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Gumboro disease in chickens (bursal disease)

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Gumboro disease (Disease Gamboro) (Infectious Bursal Disease - IBD, Infectious Bursitis, Infectious Nephrosis) - disease of the fabric bag, highly contagious viral disease of poultry of the family of chickens, characterized by diarrhea, inflammation of the fabric bag, immunosuppression. It is registered in several states of the USA, in certain countries of Africa and Asia, in France, Italy, Germany and in other countries with developed poultry farming.

Information about the pathogen. The causative agent — an RNA-containing virus of the family Birnae Viridae or Picornaviridae, is cultured on embryos, causing their death on days 5-7? E. The pathogen can withstand heating up to t 60 ° C for 1 h, is resistant to ether, chloroform, sensitive to solutions of formaldehyde, caustic soda.

Epizootological characteristics. The most susceptible to the disease are chickens of meat breeds at the age of 2-15 weeks. Infection occurs, as a rule, by alimentary.

Clinical signs and course. The incubation period is very short. Chickens have drowsiness, trembling, diarrhea, they eat little and drink a lot, the feather is disheveled, they die 4 days after the onset of the disease (3-80%). In contrast to the clinical form, the subclinical form is observed in chickens at the age of less than 4 weeks, when the immune system is damaged. Previously, the manifestation of IBD is characterized by the absence of clinical signs and the defeat of the fabric bag, where the number of V-lymphocytes decreases sharply and immunosuppression develops.

Pathological changes. The corpses are dehydrated. At autopsy, intramuscular hemorrhages are found in the chest and lower leg and other muscle groups. The kidneys are colorless, the liver and spleen are hypertrophied. The fabric bag is enlarged, swollen, necrotic areas are noted on its mucous membrane. With a longer course of the disease, the volume of the bag decreases, when opening it reveals a cheesy mass.

Diagnosis set on the basis of the clinical picture and the results of the autopsy, laboratory tests (precipitation reaction in a gelatin gel), which is based on the isolation of the virus, its identification, the detection of antibodies in the blood serum, the formulation of biological samples on susceptible chickens. Differentiated from infectious bronchitis, sulfonamide poisoning, mycotoxicosis, Newcastle disease, lymphoid leukemia, Marek's disease, fatty toxicosis

Control measures. When the disease appears, the house is isolated, after the slaughter, the birds are thoroughly cleaned and disinfected the premises. Vaccination is used for specific prophylaxis.

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Infectious bursal disease of chickens

Infectious bursal disease (IBD, Gumboro disease) is an acute contraceptive disease of chickens characterized by a lesion of the factory bag, diarrhea, nephrosis, intramuscular hemorrhages.

For the first time the disease was registered in 1957 in the town of Gumboro, (USA), which gave the disease a second name.

Currently, the disease is registered in all countries of the world. The contamination of herds ranges from 2 to 100% and is manifested by outbreaks of the disease. Economic damage consists of losses associated with the death of chickens, forced culling of poultry, reduced meat productivity of young animals, as well as the costs of preventive measures and a low level of vaccination response due to immunodepression caused by bursa pathology.

Characteristics of the pathogen. The causative agent of IBB is a virus belonging to the family Birnaviridae (from English bi - double, rna - ribonucleic acid), the genus Avibirnavirus. The virions of the virus are shellless, are spherical particles with a diameter of 55 and 18-22 nm. They consist of a core containing double-stranded linear RNA, and a protein, an icosahedral capsid, constructed from 92 capsomers.

Resistance to physical and chemical influences. The virus is resistant to ether, chloroform, changes in pH (2-11), UV irradiation. When exposed to a 0.5% formalin solution, it is inactivated in 6 hours, 0.5% chloramine in 10 minutes.

Antigenic structure. Five proteins have been found in virion structures. One of them is responsible for group-specificity, the other for type-specificity and the induction of neutralizing antibodies.

Antigenic variability. The virus has antigenic variability: one serotype with six subtypes is pathogenic for chickens, two serotypes pathogenic for turkeys. The presence of antigenic variability of the virus requires the use of a strain with the maximum degree of antigenic homology with the epizootic strain as a vaccine.

Hemagglutination properties. Not installed.

Virus cultivation. The IBB virus can be propagated in chicken embryos free of maternal antibodies to a number of viruses, including the IBB virus. When infected into the allantoic cavity or the yolk sac, embryos die on the 3rd-8th day after infection. Signs of reproduction of the virus in the chicken embryo - necrosis and hemorrhages on the body of the embryo, liver, kidneys. The virus is well reproduced in the culture of kidney cells and chicken embryo fibroblasts, causing on the 3-5th day after infection with the JRS. It is possible to cultivate it on SPF-chickens (free from pathogenic flora) 21-25 days of age.

Clinical signs. In chickens of 3-6 weeks of age, the disease is acute, but depending on the immune state of the population, a subacute course or death is possible. The incubation period is 1-3 days, and the disease lasts 5-7 days.

