The consumption of nutrients in the body of a pheasant depends on the time of year, conditions of housing and the condition of the bird. In the preparation of the feed mixture should also be borne in mind that an excess or deficiency of at least one nutrient in the diet entails a violation of the use of other nutrients, changes in the entire metabolism in the body. Therefore, the preparation of the diet should be treated very responsibly.
Properly formulated rations should meet the following basic requirements. First, they must meet the needs of poultry in all types of nutrients and in the total amount of metabolic energy, contain the necessary set and amount of vitamins and minerals. Secondly, they must comply with the natural characteristics and tastes of the bird so that the feed will be eaten with appetite and will not cause disorder of the digestive and excretory systems. Thirdly, their volume must correspond to the capacity of the digestive organs, since insufficient or excessive fullness of the stomach and intestines adversely affect their motor and secretory activity. Fourth, the diet should consist of relatively cheap and affordable feed, since the bulk of the cost of maintaining the bird is spent on feed.
The rations used for feeding pheasants in different countries and in different farms are diverse. The approximate diet for groups of feeds is given in table 1.
In the pheasant nurseries of Yugoslavia, pheasants are fed with specially prepared compound feeds containing: 29% crushed corn, 11.7% crushed wheat, 10% wheat bran, 20% crushed soybeans, 2% alfalfa flour, 11% fish meal, 10% meat meal, 1 % milk powder, 2% vitamin supplement, 3% mineral supplement and 0.3% salt. The composition of the vitamin supplement (per 100 kg) includes: 500 000 IE of vitamin A, 80 000 IE of vitamin Da, 300 g of vitamin B1, 1500 g of vitamin B3, 0.6 g of vitamin B12, 1100 g of pantothenic acid, 1500 g of niacin, 30 000 g of choline chloride, 20 000 g of methionine, 6700 g of nitrofurazone, 1000 g of penicillin, 100 kg of mineral supplement contain 340 g of calcium, 40 g of phosphorus, 4.3 g of magnesium, 4 g of zinc, 2.5 g of iron, 0.25 g of copper, 0.015 g of iodine.
Diet in the pheasant kennel? Cold Mountain? in Crimea, it is given in table 2. Each bird receives daily 50-60 g of this mixture, 0.5 g of vitamin concentrate (which includes vitamins A, B2, PP, D3, E) and 0.25 g of a mixture of trace elements.
The diet of feeding pheasants in Maikop Pheasantry is presented in Table 3. To 100 kg of this feed add: 4 kg of brewer's yeast, 2 kg of sunflower oil, 7 kg of green clover, 23 kg of fodder fortified biomitsin, 2 kg of chalk, 0.3 kg of salt, 1 g of zinc sulfate, 0.5 g of potassium iodide, 2.4 g of vitamin B2.
Table 3. Diet for pheasants in different periods of the year,%. (Maikop pheasant)
Since pheasants are kept in cages, they themselves can get some of the food - eat the green parts of plants that are there, flown or crawling insects, sprouted grains (when they eat seeds from the feeders, the birds scatter them, they start sprouting fresh shoots). Therefore, the amount of food needed per pheasant per day is determined empirically - it is necessary to gradually lower the feed cottage to the amount when the pheasant ceases to leave the food in the feeders and select only favorite food. Feed must be eaten whole by the birds.
On average, an adult hunting pheasant needs 80 g of feed per head per day. In the autumn-winter period, when the young are already becoming independent, and the birds are still not preparing for the breeding season, the amount of feed eaten by the pheasant is less than in the spring-summer period, when the birds need more energy and nutrients. Approximate rations for autumn-winter and summer periods for adult pheasants are shown in Table 4.
In the autumn-winter period, or the period of rest, 75 grams of feed per day is consumed per pheasant. In addition to these feeds, animal feeds (cottage cheese, minced meat, insects, or their larvae) and succulent feeds (finely chopped vegetables and root vegetables, fresh greens, which can be grown in a greenhouse) should be included in the diet of pheasants at this time. These feed give the bird on demand.
At the end of January, when pheasants are preparing for the breeding season, the cottage of feed per head is increased to 80 g, carrots and boiled potatoes are added to the ration and the share of mineral feed (chalk, calcium gluconate) is increased.
Since April, the beginning of the spring-summer period, 30 g of feed, 2 g of sunflower oil and 2 g of chalk have been added to the ration indicated in the table (75 g per head per day).
If possible, feeding pheasants with berries such as cranberries, lingonberries, blueberries, blueberries, strawberries, raspberries, rowan, etc. is very useful. Although the nutritional value of the berries is small, feeding them pheasants increases appetite and activates digestion. Especially useful for pheasants sea buckthorn.
Feed pheasants should be given, according to rations, at a set time. It is necessary to ensure that they are uncorrupted and free from impurities. Pheasants get used to food gradually, so you should not dramatically change the feed. In addition, a sharp transition to new feed negatively affects the digestion of birds, sometimes serves as a cause of indigestion, especially in pheasant.
