the annular collector is located on the outer side of the housing and is connected to the outlet of the ejector, and the circulation pipes with the upper end are connected to the upper part of the housing, while the collector is equipped with additional circulation pipes, the opposite end connected to the lower part of the body, and the ejector is connected with the upper part of the body tube for the slope of excess steam.
FIG. l shows the proposed autoclave, a general view, in FIG. 2 - section A-A in FIG. one.
The autoclave contains a cylindrical body 1 with an airtight lid 2, autoclave baskets 3, an annular manifold h for steam supply, located in the lower part of the body, vertical cylindrical pipes 5, a steam ejector 6, pipes 7 connecting the torch to the upper part housing 1.
The autoclave works as follows. sixteen
The baskets 3 filled with the product are lowered into the autoclave, filled with water up to a level below the end of the circulation pipes 5, and closed with a lid 2.
Steam is supplied to the annular collector 4 15 and through the holes - into the circulation pipes 5, the liquid column in pipes 5 is heated to the state of thermodynamic equilibrium, after reaching which the vapor bubbles carry 2O liquid, pushing it into the upper part of the autoclave. the lower part of the autoclave enters the liquid and the cycle repeats again. Thus, the circuit consisting of an annular collector h and circulation pipes 5, works as a cyclically operating airlift pump until all the liquid in the autoclave is loaded eetsya to thermodynamic pas-. with steam heating. Steam ejector 6 sucks away excess steam from the upper part of the autoclave through pipe 7, returning it to the circulation loop, while creating a sufficient pressure drop for reliable operation of the airlift pump.
Organized directional circulation of the liquid leads to the equalization of the temperature field and intensifies the heat exchange between the liquid and the product.
All this together increases the "a" quality of the heat treatment of the product.
Autoclave for heat treatment of products, consisting of a vertical cylindrical body with an airtight lid, autoclave baskets, an annular manifold for feeding a working agent located in the lower part of the enclosure, and vertical cylindrical tubes with a lower end associated with the collector, characterized in that in order to improve the quality of heat treatment by creating a uniform temperature field and improving the conditions of mixing and circulation of the working agent, the autoclave is equipped with a steam ejector, a ring collection The op is located on the outer side of the housing and is connected to the outlet of the e> vector, and the circulation tubes with the upper end communicate with the upper part of the housing, while the lecturer is equipped with additional circulation tubes with the opposite end connected with the lower housing part and the ejector communicates with the upper part body pipe for suction of excess steam.
Sources of information taken into account in the examination
History of creation
The initial analogue of the autoclave appeared back in 1795 in France. A bonus was even announced to someone who invented a reliable product preservation agent. Due to the fact that in those days the question of human sustenance and subsistence was in the first place. Won a confectioner named Upper Francois. He put the products in a special container and put them to boil in ordinary water. Thus, the first autoclave for home (domestic) use was obtained.
In 1880, another Frenchman, Charles Shumberland, would create a real autoclave, in which the necessary pressure was created as the temperature increased. The use of this invention was limited, and became widespread exclusively among chemists and physicians, who were acutely concerned with the sterilization of instruments.
In 1953 (only two hundred years later) the autoclave was further developed. The company Lagarde has developed a unique autoclave for use in the textile industry - using the device dyed fabric. And in 1978, Lagarde launched the first professional autoclave for food sterilization.
The USSR made a significant contribution to the development of autoclaves - a high-pressure device was developed at the Institute of Petrochemical Synthesis. This gave impetus to the emergence of resin, polymeric materials and synthetic oils.
At this time, there is a separation of autoclaves into several branches - industrial devices, household (household) and medical, appeared.
A few years later, literally in 1988, an autoclave appeared for home canning, which worked with electric energy. That is, absolutely anyone could plug in an autoclave on the electrical grid and cook food appropriately right at home.
A modern autoclave is an apparatus that is designed as a sealed chamber, and is used to process material under pressure above atmospheric. In such conditions, there is an acceleration of the reaction and the yield of a better product.
- When used in medicine, high pressure autoclaves are used to sterilize instruments. If the device works without pressure, then it is called a drying cabinet or sterilizer.
- For carrying out chemical reactions using special devices, which are called chemical reactors. But in its essence and principle of operation it is all the same autoclave.
- The autoclave is widely used at home - with its help, it is possible to both prepare canned food and sterilize food. And by mounting the distiller, you get purified water for vehicle cooling systems and battery charging.
Currently, autoclaves are made from especially strong alloyed steels of various grades: and 20К, 06ХН28, 16ГС, 12Х18Н9Т, 09Г2С. The hull is constructed by welding or riveting links with convex bottoms. In the case special holes (covers) are made through which it is convenient to load materials. Steam is supplied through a fitting to the pipe, and condensate is removed by means of a drain valve.
A modern industrial autoclave is equipped with a wide variety of devices: external, external and internal heat exchangers, electric heaters, other various heating components, mixing devices (pneumatic, electromagnetic or mechanical), various devices for controlling and measuring pressure and temperature, and other control and measuring sensors.