In diseased chickens, diarrhea is manifested with the discharge of watery, whitish-yellowish litter, then head and neck tremor, deep prostration appear. Morbidity and mortality increase rapidly and reach a maximum on the 3-4th day of illness, then it usually diminishes within 5-7 days. Distinctive signs of the disease - suddenness, high level of damage and rapid recovery. Mortality is 6-37%. Subclinical infection is mainly expressed as growth retardation. When an adult bird is ill, there is only a slight decrease in the percentage of viability of the embryos.

Pathological changes. They are different at different stages of the disease. Initially, hypertrophy of the bursa and petechiae in its mucous membrane is noted, exudate with fibrin flakes between its folds, hemorrhages in the pectoral muscles and leg muscles, and serous membranes. After a week, the lesions become different: serofibrous pericarditis, hepatitis and nephritis. One month after the infection, the bursa atrophies and is 3-4 times smaller than in healthy birds of the same age. Microscopic changes characteristic of IBB are found in a factory bag of sick birds. They are mainly represented by lymphoid necrosis and hyperplasia of reticuloendothelial cells, thickening of interfollicular connecting partitions, formation of glandular structures instead of follicles.

Virus localization. The virus penetrates the digestive tract and infects lymphoid tissue. After 24-28 hours, it is localized in a fabric bag. The most sensitive to the virus are lymphocytes, on the surface of which IgM are fixed. Therefore, the main target for the virus is a subclass of B lymphocytes, especially their immature forms. In addition, the lymphocytes of the spleen, the cecal glands of the blind processes, etc. are destroyed. The immunodepressive effect caused by the virus is due to the defeat of the lymphoid tissue.

CPD of immune complexes, including lymphocytes infected with a virus, antibodies, complement, leads to the appearance of hemorrhagic lesions in skeletal muscles, liver and other organs. Deposition of immune complexes in the glomeruli and convoluted tubules of the kidneys reduces their filtration capacity, and urates accumulate in the kidneys.

Diarrhea in IBD develops due to the reproduction of the virus in intestinal epithelium cells, which leads to dehydration. The weakening of the immune status of the bird leads to additional infection with viruses and bacteria.

Source of infection - sick bird. The pathogen is transmitted with infected feed, water, aerogenic, as well as with inventory and through the egg. Helminths and lice are considered direct transmission vectors. Wild birds can be direct and indirect vectors. In natural conditions IBB only chickens are sick, namely chickens of 2-15 weeks of age. However, it was possible to isolate the virus from poults, bats and mosquitoes.

Diagnostics. Only with a typical course of the disease is relatively easy to diagnose on clinical and pathological signs. Laboratory studies are needed in the early stages or in the subclinical course.

Laboratory diagnosis. For laboratory tests, birds taken from factories that have fallen or been killed during the first 7 days of illness take a factory bag, a liver, and kidneys.

Virus detection in pathological material it is possible to establish by express methods: an indirect variant of ELISA, REEF and PCR.

Virus isolation carried out by bioassay with subsequent isolation of the virus in chicken embryos, in cell culture and infection of chickens. It is not always possible to isolate the virus from the affected organs, therefore a more reliable method for diagnosing IBD is serodiagnosis. Blood serum is also examined for asymptomatic disease. Important in the prevention of IBD is systematic monitoring of the immune state of the herd. Such control is carried out by studying paired serum.

Identification isolated virus is carried out with the help of PH on chicken embryos, in REEF and RDP.

Antibody Detection to IBD virus in the blood serum of sick and ill birds is carried out in PH, RNGA, RDP, ELISA.

Neutralizing antibodies reach maximum titers by the seventh day after infection and persist in the body of the bird for up to three months. Serum with a high titer of neutralizing antibodies is usually positive in the RDP. RNGA detects antibodies already on the 3-5th day after infection, with their maximum titers on the 3-4th week. For a wide serological study used ELISA.

Differential diagnostics. IBB must be differentiated from infectious bronchitis of chickens, Newcastle disease, Marek's disease, Rous sarcoma, coccidiosis, nephritis, vitamin A deficiency. However, only the detection of antibodies does not allow diagnosis, it is necessary to isolate the virus, determine its serotype, subtype and virulence.

Immunity and specific prevention. When carrying out measures of specific prevention, it is necessary to take into account factors that negatively affect the formation of persistent immunity in birds. This is primarily the type of antigen, the method and frequency of its use in the vaccination process, the degree of attenuation or inactivation.

When immunizing against IBD with a live vaccine, it is necessary to establish the conformity of the drug used with the epizootic strain circulating among birds. In addition, vaccination should take into account maternal antibodies.

Currently, live vaccines are widely used from naturally attenuated strains, as well as weakened by passaging on CE and in cell culture. In birds of different age groups, the intensity and duration of post-vaccination immunity are not the same. The level of specific antibodies in chickens corresponds to the concentration of virus-neutralizing antibodies in adult chickens-mothers during the laying period.

Currently used dry live vaccine strains D-78 and "Winterfield 2512" orally and in the form of a spray.

Inactivated vaccine is prepared from virus propagated in EC and in cell cultures. The virus is inactivated by formalin or β-propiolactone, aluminum hydroxide is added. The vaccine is used subcutaneously or intramuscularly, introducing it at the age of 2-4 months. The titers of post-vaccination antibodies are studied in ELISA and PH.