All feed must be of high quality. It is unacceptable to feed the bird grain, in which there are feces of rodents, mold, ergot. Grain before feeding must be sieved, washed, dried in the sun or in a gas oven (at a temperature not exceeding 60 °). Mushrooms should be fed fresh, but if this does not work, then they can be stored in the refrigerator: with a boiled egg - up to 3 days, with a boiled offal - no more than 2 days. Before use, this mash must be held in a warm place. The bird should not be given food directly from the refrigerator.
During the period of egg-laying and rearing of chicks, the amount of feed and the multiplicity of its summer cottage increase due to animals and soft feed.
Usually, pheasants are fed twice a day: in the morning they give soft food, in the second half of the day - grain mixture. In the evening, if there is no grain mixture left in the trough, it must be added to last until the morning dacha feed. Feeders should be filled with food not more than two-thirds of the tank so that the bird does not scatter the food. In summer, as well as in a warm room (if pheasants are kept in a heated poultry house in winter), drinking water deteriorates rapidly, and rotten and disease-causing organisms appear in it. Therefore, at this time it should be changed 2-3 times a day.
How to feed pheasant in the first day of life
Like any bird, young pheasants are extremely helpless after birth. Therefore, special attention should be paid to birds.
The time of release of pheasant from eggs can stretch up to 6 hours, and first of all they need to dry. If the eggs were in the incubator - the chicks can be left in it until drying or moved under the brooder.
Like poultry and pheasant after hatching, you need to start feeding on the first day - this provides the bird with a good foundation for development. The best for the first feeding period is considered from 7 to 12 hours after hatching.
Moreover, birds cannot be limited in the amount of food - during the first 10 days their body develops most intensively. Up to 2 weeks, the chicks are able to fly over the meter obstacles.
Hatching chicks still do not know how to peck and drink, so the poultry farmer needs to show the pheasant members how to do it. To do this, feed is poured on a plank and lightly tapped on it with a finger, and in order to give water to drink, the chick's beak is lowered into the drinking trough.
Water pheasant need from special drinkers so that they can not get wet.
Before the first feeding, pheasant should be drunk with boiled water at room temperature. Since the chicks themselves do not know how to drink themselves - you need to lower their beak into the trough. To increase the appetite and maintain the vitality of the body, you can make a nutrient solution. On 1 l of water add:
- 40% glucose solution - 10 mg,
- biomitsin - 0.25 g
To improve the immunity of chicks, antibiotics can be administered to their diet (for one pheasant):
- Biovit 40.
- 1 - 9 days - 20 mg,
- 10–19 days — 25 mg,
- 20-30 days - 30 mg.
- 1 - 19 days - 40 mg,
- 20-30 days - 60 mg.
The use of these drugs increases the survival rate of chicks up to 20%, and on reaching maturity, antibiotics are completely removed from the body of the bird.
Feeding rates pheasant
The main requirement for the diet - a high content of animal feed. The protein content in the feed should be at least 24%.
- 1 - 14 day - feeding every 2 hours. At night, you can limit yourself to two feedings, but you need to increase the portions.
- 15 - 61 days - 7 times a day.
- From 2 to 3 months - 4-5 times, then the birds are transferred to three meals a day.
Protein must be at least 24%
On the first day, you can feed the chicks with a mixture of hard-boiled eggs and greens. All this needs to be ground on a grater and mix well. You can add a little white crackers, soaked in milk. Pheasants should eat plenty - they can not be limited in the stern.
From the second day, you can add to the feed the ant larvae and meal worms. For drinking you can give yogurt. From 4 days you can vary the greens - give a little nettle and onion feathers.
Salt and chalk are added to weekly birds in the ration - up to 0.02 g each, from 8th day you can give meat and bone meal to 0.06 g.
Up to 15 days you can use this diet:
All this mix in the dough, divide into small pieces and dry. The resulting crackers grind, soak and stir with herbs and other additives. To provide pheasant with protein - every two days to mix them with a little chopped cooked meat.
From two weeks, pheasant can enter crushed refined grain, and from one and a half month whole. For a change in the feed you need to add corn, barley, millet, more greenery, hard vegetables.
Growing under the hen
If chicks hatch with a hen - they need to be transplanted from it into a separate warm room. This is done so that she does not suppress them. In order that the hen does not leave the nest - they leave one chick to it. The rest of the pheasant, returned to it after drying.
If the chicks were removed from the incubator, it can be done this way - before hatching, lay eggs on the hen, and then replace them with chicks.
Chicks with a hen are kept in special wooden boxes. On the front side is a double door. The first canvas is a lattice so that the hen cannot leave the nest, the second is deaf to close the cage at night and in bad weather.
The box is made sloping, with small dimensions - 40 * 40 * 50 cm. For walking chicks, it is equipped with a paddock - this is done using a grid with a small cell (1 * 1 cm). Corral closes on all sides.
Pheasants at 15 days of age, can be taken out on the street. Chicks can be released for a walk for a whole day, a hen 2-3 times a day for 15-20 minutes.