In diameter, this device typically varies from 1.2 meters to 8 meters. The length can reach large sizes - from 2 to 40 meters! It is installed on special supports that allow the metal to lengthen (expand) when heated. In order to avoid heat loss, the casing is made of special thermal insulation. Inside the autoclave there are rails with trolleys - in this way the products for sterilization are supplied.
The change in temperature and pressure occurs with the help of copper or platinum thermal converters of resistance.
In general, a high pressure industrial autoclave is a complex technological device.
The main parameters of industrial autoclaves may be different: the capacity varies from a few centimeters to hundreds of meters, it is possible to work under pressure up to 150 MN / m2 and temperatures up to 500 degrees Celsius. The differences are related to the fact that such devices are used in a wide variety of industries:
- construction - manufacture and production of building materials,
- food - sterilization and preparation of food,
- chemical - release of various dyes, herbicides,
- rubber - vulcanization of products
- metallurgy - restoration of precious and non-ferrous metals.
For each individual process, distinctive autoclaves are used. For example, tunnel and dead-end units are involved in construction. They represent a pipe with a length of three to six meters and a diameter of fifteen to twenty meters. Tunnel systems are closed with a lid on both sides, and dead-end systems - only on one side.
In the field of chemistry - non-salient installations that do not require additional sealing. Such devices are equipped with a unique shielded electric motor. The rotor is protected by a screen of a special non-magnetic material.
And in the food industry there are a variety of models in size, principle of operation, both horizontal and vertical installation. In horizontal installations it is possible to sterilize products not only in rigid containers, but also semi-rigid or even soft. This is due to the fact that a back pressure is created inside the unit with respect to each specific product packaging.
Recent developments are equipped with multi-level protection systems, automatic shutdown systems and locks. A special "protective shirt" is used, which reliably protects the seams and materials of the hull from the influence of heat carrier.
Autoclaves are made in any dimensions and configuration, both in normal and explosion-proof. The parameters are selected according to the wishes and requirements of the customer. It happens and non-standard equipment for the chemical and petroleum industries.
Installations are completed with such equipment:
- ventilation system
- heating blocks,
- vacuum pumps,
- other systems for regulating and controlling vacuum, pressure, temperature and time.
Sale of industrial autoclaves today is carried out in a wide range of choices - the needs of absolutely any customer will be met.
Principle of operation of the device
After selecting the sterilization cycle, a vacuum is created inside the chamber with periodic heating. Thus, the air is completely removed from the working chamber along with the condensate. In accordance with the specified parameters, the operator creates the desired temperature and pressure. This is the so-called sterilization phase.
Under normal conditions, when the water temperature reaches 100 degrees Celsius, it stops heating up further. If the water boils for a long time, the moisture is transformed into steam. The process of intensive evaporation begins. Steam is the same gas that creates an overpressure in the chamber. In this case, the heat has a high penetrating power, and therefore completely penetrates into the structure of microorganisms, destroying them.
Modern industrial autoclaves use the vacuum function, which implies the removal of oxygen over several cycles. Thanks to this technique, the sterilization process is many times faster with the preservation of all the useful properties of the substance.
Then the pressure is released and the drying phase begins. And the remains of moisture instantly evaporate at high temperatures. The sterilization cycle is fully automated by the machine, therefore making a mistake on the part of the person is excluded.
But you can control the sterilization cycle with an electronic touch screen. It also displays the parameters of the current program. Using the display, it is possible not only to select the autoclave cycle, but also to switch the unit to the “standby” mode.
Achievements of scientific progress make it possible to produce industrial autoclaves of the most diverse models, but the principle of operation of some from others is not much different. In industry, autoclaves are used, both with water cooling and air cooling.
- Air cooling means cooling with a stream of cold air.
- Water cooling is the action of water that circulates in the system with a pump.
Pressure and temperature chambers are actively used in hydrometallurgy, chemical, rubber, light, construction industry, in medicine. Especially when creating products from carbon fiber.
But the active distribution of autoclaves received in the food sector. Such devices are equipped with reliable multi-level protection and a special "jacket" that protects the main (external) material from the effects of thermal media.
All over the world about 1.5-2 million industrial autoclaves are constantly in operation.
- automation and modernization of production processes
- ensuring perfect sterility - microorganisms and infections are completely destroyed,
- electrical energy savings
- the possibility of operation in various fields and with a wide variety of materials
- high quality and reliability of sterilization,
- process autonomy and safety.
It is for these reasons that autoclaves have become so widespread.
A variety of autoclaves
An autoclave is either a fully closed vessel or with a lid designed to carry out the technical processes that are necessary for the processing of materials by pressure and high temperature. Additionally, it can be equipped with pneumatic, electromagnetic or mechanical mixing devices. If necessary, equipped with external, external or internal heat exchangers and other devices for measuring the liquid level, pressure, temperature, and so on.
Industrial autoclaves are classified according to design features, type of heating, purpose, volume, pressure, design of the covers.