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Gumboro disease: chickens and turkeys are sick

Causative agent bursal disease is a virus of the family Birnoviridae, infecting lymphoid cells, causing a sharp decrease in the immunity of birds. At the sight of the virus are immature β-lymphocytes containing immunoglobulin M. There are two serotypes, roughly speaking, of the species of this virus: 1 - affects only chickens, 2 - only turkeys. At the same time the Gamboro chickens virus exists in several variations (subtypes).

Methods of transmission of the causative agent of Gamboro disease:

- infected bird, carriers of the virus can be sparrows, pigeons, etc.

- feed, in particular - pests of feed

At the same time, indoors, the virus of a bird's bursal disease can live for up to three months, and in dirty rooms - in dust, not cleaned cells, equipment can be stored for years. Not afraid of sunlight, outside the room shows resistance. In dry litter, it remains active for about two months, on the surface of glass and walls - for about one month.

Gumboro disease: how to manifest

Externally, the virus of bursal disease of chickens manifests itself already on the third day after ingestion of a bird. In general, the characteristic of the acute form of Gumboro disease (it happens and subacute course) is an unexpected, high incidence of poultry (40-100%), a sharp peak in mortality (20-40%) and a rapid recovery in 4-7 days.

In this case, the Gamboro virus in hens of egg breeds more often occurs at the age of 6-8 weeks, in hens of meat breeds - 3-4 weeks.

It all starts with diarrhea, droppings become watery, yellow-white. Chickens look depressed, lump together, their feathers are ruffled, around the cloaca are dirty. The bird does not eat or drink. In this form, the disease manifests itself for 5-7 days, after which Gumbore’s disease is often complicated by manifestations of coccidiosis or colibacillosis.

At the opening of the bird, the cloacal bag of cherry color increased by 2-3 times. Often in a cavity blood clots can be visible. There are hemorrhages under the skin on the chest, wings, thighs and in the glandular stomach.

Typical hemorrhages that show up at the opening of a bird that died from Gumboro disease

Already on the third day, changes are observed in the fabric bursa: due to edema and secret accumulation, it increases in size, becomes gray-yellow. On the fourth day of the disease, its weight is almost doubled, hemorrhages, turbid contents and necrotic layers are detected in it. Sometimes they fix intense hemorrhages covering the entire bursa. At 7-9 days there is atrophy and fibrosis of the bursa.

A characteristic sign of an infectious disease are changes in the fabric bursa (bag)

However, finally put diagnosis of Gamboro disease in chickens can only be based on the results of laboratory data.

Gamboro disease in chickens: prevention, vaccination, measures in case of disease outbreak

In addition to complying with the hygienic rules for keeping poultry, owners of chickens are obliged to regularly fight with carriers of the virus, puffed-up chicken, to monitor the quality of feed.

Chickens are vaccinated with Gumboro chickens virus vaccines in case of an outbreak threat. The following vaccines are used in Ukraine:

- inactivated vaccine from strain BER-93

- virus vaccines from strains UM-93 and VG-93

- Gallivac IBD (France)

- inactivated vaccines N.D.V. + I.B.D + I..B. and quadratin N.D.V. + I..B.D + I..B. + Reo and NECTIV FORTE (Israel).

There is no cure for Gumboro disease!

With diagnosis of gamboro disease in chickens the farm in which the disease is detected is declared unfavorable and imposes restrictions according to the Instructions. Two months after the removal of poultry from a dysfunctional economy, they are removed. Conduct complete disinfection in the household. Good for bursal disease chickens are considered farms in which IBB was not observed for one year.

Tatyana Kuzmenko, member of the editorial board Sobkor of the Internet publication "AtmAgro. Agroindustrial Gazette"

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Chickens aspergillosis

Diseases of chickens babies and their treatment. Aspergillosis is a fungal infection that affects the respiratory system of chickens. Birds appear wheezing, coughing, uneven breathing. Pathogens enter the embryo through the shell. To avoid such a disease, you should avoid the development of fungal diseases in the litter of chickens. It should be as often as possible to clean the place around the troughs and feeders. Aspergillosis is caused by a fungus, but other pathogens can also trigger it.

Infection in a few days can be transmitted through infected individuals and equipment. Young animals become apathetic, lack appetite. For the treatment of this disease it is worth contacting a veterinarian who prescribes the necessary medications. At home from the first days of life should be the prevention of aspergillosis. The house must be kept clean and regular disinfection of premises and equipment.

Salmonella

Everyone has heard about this disease, even those who are not at all familiar with the breeding of chickens. Salmonellosis is an infectious disease that can be transmitted by airborne droplets through the communication of healthy birds with infected individuals. Her symptoms are as follows:

  • Eyes swollen and watery.
  • Appetite is completely absent.
  • Swollen feet.
  • Diarrhea.
  • Slow growth.

If you have found signs of salmonellosis, even in one individual, it is necessary to drink all the livestock Levomycetinum.In some cases, signs of salmonellosis may be completely absent or very blurred, making it difficult to identify such a disease. Most often, the first manifestations occur a few days after infection. Salmonellosis prevention should be done regularly. To enhance the immunity broiler chickens provide mineral supplements. Sometimes a drug such as enroflon is prescribed. For more information about the diseases of broiler chickens and their treatment can be found in the photo or video.