The structure and principle of operation of the autoclave
The invention of the autoclave belongs to the Frenchman Denny Papen. It was a real breakthrough in science. Since then, the device has found its application in many industries: in construction, medicine, as well as in the chemical and rubber industry. Currently, the device is widely used in food production. What is he like? An autoclave is a device that allows you to conduct any process under pressure (up to 150 megapascals) with simultaneous heating above the boiling point of water (up to 500 degrees). Such results can not be achieved on any other device. By structure, an autoclave is a container or vessel that can be closed or provided with an opening lid. It must be installed devices to monitor the basic parameters. By location in space devices are: swinging, rotating, horizontal column and vertical. It all depends on the process in which the device participates. In fact, an autoclave is the only way to produce maximum heating where it is not possible under normal conditions.
On sale for a long time there are apparatuses for food processing at home. They are smaller in size than production. Especially easy to do the stew in an autoclave. For work you need a stove, electrical outlet, jars, metal covers and a set of products: meat (any), lard, salt, bay leaf and pepper (allspice and peas).
All actions must be carried out slowly:
- The glass jars for products should be well washed and, preferably, sterilized.
- Fat and meat cut into small cubes.
- Put spices on the bottom of each jar (1 leaf of laurel, 1 allspice and several peas).
- Then put the fat, and lay meat on top of it.
- Pour 5 grams (1 teaspoon) of salt.
- Roll each jar with a metal lid.
- Аккуратно поставить баночки с продуктов в автоклав, залить их доверху водой и плотно закрыть крышку.
- Довести давление в аппарате до максимума, а затем поставить его на огонь.
Буквально через 4 часа тушенка в автоклаве будет готова, но открывать крышку можно будет только спустя сутки, когда емкость полностью остынет.
Запасы на зиму
Для дачников автоклав – прекрасный вариант стерилизации продуктов. In the period of mass preparations to boil each jar in a saucepan with water is a long and tedious exercise. And canned food in an autoclave can be processed in a matter of hours. There is nothing difficult here:
- First you need to roll up products (vegetables, fruits) in the usual way.
- Place small wooden sticks in the form of a lattice at the bottom of the container so that the glass from the container does not have direct contact with the inner surface and is not damaged when heated.
- Lay the banks in an autoclave in rows, but not to the very top.
- Fill the tank with water so that it is above the product.
- Close the lid and increase the pressure to 1 atmosphere.
- Put the machine on fire and bring the temperature inside to 110 degrees. Ensure that it does not rise above 120 degrees. Otherwise, reduce the flame.
- Heating lead for an hour.
- After the time, turn off the heat and wait until the temperature drops to 30 degrees.
- Relieve pressure with a valve and open the lid.
Now ready cans of canned food can be finally cooled and taken to the cellar.
The autoclave is unique in that it can cook almost any food. He noticeably facilitates the work of the hostess It allows you to make it less time consuming and more secure. An autoclave fish is made as easy as everything else. Take, for example, the easiest recipe for cooking a product in oil. To do this, based on one liter jar, you will need: 1 kilogram of fish (without viscera and heads), 2 bay leaves, 11 grams of salt, 5-6 peas of pepper and 30 grams of vegetable oil.
Further need to do the following:
- Wash and prepare the container.
- Cut the fish into pieces weighing 60-70 grams and mix it with salt.
- Put spices on the bottom of the jar.
- Then place the fish so that it does not reach the edge of the dish for 3 centimeters.
- Pour the contents of the oil.
- Roll the container cover.
Further sterilization process is necessary to conduct the same way as canned vegetables. The fish is cooked fast enough, so one hour will be enough.
AUTOCLAVE - Big Medical Encyclopedia
AUTOCLAVE (according to GOST 17726-72 - steam sterilizer) is an apparatus for sterilization with saturated steam under pressure.
By design, AUTOCLAVES are vertical (AV-75, AV-20), horizontal (AG-2, AG-100), portable and cabinet (ASH-250A, ASH-380, ASHDV-250A, etc.).
AVTOKLAV is used for sterilization of dressing material, surgical clothes, surgical instruments, various nutrient media, laboratory glassware, infected material, injection solutions, as well as in industry for the production of herbicides, dyes, for the production of non-ferrous and valuable metals, vulcanization of rubber and for canning products.Medical portable autoclave: a - cut, b - general view of the back and side.
The main details of the AUTOCLAVE (fig.) Are the water vapor (4) and sterilization (6) chambers. As a rule, they represent a single welded structure, but are separated functionally. This makes it possible to block the flow of steam into the sterilization chamber at the time of loading, ejection and unloading of the AUTO CLASS and to automatically maintain the working pressure. The water-vapor chamber is closed by a massive cast-iron or steel lid (1) with a rubber gasket (2). Both cameras are placed in a metal casing (5). which is attached to the stand (9) and insulated inside, at the bottom, with asbestos (7). In the upper part of the sterilization chamber there are belt-shaped holes (3) for steam. To control the work of the AUTOCLAVE, there is a manometer (13), a safety valve (15), a water-measuring glass or a water-measuring valve (11) and a system of taps that regulate the flow of water into the apparatus (10) through the hermetically closed neck (12) and ensure the removal of steam and air and condensate (8, 14). AUTOCLAVE is equipped with instruments that automatically maintain a predetermined pressure, as well as an ejector and a filter for drying sterilized material. Water can be heated in gas and electric burners. In modern AUTOCLAVES tubular electric heaters are built in, which, depending on the volume of AUTOCLAVE, have a capacity of 1 to 10 kW and more.