Dyspepsia in broiler chickens

The smallest chickens are susceptible to this disease. This disease occurs among young stock quite often. In simple terms, dyspepsia is the most common indigestion in chickens and signs that they get sick can be seen immediately. The reason for this may be a poor diet that does not contain mineral supplements. With this disease, individuals lose all interest in food, they become incredibly lethargic and inactive. The main symptom of this disease is liquid litter with undigested food particles. The cause of this disease may be feed abuse, diet change, as well as poor-quality feed.

To prevent this disease is to follow a few rules.

  • The temperature in the hen house should be warm all the time. Much depends on the temperature, but many novice poultry farmers forget about it.
  • The most common ascorbic acid will perfectly help to fight against the processes of decay in the bird's body. You can also use a solution of manganese and baking soda.

These simple manipulations will help your pets fight the disease.

  • Feed is given to chickens every four hours. In the feed should not be fat, as well as complex proteins. Only a strict diet, and nothing else. Make sure that the feed does not have grains with rot and mold. Also, kids need to always clean and fresh water.
  • Think carefully about the organization of the place where your birds eat. In no case should chickens crowd, fighting and scattering and scattering their food, as often happens.

In case of indigestion, medicinal herbs will help the chicks. The method is simple, but this does not make it any less effective.

Bronchopneumonia

Bronchopneumonia is really worth being afraid of, since this disease is dangerous for broilers. It entails a great many of the most diverse diseases, in some cases, even fatal ones. If this disease is not treated in time, then bronchopneumonia can develop into other, more serious diseases, such as bronchitis, pneumonia, sinusitis, rhinitis, tracheitis.

Birds with this disease will have a painfully untidy appearance, a strong weight loss, a complete lack of appetite, as well as a depressed state. If a bird begins to cough, and a mucous fluid is released from the nose, the disease is obvious. Although it is not an infection, the massive death of birds is possible. In pharmacies, a special drug for treatment unfortunately is not found. Therefore, you should immediately make the medicine yourself.

Here is a recipe for the most common medicine.

One and a half cups of soda ash must be dissolved in three liters of hot water. Next, add a solution of bleach (one cup to seven liters of water). The resulting composition must be allowed to infuse, bring to the volume of twenty liters and process the room. Birds are not removed at this time. For them, nothing harmful from this will happen. For the treatment of chickens, you can use penicillin, norfloxacin, also terramycin. You can also use the infusion of mummy with honey, tincture of ginseng and nettle. After a month, the chickens will start to feel much better.

Hypovitaminosis

Chickens, like people, also need vitamins, and serious diseases can also occur due to the lack of trace elements. These diseases are represented by a large number. Like vitamins, hypovitaminosis is spelled with the Latin alphabet. If the body does not have enough vitamin A, the pathology is formed in the bud. Such birds have no appetite, growth stops, growth and development does not occur, weakness and inactivity are inherent in the chicks.

If the disease develops, there may be a lack of digestion, as well as damage to the nervous system.

Often, poultry farmers notice the lack of vitamin A in the manifestation of night blindness. To compensate for the lack of vitamin A, you can use herbal flour, carrots and greens. If in the avian organism there are not enough vitamins of group D, the calcium-phosphorus metabolism is disturbed. This affects the condition of their bones. The birds are weak, they have diarrhea, their legs are shaking, the birds can be very limp. At home, you must comply with proper feeding, rearing and maintenance of birds. With a lack of vitamin, veterinarians are advised to add fish oil to the main feed. In addition, walking will be very useful. Fresh air, grass, warm sun.

Newcastle disease

Russian scientists are more likely to call this disease wrenches. Birds have a cough, apathy, incomprehensible movements of coordination, wings hang down, a painful look, disheveled feathers, weight loss. There is something else that is characteristic of this disease. Sick individuals can stagnate in the same place. Newcastle disease is considered infectious and infected individuals need to be isolated from healthy chickens.

If you do not take action, then all the livestock may cover such a disease. Currently, there are no special drugs for Newcastle disease. Sick birds should be immediately transplanted to a separate room in order not to spread the infection. More to study the disease of Newcastle can be on video.

Mycoplasmosis

Mycoplasmosis is manifested in broilers with cough, runny nose and lacrimation. If the disease is long, pus accumulates in the eyelid area, and tumors may appear. Even after treatment, ill birds continue to be considered a source of infection and can infect healthy individuals simply by staying close by. It is necessary to treat diseased birds with an antibiotic called Tylosin, and in addition, it is worth using tetracycline medications.

It should be borne in mind that your birds are not completely cured, because mycoplasmosis still remains in the body for life. The best way out is timely vaccination of all birds and isolation of the sick. In order to further avoid problems with the young, should be carried out proper care and regularly clean up the chicken coop. How to treat broiler chickens with mycoplasmosis can be studied in detail in the photo or video.

Marek's disease

Marek's disease affects individuals aged from birth to 5-6 months. At an early stage, the disease does not manifest itself, but then the birds appear uncoordinated, twisting fingers, damage to the joints of the legs. One month after the disease, the birds die. The treatment of this disease is impossible, but the carcasses of these birds after heat treatment can be used as food.