In modern A., the sterilization and water-vapor chambers are made of stainless steel, the details of the drain, water-treatment, release and safety valves are made of brass.
The principle of operation of the autoclave
A certain amount of water is poured into the water-vapor chamber (2/3 of the height of the water-measuring glass), which, while heating, boils, the steam that forms during this process enters the sterilization chamber through numerous holes. Due to hermetic blockage, steam accumulates in it, as a result, pressure and temperature increase, which ensures the destruction of microorganisms. Medical AUTOCLAVES allow sterilization under pressure up to 2.5 kgf / cm2 at temperatures up to 138 °. In many A. at the end of sterilization a vacuum of up to 200-400 mm Hg will be created. Art., producing drying of sterile material. After pressure relief and cooling, the AUTOCLAVE is unloaded. In some AUTOCLAVES, loading and unloading are performed from different sides (double-sided sterilizers). Large AUTOCLAVES, intended for sterilization of injection solutions in industrial conditions, are equipped with automated systems that ensure the implementation of the sterilization program.
There are also AUTOCLAVES without steam generator. They are used to sterilize tubes, ampoules, vials and other materials used in blood preservation. Steam enters them from an external source.
Before using the AUTOCLAVE, it is necessary to check the condition of the pressure gauge, tension bolts and small wings that secure the cover, the integrity of the rubber gasket, the lapping of taps, and the integrity of the gauge glass. Sterilization in the AUTOCLAVE must be carried out by specially trained personnel in accordance with the "Rules for the operation of pressure vessels". AUTOCLAVE is installed in spacious, clean, bright rooms with ventilation, stored in a closed unheated room. When transporting AUTOCLAVE is packed in a waterproof film and placed in a wooden box.
See also Sterilizers, Sterilization.
Bibliography: Massover A. M. Medical autoclaves, M .. 1960.
What is an autoclave and why is it needed?
The autoclave for home canning is an apparatus that will be useful to all lovers of tasty twists and canned goods. The household autoclave represents the modern device which allows to preserve various products, keeping the maximum quantity of vitamins and useful substances. Preparation of preservation in an autoclave is a real opportunity to make your favorite blanks with strict observance of the technology of canning in order to please yourself and your loved ones with the most delicious canned food of our own production.
What is autoclave for?
Using an autoclave to prepare various canned foods, you can quickly and efficiently make blanks for the winter, and also save time on long cooking and careful sterilization of dishes.
If we compare it with conservation in the “manual” mode, the same volume of blanks in an autoclave can be performed several times faster. Another important aspect is the complete absence of pathogenic bacteria and sticks, which may be contained in conventional preservation if the preparation technology is not followed. Many people know the disease called "botulism", which is caused by bacteria contained in canned food. The autoclave provides high-quality processing at a temperature of about 120 degrees, due to which, your canned food will not only be tasty, but also absolutely harmless.
Homemade spins, prepared using a domestic autoclave, have excellent taste. During preservation in an autoclave, it is possible to fully preserve the formulation and observe the technology for preparing canned food. These conditions are of particular importance when spinning fish and canned meat: for these products it is important to strictly adhere to established rules.
How to work with canning autoclave
To prepare canned foods or pickles using a domestic autoclave, it is necessary to prepare containers (jars) and fill them with products based on the selected recipe. After this, the banks must be sealed with lids. Further, the order of action will depend on what type of autoclave you use.
Autoclaves can be divided into two types: with pre-pumped pressure and without pre-pumping pressure.
Working with autoclave with pre-pump pressure
Closed cans are carefully lowered onto a special grille, which is placed on the bottom of the unit. Banks are loaded in layers, after which the device is closed with a lid. Before starting the operation of the jar, it is necessary to fill it with cold water, which should cover them by 2-3 centimeters. Next, it is necessary to pump air into the autoclave to a pressure level of 1 atmosphere. This condition is important to observe that in the process of heat treatment the banks do not burst. After completing it, it is possible to achieve the minimum difference between the pressure in the device itself and the pressure in the banks. When all the preparatory steps have been done, you can begin the work. The autoclave should be heated to a temperature of 100-120 degrees and hold the desired figure for 60-70 minutes. After time, allow the machine to cool (at a temperature of 25-30 degrees). The last stage - the descent of air, which is carried out using a special valve.
An example of such a device is the Belarusian household autoclave.
The operation of the autoclave without pre-pumping pressure
Closed cans are placed in special cassettes that fix the lids on the cans. Cassettes with banks are loaded into the autoclave and filled with water. Next, close the lid and just warm up the unit to 100-120 degrees and keep the temperature at the right time. Then let the unit cool down. Since no preliminary air pumping is required, it is much more convenient to work with such a device.
An example of such an apparatus is the autoclave Hanhi.
What canned food can be cooked in an autoclave
The autoclave is a universal device in which you can prepare a variety of pickles, canned goods, juices, stewed fruit and other goodies. Today, there are many recipes for making useful twists in an autoclave, therefore, having this machine, you will always have all kinds of treats on your table.
The list of dishes that can be cooked in an autoclave:
- canned beans, peas, corn,
- canned vegetables, - tomato sauces,
If you want to enjoy the favorite taste of home canned food, the preparation of which is easy and fast, a modern household canning autoclave is exactly what you need.
The autoclave is an apparatus for steam sterilization under pressure and at temperatures above 100 °. The autoclave is used to sterilize dressing materials, laundry for operations, tools, dishes for bacteriological laboratories, nutrient media for growing microorganisms, etc. The principle of the autoclave is based on increasing the boiling point of water with increasing pressure (at a pressure of 1 atm t ° boiling water 99, 1C, and at a pressure of 2 atm. - 119.6C). Autoclaves are stationary and portable, horizontal and vertical. The water in the autoclave is heated to form steam using electrical energy or the energy of burning gas, kerosene.
The main parts of the autoclave: a casing, a water vapor chamber, a sterilization chamber, a lid with a rubber gasket. Water-steam chamber of special high-grade steel is designed to produce steam. The material to be sterilized is placed in a sterilization chamber. A massive rubber gasket closes the water vapor chamber tightly.
The lid is attached to the body with bolts and the top is clamped with wing nuts. The outer casing protects the autoclave from mechanical damage.
In modern electric autoclaves, the heated steam supply system is separated from the sterilization chamber. Steam is supplied to the sterilization chamber through a nozzle from a kettle equipped with an electric heating element with a heating degree controller.
Fittings are attached to the autoclave: a pressure gauge with a siphon tube and a three-way valve, a water-measuring glass tube for measuring the water level in the water chamber of the autoclave, a safety valve to prevent an excessive increase in pressure in the autoclave, air and drain valves to remove air at the beginning of sterilization and to remove condensate from sterilization chamber.
Personnel serving an autoclave must be trained in special courses. The Qualification Commission in the presence of the boiler inspection inspector issues certificates for the right to operate the autoclave. In case of inept operation with an autoclave, an explosion may occur.
It is prohibited to use the autoclave if: a) the autoclave has expired by a heating engineer, b) at least one faulty clamping bolt has been found, c) at least one eye of the autoclave's cover has been damaged, d) a pressure gauge, a safety valve or a glass of the water tube is damaged, e) The cleaning of the autoclave of scale and dirt was not carried out within the prescribed period, and f) a boiler leak was noticed. Before proceeding with the operation of the autoclave, it is necessary to check its completeness and study the instructions attached to the autoclave. See also Sterilization.
Fig. 1. Portable autoclave (cut): 1 - cover, 2 - cover shirt, 3 - umbrella, 4 - holes for steam inlet, 5 - cover, 6 - water chamber, 7 - sterilization chamber, 8 - drain valve, 9 and 11 - steam taps, 10 - water-measuring glass tube, 12 - funnel with tap, 13 - pressure gauge, 14 - safety valve. Fig. 2. Electric autoclave AE-3 (front view): 1 - reflector, 2 - safety valve, 3 - sterilization chamber, 4 and 16 - casings, 5 - steam chamber, 6 - steering wheel, 7 - cover, 8 - drain valve, 9 - a cap nut, 10 - a funnel, 11 - a water-measuring glass tube, 12 - an electric heater, 13 - a crane of a water-measuring tube, 14 - a grounding bolt, 15 - a kettle, 17 - a branch pipe.
AUTOCLAVE is. What is AUTOCLAVE?