For the prevention of Marek's disease, it is necessary to timely vaccinate, improve the housing, feeding and care of broilers. Joints may be affected due to a deficiency of calcium in the body. Review the diet of broiler chickens.

Distinctive symptoms of chicken pox

  • Strange red spots appear, which then turn into scabs.
  • Individuals may have an unpleasant odor.
  • Apathy in chickens.
  • Chicks difficult to breathe and swallow.

It is possible to treat this disease only at the initial stage, when the symptoms have just appeared, so do not waste time. For treatment you can use galazolin, boric acid and furatsilina solution. But there are farmers who prefer not to get involved in treatment, slaughtering sick birds so that the disease does not spread to other individuals.

Constipation in broilers

Constipation in young animals are quite common, if the feeding regime is not observed and prohibited foods are used. Causes of constipation in young animals can be the use of flour and the lack of gravel in the trough. Factors such as overheating or vice versa hypothermia of chicks can provoke constipation. Failure to maintain conditions can give young growth a lot of problems. It is very important to prevent constipation, monitor the temperature of newborn chicks.

For the maintenance of day-old chicks, use a brooder or a special box, which is covered with a cloth to keep warm, leaving only a small hole for the passage of air. The first days after birth, the youngsters are lit around the clock to maintain daylight and heat. If the chickens are sick and the cultivation is difficult, then you need to reconsider their diet, perhaps it has a deficiency of potassium or other trace elements.

Useful tips on growing broiler chickens

  • Clean your broilers. Birds should be clean, well-groomed, well-fed. Feed mixtures should not stick on their paws. Feeding should be quality and fresh food. If the feed with mold is not to be given to broilers. For active growth, you can add special supplements and vitamins to the feed.
  • Disinfection chicken coop. Do not forget that your broilers need a cleared place to eat and drink, a clean bed. Feeder change as needed. Perches clean at least 1 time per week. From the mold you need to treat the walls and the floor so that the individuals do not get sick, then the cultivation will be done according to the rules.
  • Timely quarantine of all diseased chickens. So the infection does not spread to the rest, healthy individuals. Care for a sick broiler chicken should be regular.
  • Vaccination of all individuals. Many vaccines put on the first and second day after the appearance of the young.
  • Place newborn chicks on a heated litter in a room where the air contains at least 17% oxygen and the temperature is about 30-32 degrees.
  • If individuals are cramped in a small room, then in such conditions there is a greater likelihood of contracting infectious diseases.
  • Young animals can be fed with saturated drinking water with vitamin C and glucose (ascorbic acid - 2 g / l, glucose - 50 g / l), this measure helps chickens with diarrhea well.
  • For newborn chickens to feel great, you can use special feeding, about 6 times a day. In the diet there is low-fat cottage cheese, sour milk and whey. Moreover, all these products should not be intermixed.

With all these measures, the cultivation of chickens will not seem difficult to you and you will avoid many problems.

Infectious bursal disease of chickens

Infectiosis Bursitis gallinarum (Gumboro disease) Acute viral disease of chickens and turkeys is mostly 2-15 weeks of age, characterized by inflammation of the factory bag, joints, bowel and internal hemorrhages.

HISTORY REFERENCE - the disease was first registered in 1956 in the Gumboro district (USA). In 1962, Kostrov was described as Gamboro’s disease. Winterfeld and Hitchner (1962) isolated a virus from sick chickens that caused nephrosis nephritis in sick broilers. Therefore, sometimes this disease is called nephrosis nephritis. Later Carnayup (1965) proved that the symptoms of nephrosis nephritis are concomitant, the main and permanent changes are found in the fabric bag, and therefore the disease was called infectious bursitis.

The disease is widespread in many countries of America, Europe, and Asia, where industrial poultry farming is developed. Data from serological studies show that herd contamination ranges from 2 to 100%. And the reason for this is considered the constant import of poultry.

TUBE - An RNA-containing virus from the Aviovirus genus of the Reoviredae family (reovirus). The size of the virion is 70-75 nm. When a 9-day-old embryo infects in the yolk sac, the virus causes their death after 6 days. In addition to growth retardation, it causes

appearance of edema, necrotic lesions in the liver, which are typical for all viruses of this group. 3 days after the introduction of the vaccinated material into the fibrous bag, changes occur as a result of natural infection. In a chicken embryo fibroblast culture, the virus causes a cytopathic effect. The birds that have been ill have virus neutralizing and precipitating antibodies.

SUSTAINABILITY - the virus is resistant to ether, chloramine and pH 2.0 sensitive to trypsin. Indoors, the virus remains in the litter for 52 days. At 56 ° C does not die within an hour. Chloramine solution (0.5%) inactivates the virus in 10 minutes, formaldehyde (0.5%) in 6 hours.

EPISOOTOLOGICAL DATA - Chickens of all ages are susceptible to the pathogen, but especially broilers aged 2-15 weeks. The most sensitive 3-6 week-old chickens of white leggorn breed. In adult chickens, the disease is asymptomatic.

The source of the infection pathogen is sick chickens that secrete the virus with droppings.