autoclave - autoclave ... Orthographic dictionary-reference
Autoclave - Autoclave apparatus for carrying out various processes during heating and under pressure above atmospheric. Under these conditions, the reaction is accelerated and the yield of the product is increased. When used in ... Wikipedia
AUTOCLAVE - (from the Greek. Autos himself, and dates. Clavis key). The same as the Papin's boiler (the iron pot, invented by Papin in 1681, closed so tightly that the developing water vapor could not go outside), improved and applied to the home ... Dictionary of foreign words of the Russian language
autoclave - a, m. autoclave m. 1820. Lexis. The apparatus in the form of a hermetically sealed vessel or chamber used to process what n. by heating under atmospheric pressure. BAS 2. The use of the autoclave is the same as Dad's ... ... ... Historical dictionary of the Russian language gallicisms
AUTOCLAVE - (from the Greek. Autos himself and lat. Cla vis key), a device for steam sterilization under pressure, arranged according to the principle of the Daddy's boiler. A. represents a hollow thick-walled cylinder of a cylindrical shape with a screwed, airtight. closing, ... ... Big Medical Encyclopedia
Autoclave - Autoclave - tightly closed boiler for heating materials under high pressure. [The dictionary of basic terms required in the design, construction and operation of roads.] Autoclave [c. Autos + clavis key itself] ... ... Encyclopedia of terms, definitions and explanations of building materials
autoclave - apparatus for carrying out various processes when heated and under pressure above atmospheric. In microbiol. A. is used in practice. Various designs are used to sterilize objects with high-temperature saturated water vapor. See also sterilization. ... ... Microbiology Dictionary
Autoclave is a pressure vessel designed for the heat treatment of a product packed in hermetically sealed containers. Source: CAC / RCP 52 2003. Codex Alimentarius. Code of Practice for Fish and Fisheries (Together with the Potential ... ... Official terminology
AUTOCLAVE - (from auto. And lat. Clavis key) sealed apparatus for carrying out many physicochemical processes during heating and elevated pressure (which increases the speed of processes), as well as for sterilization of medical instruments and dressing ... ... Large Encyclopedic Dictionary
AUTOCLAVE - AUTOCLAVE, eh, husband. Apparatus for heating under pressure, above atmospheric, at high temperature. | adj autoclave, oh, oh. Dictionary Ozhegova. S.I. Ozhegov, N.Yu. Shvedov. 1949 1992 ... Ozhegov Dictionary
autoclave - n., number of synonyms: 3 • boiler (34) • parodui (1) • sterilizer (4) Dictionary is synonim… Dictionary of synonyms
See what "Autoclave (in medicine)" in other dictionaries:
Autoclave (in medicine) - ... Wikipedia
Autoclave (in technology) - Autoclave (from auto. And Latin clavis - key), apparatus for carrying out various processes during heating and under pressure above atmospheric. Under these conditions, the reaction is accelerated and the yield of the product is increased. A. are: rotating, ... ... The Great Soviet Encyclopedia
Автоклав — I Автоклав (от Авто. и латинского clavis ключ) аппарат для проведения различных процессов при нагреве и под давлением выше атмосферного. В этих условиях достигается ускорение реакции и увеличение выхода продукта. А. бывают: вращающиеся … Большая советская энциклопедия
Автоклав — Автоклав аппарат для проведения различных процессов при нагреве и под давлением выше атмосферного. В этих условиях достигается ускорение реакции и увеличение выхода продукта. When used in ... Wikipedia
AUTOCLAVE - (from the Greek. Autos himself, and dates. Clavis key). The same as the Papin's boiler (the iron pot, invented by Papin in 1681, closed so tightly that the developing water vapor could not go outside), improved and applied to the home ... Dictionary of foreign words of the Russian language
Autoclave - * autoclave * autoclave (Greek itself, by itself, key, constipation) apparatus for sterilizing objects with high-temperature saturated water vapor (up to 138 ° C) under pressure up to 253.3 kPa. Used in medicine and in biological, biotechnological, ... ... Genetics. encyclopedic Dictionary
AUTOCLAV - a tightly closed apparatus for carrying out various processes at high temperature and under pressure above atmospheric, A. is used in the chemical industry, hydrometallurgy, and medicine (for sterilizing a dressing material and ... ... Large Polytechnic Encyclopedia
AUTOCLAVE - (French autoclave, from the Greek. Autos himself and lat. Clavis key) apparatus for carrying out dec. processes during heating and under pressure above atmospheric (which increases the speed of processes). Used in chemical. industry, hydrometallurgy, industry ... ... Big Encyclopedic Polytechnic Dictionary
autoclave - (auto + lat. clavis key) in medicine, see. Steam sterilizer ... Large medical dictionary
autoclave - AUTOCLAVE, a, m The device (in the form of a hermetic vessel), designed to be heated to a high temperature of what l. under pressure above atmospheric and used for scientific and technical processes, in the chemical, food industry, as well as ... Explanatory Dictionary of Russian nouns
An autoclave is this. What is an autoclave?
Autoclave - tightly closed boiler for heating materials under high pressure.
[Dictionary of the basic terms required in the design, construction and operation of roads.]
Autoclave [c. Autos-itself + clavis-key] is a cylindrical sealed apparatus for accelerated physicochemical reactions, including hardening of binders, at elevated temperatures of saturated water vapor (> 174 ° С) and pressure (0.8-1 , 2 MPa).
[Usherov-Marshak A. Concrete Concrete: Lexicon. M .: REEF "STROYMATERIALY". - 2009. - 112 p.]
An autoclave is an apparatus for carrying out various processes during heating and under pressure above atmospheric. Under these conditions, the reaction is accelerated and the yield of the product is increased. Autoclaves are: rotating, swinging, horizontal, vertical and column. The design and basic parameters of an industrial autoclave are diverse, with a capacity of several tens of cm3 to hundreds of m3, intended to work under pressure up to 150 Mn / m2 (1500 kgf / cm2) at temperatures up to 500 ° C.
[Korndorf B. A., High-pressure engineering in chemistry. L. - M., 1952]
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Source: Encyclopedia of terms, definitions and explanations of building materials
Encyclopedia of terms, definitions and explanations of building materials. - Kaliningrad. Edited by Lozhkin VP. 2015-2016.