Infectious bursitis is an extremely contagious disease, easily transmitted by compacted placement of poultry. Chickens become infected through infected feed and water. The vertical transmission of the virus with infected eggs is not excluded. In the transmission of the pathogen, a certain role is played by infected items of care, equipment, clothing, personnel.

Proved the possibility of the spread of the virus through the air. The reservoir of the pathogen can be flour beetles.

In fresh epizootic foci, the disease is acute and subacute, and in stationary, chronic and asymptomatic. In a number of farms, among birds, immunizing subinfection is mainly recorded.

PATHOGENESIS - is in the defeat of lymphoid tissues, and in the first place the lymphocytes of the factory bag, spleen, cecal glands of the blind processes are destroyed. The virus penetrates the digestive tract and after 24-48 hours is localized in the fabric bag, affecting B-lymphocytes.

CLINICAL SIGNS - incubation period of 1-2 days. Occurs in chickens under 3 weeks of age in the form of immunosuppression, which is manifested by increased sensitivity to bacterial infections.

May occur in acute form in the first 5-7 days after the disease in chickens aged from 3 to 6 weeks of age. In the case of low resistance of the bird lethality can reach 90%.

One of the first signs - diarrhea, with the release of yellow liquefied litter, or mucous-watery, white, disrupted feathering.

Then there is a sudden apathy, trembling, signs of damage to the nervous system. The bird soon loses its ability to move, dies in a state of prostration.

Maximum case of 3-4 days from the beginning of the outbreak of the disease,

then the percentage of mortality is reduced.

With a disease course of 6–8 days, the incidence is 10–20% of the bird, the mortality rate is 1–15%.

Hematologic changes are characterized by lymphopenia and erythrocytosis. For 2 days of illness, the total number of leukocytes decreases, on the 5th day it increases and reaches a maximum on the 7th day of the field of infection.

Pathological AnatomicalCHANGES - corpses are plump, but the muscles are dehydrated and pale, the goiter is empty, reveal multiple punctate and banded hemorrhages, especially often under the skin of the thigh, dark-violet muscles.

The fabric bag is greatly increased in volume, more than 2 times, contains gelatin-like transudate, fibrinous overlays in the folds of the bags, and in severe cases - bloody liquid.

Observe swelling of the liver, necrotic foci, atrophy of the spleen. Pancreas changed, nephrosis. In the final stage of the disease, the kidney edema, atrophy of the fabric bag appear. Partial banded hemorrhages in degenerated skeletal muscle of the myocardium, serous membranes, glandular stomach and intestines.

The most typical histological changes are necrosis.

lymphoid elements of fabrication bag, thymus, spleen, renal degeneration.

DIAGNOSIS - Infectious bursitis is a difficult to detect infection that spreads invisibly, is masked by other diseases and physiological disorders, and only in a typical course is it relatively easy to diagnose for clinical and pathological signs. Take into account the high incidence of disease, rapid spread and perebolevanie within 5-7 days. Confirmation of the diagnosis can be the detection of characteristic changes in the fabric bag.

For the final diagnosis, histological studies are performed and a bioassay is made by infecting 9-day-old chicken embryos on the chorioallantoic membrane. Embryos die within 3-5 days after infection.

The virus is identified in the PH, RDP and ELISA.

DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS - exclude coccidiosis, poisoning, infectious bronchitis, hemorrhagic syndrome, mycoses, Newcastle disease.

TREATMENT - not developed.

IMMUNITY - live and inactivated vaccines of the strain BG (Gumboro disease), IBD (infectious bursal disease), Winterfield-2512 are used.

The first vaccine is administered twice at the age of 7-21 days with an interval of 10-14 days by feeding. The second time at the age of 110-120 days

once intramuscularly in the region of the pectoral muscle or in the thigh in a volume of 0.5 ml. Immunity occurs at 14-21 days after vaccination and lasts up to a year.

In foreign practice, a vaccine from a weakened strain of an infectious bursitis virus is used with drinking water and an aerosol vaccine. From foreign vaccines, you can use Nobilis Gamboro D78 and 228E. The inactivated vaccine Nobilis Gumboro inac was also developed.

PREVENTION AND FIGHTING MEASURES — проводят общие ветеринарно-санитарные мероприятия, предупреждающие занос возбудителя в хозяйство.

Молодняк каждой технологической, партии выращивают изолированно. Контролируют состояние резистентности птицы путем направленного кормления и содержания.

The air entering the house is cleaned with filters and disinfected with ultraviolet rays.

When an infectious bursitis appears, restrictions are imposed. Sick and suspicious birds destroy. Healthy vaccinated.

The premises are thoroughly disinfected with solutions of caustic soda, bleach (2-3%), and an iodide spray.

If the disease cannot be stopped by general veterinary and sanitary measures, the incubation of eggs on the farm is stopped and additional recreational measures are carried out.

There are no terms for removal, they are established by veterinarians, as it is difficult to get rid of this disease, due to the rapid development of this disease inpatient.

Economic damage

For poultry farmers, losses are significant and they are calculated not only by the number of the dead livestock, but this is 10–20% of the total herd. Sometimes lethal outcomes are observed in 50% of the total number of diseased chickens: it all depends on the age, breed and conditions of their housing.

The loss also brings a large percentage of culling carcasses that lose their attractiveness due to multiple hemorrhages and exhaustion. The disease has many indirect negative factors. Firstly, it greatly weakens the herd, making it susceptible to many other infections, secondly, it significantly reduces the effect of preventive vaccinations, and thirdly, it negatively affects the productivity of the livestock.

Causative agent

The causative agent of the disease enters the body of the bird through the mucous membranes. It is able to withstand temperatures up to + 70 ° C for half an hour, it is resistant to alkalis (pH from 2 to 12) and acids, as well as to lipid solvents. The causative agent of the disease Gamborough may persist in chicken litter for four months.

Only disinfectants can quickly destroy the virus cells:

This virus has no antigens and belongs to reoviruses. For a long time, bursitis virus was classified as adenovirus. For some time after detection of the disease, it was believed that infectious bursitis and infectious bronchitis are caused by a single pathogen.

Only chickens are susceptible to the infectious bursitis virus, although it is believed that the disease also affects sparrows and quails.

Epizootological data

The main risk group is the reproductive farms in which individuals of different ages are kept. The main source of bursitis is virus infected chickens. Most often, the disease has an acute and subacute course, less often bursitis disappears without symptoms. The virus quickly infects the entire herd. It is noteworthy that Gamborough disease is not observed in young animals up to two weeks of age and adult birds. Even if they are infected artificially, they will remain immune to the virus. Chickens are ill with bursitis from 2 to 15 weeks of age. Chickens between the ages of 3 and 5 weeks are most susceptible to it.

The combined content of sick and healthy birds, contaminated feed and water, litter, litter are all factors of the spread of the virus. It can also be transmitted mechanically - it is carried by people, other types of birds, insects.

Clinical signs

Gamborough's disease has an ultra-acute flow pattern. Chicken dies during the week, sometimes even faster. The incubation period of bursitis is from three to fourteen days.

Clinical manifestations are similar to coccidiosis:

  • diarrhea,
  • severe apathy
  • shake
  • ruffled
  • rejection of feed

Pathoanatomical dissection of a bird infected with bursitis virus reveals the characteristic signs indicating the cause of death — inflammation and hyperplasia of fabrication bursa, abundant hemorrhages in muscle tissue, skin, and nephritis. Such signs allow a clear diagnosis.

The disease is characterized by rapid spread: its pathogen, orally ingested, after five hours reaches the lymphoid cells of the intestine. Rapid dissemination of the disease is achieved by the penetration of these cells into all circulating systems.

After 11 hours, the virus infects the factory bursa. Thus, two days later, infectious bursitis affects all organs. The main place of virus concentration is the fabrication bursa: it can stay there for up to two weeks.

The defeat of the lymphoid tissue leads to a pronounced immunosuppressive effect. The number of lymphocytes is sharply reduced, almost complete suppression of immunity is observed. In general, immunity weakened by the Gamboro disease virus leads to an increase in the incidence of birds with viral hepatitis, salmonellosis, gangrenous dermatitis and coccidiosis.

Diagnostics

Clinical and pathological features allow you to accurately diagnose the typical form of the disease. To identify the atypical course of the disease or to establish it in its early stages, a laboratory study based on the isolation and identification of the virus allows.

To eliminate bursitis in the differential diagnosis, it is necessary to make sure that the chickens are not sick:

  • infectious bronchitis,
  • Marek and Newcastle diseases,
  • lymphoid leukemia,
  • poisoning with sulfonamides,
  • fatty toxicosis.

Due to the fact that in the body of the sick hens, immunity to Gumboro disease is formed, a large number of live vaccines with a high degree of immunogenicity have been created. The most common vaccines are Gumbo-Waks (Italy), LZD-228 (France), Nobilis (Holland).

Daily chicks are vaccinated by feeding or intraocularly; young animals over three months old are intramuscularly. Antibodies from vaccinated individuals in high shooting ranges are transmitted to chickens and protect them during the first month of life.

What is gumboro disease?

For the first time, Gamborough's disease, which is also called an infectious bursal disease, was recorded in the United States in 1962 in the city of Gamboro, which gave the name to the disease. Later outbreaks of such ailment were recorded in Mexico, England, Belgium. Currently, flashes have already been recorded on all continents. Causes illness virus family Birnaviridae.

The main "target" of Gamboro disease are leukocytes, which are actively destroyed in the Factory bag and other organs of the immune system (thyroid, spleen, and tonsil), and the kidneys are also badly affected.

Bursal disease can affect broilers at any age, but in a special risk zone chickens aged 2-9 weeks.

Its danger is that it is very quickly transmitted from one individual to another, and infection can occur both through contact and through food, water, and equipment. Because of this, in large industrial enterprises there is a risk that the personnel themselves may become a carrier of the virus. Gumbore disease has very serious consequences and is associated with significant financial losses. Not only does the infection among livestock occur quickly enough, the destruction of leukocytes is associated with the onset of immune depression in birds. Sick broilers become very vulnerable and often begin to suffer from colibacteriosis, coccidiosis, enteritis, which most often leads to the death of the bird.