The principle of operation and the structure of the device
The device of the autoclave is quite simple, it is based on the well-known laws of physics. In accordance with them, each liquid has its own boiling point, after reaching which further heating is impossible. For water, under normal conditions, this point is 100 ° C. Reaching this mark, water becomes steam and in this form leaves the heating zone. Active steam formation is called boiling. Steam begins to appear at a temperature of 90 ° C, and the closer to 100 ° C, the more steam. If you boil water for a long time, it will all evaporate. However, if the pressure is increased in the heating zone, then the boiling point will also increase and when it reaches 100 ° C, the water will still turn into steam, but most of it will retain the appearance of the liquid. It is on this principle that autoclaves work:
- The water in them is heated to the state of formation of steam.
- Due to the closed shape of the tank, steam cannot leave the limits of the autoclave and increases the pressure in it.
- When the pressure rises, the water boils more slowly, keeps the liquid state longer, however, the temperature in the container rises.
As a result, the device has a temperature in excess of 100 ° C, which is detrimental to various harmful bacteria and microorganisms. At the same time, canned food is prepared under the influence of steam heat, which significantly speeds up the process and improves their taste.
Types of autoclaves
Autoclaves can be classified according to several criteria:
- depending on the form: vertical, horizontal, column,
- based on the location of the working chamber: rotating, swinging, immovable.
The heating of these devices provide built-in heating elements, powered by the network. The advantages of electric models include:
- accelerated cooking process
- the presence of a thermostat that automatically maintains the desired temperature in the tank,
- convenient mechanism of the cover, for closing of which it is enough to turn one screw,
- mobility. The device can be installed at any place on your own.
- “Kid Nerzh. ECU "22 l,
- “Baby Al. Stainless. "22 l,
- "GO" Stainless "on 22 liters,
- "Conservative" 46 liters.
Gas autoclaves today are more affordable because they lose popularity in electric. They work from gas and electric stoves, they are also allowed to use on fires. Gas devices are sold in various volumes and models, among which are:
- "Conservative" (14 l),
- classic autoclave (17 l) TM “Good Heat”,
- "Baby GazNerzh-U" (22 l).
The advantages of cooking blanks in autoclaves
For a newcomer to canning, working with an autoclave seems troublesome and long. But this impression arises from the lack of practical experience. It is worth trying only once - and it will become clear that the advantages of such a method are more significant than its disadvantages.
And the list of advantages at home autoclaves is impressive:
- it takes 30-40 minutes to load the device: fill the jars and put them in a container, and then the cooking process goes without human participation,
- at the same time it is prepared from 14 cans with a volume of 0.5 l (in the smallest model) and more,
- cooking at temperatures above 100 ° C destroys pathogenic bacteria and spores, led by the causative agent of botulism,
- since the pests are destroyed, the shelf life of finished products is extended several times,
- thanks to the same high temperature, foods are cooked faster, while preserving far more vitamins and minerals than with standard cooking or baking,
- since canned food is stewed in its own juice in a hermetically sealed container, this cooking method is recognized as the most useful.
Instructions for use
Before you start, follow these rules:
- rinse the jars before filling, but do not sterilize,
- filling the container with products, leave 2-3 cm of stock so that the products can increase in volume during the heating process,
- the banks are first put in the cassette (if there is a device in the configuration), and then the cassette is lowered into the autoclave,
- it is allowed to put the container in several rows, but strictly one container to another,
- while filling the water, control its level: it should be 3-4 cm higher than the top row of the container, but not reach the edge of the autoclave chamber by 5-6 cm,
- close the lid tightly.
How to heat
Banks put only in water heated (up to 60 ° C) water. If in a container we already have hot vegetables and fruits according to the recipe, then the water temperature in the autoclave should be at least 70. 90 ° C. After installing the cans and closing the lid, begin heating to the desired temperature.
The instructions for each autoclave are their indicators, but the average temperature for some categories of canned food can be found in the table:
Safety measures when working with an autoclave
The autoclave works with high temperatures, so it is important to know how to properly organize its work in terms of safety:
- Always keep to the thermal level specified in the recipe. To exceed it is permissible only by 2 ° C, not more
- the sterilization time (directly cooking the product) is considered from the moment the temperature in the autoclave is reached, which is necessary for cooking, and not from the moment the device is turned on or when the container is turned on,
- it is advisable to cook fish and meat cans in cans up to 2 liters,
- if you sterilize middle-aged lamb or beef, extend the process by 15-20 minutes,
- River fish is also prepared for 15-20 minutes longer than indicated in recipes for sea fish,
- adhere to the required temperature and duration of cooking,
- At the end of the process, turn off the heat and start cooling the unit. For gas devices, for this you need to drain the water through the faucet, and for the electric ones - to wait for the sound signal
- also for safety, relieve pressure with check valve.
- pull seaming in the cassette. When it cools to room temperature, then you can free the container from it.
The autoclave is a fairly simple design, so many craftsmen make it with their own hands at home. If you are interested in a similar idea, then pay attention to the following instructions.
Selection of the necessary parameters of capacity
The first thing you need to decide on the capacity for the future device. A reliable and inexpensive option in this case is the used propane bottle. It has a suitable cylindrical shape, and the wall thickness is over 3 mm, which allows it to withstand great pressure. As alternatives also consider:
- industrial fire extinguishers,
- milk cans,
- steel pipes with thick walls.
In this case, the last two options will have to strengthen the bottom, otherwise the unit will not survive long-term sterilization. As for the volume, everything is individual here: a 14-liter can fit in a 24-liter bottle with 0.5 liters or 5 liter capacity, a 50-liter bottle (which will be discussed further) includes 8 cans of 2-liter each.
Search for the necessary tools and accessories
In addition to the future camera of the autoclave, we will also need additional components and tools for their installation. The work will be useful:
- welding inverter.
- a small sheet of low carbon steel (10 mm) for the lid,
- for the neck - a piece of pipe F159 5 mm thick,
- 3 mm sheet or steel strip for the role of a future pallet,
- if you plan to measure pressure and temperature (recommended), then take the nozzles for the pressure gauge and thermometer,
- 8 pieces M12 bolts with nuts,
- directly manometer and thermometer,
- safety valve.
The main stages of manufacturing
Now - the actual assembly process itself:
- Place the blank billet vertically and get rid of the old crane (if you cannot take it out, dismantle it to the maximum).
- Next, just in case, you need to fill the billet to the top with water to get rid of possible gas residues.
- Then, along the seam on the balloon, cut off the top “cap” and make openings for the valve, manometer and fitting for a thermometer in it.
- Now put the prepared steel bottom on the bottom and fix it by welding.
- Making the neck: cut out of the F159 pipe ring with a height of 40 mm and a diameter with a 2-liter jar. Clean it up, flatten it on the vice if necessary. For a snug fit, check its flatness on the glass.
- Lower the neck on the bottom of the previously cut "cap", draw its outline and then cut the desired hole grinder.
- Insert the collar ring and weld it to the “cap” on both sides.
- Now you need to make a cover. It should pass into the opening of the neck. Bottom of it to secure the rubber gasket and the ring of a strip of 3 mm, to make it easier to center the cover.
- Send all the components to sandblasting, and then weld the “cap” itself back to the cylinder.
- Weld handles and nozzles to the tank.
- Place a safety valve on the left, a pressure gauge and a thermometer on the right.
Our autoclave is ready, now it is necessary to test it before work. To do this, coat all the joints with soap and water and raise the pressure inside to 8 atm. If there are bubbles, it means that welding is of poor quality, it is necessary to finish it. It is better to carry out the first sterilization in the new autoclave on the street as the strong smell is possible.
Video: do-it-yourself autoclave
Homemade canned food - delicious. But for me meat is something like sushi from fugo fish. I do not know how to do it myself.
I eat only my mom's canned food. (Pickled cucumbers and tomatoes) And mushrooms are just the ones that I collected.
By constructional type
All autoclaves can be divided into two large blocks - vertical units, horizontal, rotating, swinging and column. Each of these types has both its obvious advantages and some disadvantages.
- Vertical. The water environment is heated by special heating elements. The heating elements are located inside the chamber at the bottom of the device. It is characterized by a compact structure. Received widespread in the laboratory.
- Horizontal. The most commonly used gas heating, which is characterized by minimal heating time and greater operating flexibility. This unit is usually used in industry for processing composite materials. Of the advantages of the gas horizontal autoclave, it is necessary to single out the ease of installation, small dimensions, there is no need to equip with a system of diathermic heating. Расходы у электрического автоклава несколько выше. Однако технологии не стоят на месте – уже существуют горизонтальные системы со спиральным энергосберегающим теплообменником. По цене спиральный теплообменник обойдется в разы дороже своего газового аналога. Сроки окупаемости существенно выше.
- Вращающийся. It is suitable for working with suspended solids or mushy, in particular for leaching mineral concentrates of various metals and ores. It has the form of a sealed vessel with a removable lid. The latter is attached to the body with a gasket and studs. A shut-off valve with a multi-layer filter is mounted outside the cover.
- Swinging. These devices allow the mixing of substances in such packages for which sterilization in conventional autoclaves is considered unacceptable.
- Column. Commonly used to create alumina from bauxite. This unit allows you to simplify labor and time costs in a similar process.
According to their purpose, industrial autoclaves can be divided into the following types:
- Food - used for food processing and canning.
- Chemical - usually work with a nominal pressure of 15-25 atmospheres, but there are modifications under 100 atmospheres. Share on laboratory and classic industrial.
- Construction - used for the production of the same brick or more complex structures such as triplex, carbon fiber, Kevlar.
- Medical - used to sterilize instruments and materials.
According to European standard EN 13060
Autoclaves are divided into the following three classes:
- "AT" - intended for sterilization of any objects, including tissues, both porous and hollow, and massive. The most functional devices.
- "S" - are involved in the medical field. More economical systems, unlike class "B". They are considered the most demanded due to the provision of an acceptable level of sterilization.
Modern industrial gas and electric autoclaves are complex installations with high rates of performance.
NIPKI VET "Konservprod" proporagaet manufacturing autoclaves for industrial use, the quality of which is proven by any production of the Russian Federation and other countries.