The virus that causes this disease is fairly stable and persists for a long time in the external environment. For example, in the litter of infected birds, in water or feed it lasts up to 56 days. On the inventory and equipment of poultry farms even longer - more than 120 days.

And then we advise you to watch the video, tips from which will help you grow a healthy population of broilers!

Bird flu

Another name for the disease is bird plague. The virus that causes the disease is extremely diverse and constantly changing. Most types of this virus are not dangerous for humans, some can cause mild rest with cold symptoms. The exception is the infamous type H5N1, which appeared in Russia since mid-summer 2005. No cases of bird flu have been reported in the Russian Federation.

Symptoms of avian flu. Plague is characterized by a rapid course of the disease, the sudden death of a large number of chickens (up to 70-100% within a few days). There are also general depression, swelling of the head and neck, cyanosis of the earrings and the crest, mucous membranes, a coma develops, followed by death.

Control measures. All sick birds and those in contact with it are destroyed in a bloodless way.

Infectious Bursal Disease (Gamboro)

This disease chickens are usually brought in with chickens bought in disadvantaged factories. Chickens aged 2-20 weeks are susceptible to it. The virus infects the immune system.

Symptoms Symptoms of Gumboro disease are uncharacteristic: yellowish-white diarrhea, ruffled plumage, loss or loss of appetite, depression. Symptoms such as trembling of the muscles of the neck, head, torso, as well as pecking cloaca are not excluded. The disease can occur without any signs. The virus greatly reduces the resistance of birds to other infectious diseases.

Control measures. Sick chickens are killed and after boiling the carcass can be eaten. The Gamborough virus can persist in the litter for a long time. The feasibility of vaccinating healthy chickens is determined by a veterinarian. Sometimes you only need to disinfect the house.

Infectious bronchitis chickens

All ages of chickens are susceptible, but chickens up to 30 days get sick more often. Laying birds with bronchitis reduce egg production by 50-60% and have shell defects. Mortality in IBD is from 10 to 35%, in chronic cases there are also large losses from the lack of gain and eggs.

Symptoms In young animals, the virus infects the respiratory system, and in the laying hens the organs of reproduction. In chickens with infectious bronchitis, lethargy, drowsiness, loss of appetite, runny nose, eye inflammation, discharge from the nose and eyes are noted. The inhale is difficult due to the accumulation of mucus in the airways, the beak is open, with each inhalation the chicken pulls the neck forward and upward. You can hear dry or wet rales, discernible at a distance as a squeak, creak or weak "meow of kittens." Dry rales are detected at close range, if you bring such a chicken to your ear, you get the impression that there is an accordion inside it.

Control measures. In the acute course of treatment is inappropriate. In chronic bronchitis, chickens are given broad-spectrum antibiotics; aerosol treatments are carried out in the presence of poultry with antiseptic agents: iodotriethylene glycol, iodine monochloride, Monklavit, ASD-2, and Ecocide.

Pneumovirus rhinotracheitis (chickens big head syndrome)

In this disease, the upper respiratory tract is affected: the nasal cavity, the larynx, the trachea, and the mucous membrane of the eyes. The main symptom is head swelling, eyelids, discharge from the eyes. In most cases, chickens recover, but lag far behind in growth.

Treatment same as with bronchitis chickens.

Infectious laryngotracheitis

All ages of chickens are affected, but usually ILT occurs from 20–30 days to 8–9 months of age. Often the disease manifests itself when a vaccinated population is introduced into an unvaccinated flock.

Symptoms The disease affects the larynx, trachea and bronchi. Difficult breathing, discharge from the eyes and nose, frequent coughing, wheezing, and signs of suffocation. The bird dies due to mucus and inflammation products that form a plug in the trachea. Characterized by the formation of a bloody clot in the trachea.

Control measures. Subject to the disease chickens are destroyed, healthy vaccinated. Conduct therapeutic measures, as with bronchitis chickens.

The disease is contagious for many species of birds - more than 60, including for chickens, turkeys, quails, guinea fowls, pigeons and sparrows. The most susceptible birds are from 4 to 12 months old. Mortality ranges from 5-8% of the population with skin form and up to 50-70% with diphtheria.

Symptoms When the skin form of smallpox birds nodules form - pock marks - on the scallop, earrings, around the beak and cloaca, on other non-feathery parts of the body. Ospins increase in size and merge, forming a smallpox scab. When a diphtheric virus affects the respiratory tract: nasopharynx, larynx, trachea.

Control measures. Sick birds are killed or treated (depending on the severity of the disease), healthy vaccinated. Ospins are lubricated with oils, glycerin, ointments to soften the crust, then burn with tincture of iodine or a solution of potassium permanganate. For the prevention of bacterial infections give antibiotics.

Pulloz-typhus

The disease is caused by a special kind of salmonella that affects only birds. The most susceptible chickens are 5-20 days of age. Mortality can reach 70%. In laying hens, the disease is transmitted with the egg, causing a 50% reduction in chickens hatchability.

Symptoms Characteristic mucous diarrhea is white or green. Appetite decreases, chickens die in 1-2 days.

Treatment of pulloz-typhus is the same as with salmonellosis.

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