Growing under a brooder
It looks like a brooder
Concrete floors are best for the house. To insulate them, you can make the flooring of the boards. For bedding used calcined sand or straw. Drinkers and feeders should be positioned so that the chicks freely pass between them.
Before settling young stock, the room must be sanitized and dried. If straw is used for bedding, a layer of dry lime should be poured under it - to prevent the appearance of parasites.
Humidity needs to be kept within 70%, and lighting should be closer to the natural one - it is worth considering the natural conditions of life in birds. The room should be ventilated - pheasants like fresh air.
You can use the method of the German poultry farmers. When using it, there is practically no death of young animals and cannibalism from stress. When the incubation is over, they put all the pheasants in the house with the windows closed.
The lighting is turned on for 4 hours a day, the temperature in the room is + 32 degrees. Chicks are thrown into the house at the rate of 30 animals per 1 m2. The first 3 days chicks watered chamomile broth, 4 - a mixture of vitamins and minerals with an antibiotic (1 g).
From 11th day, the windows are opened and sealed with a blue film of medium transparency, the temperature is reduced to + 27 degrees. The density of chicks is reduced to 20 animals per m2.
From 21 days, the landing density is 15 pieces per m2, the temperature drops to + 22 degrees. The room is allowed access to the daylight - for this leave the door open.
After a month, the birds are transferred to natural conditions - they remove the film from the windows and turn off the heating. With 40 days of pheasants lodge in enclosures.
Pheasants, birds are quite unpretentious - they quickly develop and become independent. If you compare them with domestic chickens, pheasants grow easier. But in order for the birds to develop well and not be sick, their feeding and housing conditions should be as close to natural as possible. This is especially true of nutrition.
Interested in feeding pheasants at home? Pheasants have a great appetite and it can be difficult to feed them, especially if the flock of birds is large. However, in the summer period, birds will be happy to eat any food offered by the breeder. It is important that a sufficient amount of protein food is always present in the diet, because it will positively affect the health and development of birds.
How and how to feed pheasants at home
The first thing that any poultry farmer who wants to start breeding pheasants needs to know is that for harmonious development and adequate weight gain these birds need to eat several different feeds at once. Among them emit green, cereal and animal feed. Special attention should be paid to the fact that the diet and the frequency of meals are different for adults and chicks. Below you will find a rough description of the feeding process of pheasants.
The menu of adult birds should be quite diverse, but at the same time, the introduction of new components into the diet should take place gradually so as not to injure their delicate digestive system. It is recommended to make at least three feedings per day, one of which must be completely composed of wet food (usually green), and the other two may include a variety of feed or mash food at your discretion.
Drinking bowls and feeders should be of sufficient size so that each of the birds at the time of the meal could find a place near them. It must also be remembered that the quantity of feed must be calculated in such a way that at the end of feeding the feeders are completely empty. On average, an adult pheasant should consume at least 70 g of feed per day. Pheasant Feeder
Here is a sample list of products recommended for use by these birds:
- boiled potatoes,
- fresh grass.
Start feeding the chicks from the very first day of their life. Before you start the first feeding, you need to pre-feed each chick with a small amount of warm boiled water - this is done in order to prevent sticking of feed on the walls of the still young and tender intestines of the chicks. Babies require frequent feedings, the optimal schedule in the first two weeks of their lives is 1 feeding every two hours. It is also important to note that the chicks initially do not know how to drink or eat, therefore, in the beginning they will have to be trained in this process. This is done as follows: after you have poured the food into the tank, you need to tap on it with your finger, attracting the attention of the chicks, and after they approach the feeding trough, it is necessary to slightly bend the head of each of them to the food.
Similarly, do with drinking. Until the chick reaches one month of age, its diet should mainly consist of finely chopped greens mixed with any animal protein, for example, a boiled egg or small insects (meal worms). As an alternative to animal feedings, you can replace the water for chicks with yogurt.
Once the chicks have reached the age of one month, it is necessary to gradually introduce compound feed into their ration with which you feed your adults. Obligatory component of any feed for young stock in the period up to two months are protein-rich vegetable components, for example, corn, beans, peas, millet, etc. This need is dictated by a very fast growth rate of chicks in this period.
Seasonal differences in feeding
When starting to breed pheasants, any farmer should bear in mind the fact that these birds should receive some excellent food in the summer and winter periods. Кроме того, в холодное время года у данных птиц происходит линька, которая специфическим образом влияет на их организм и повышает потребность в разнообразных минеральных веществах. Ниже вы найдёте рекомендации по составлению меню для фазанов в разное время года.
В летний период времени, в первую очередь, необходимо заботиться о достаточном количестве зелёного корма в рационе ваших птиц. Данная потребность продиктована особенностями физиологических процессов, протекающих в организме птиц в это время. As mentioned earlier, the total amount of feed consumed by adult pheasants per day should not be less than 70 g, while at the same time green foods should be no less than 20 g in summer.
If your walking yard has sufficient size and fresh grass is growing on it, then you should also take into account the fact that some part of the green fodder birds will receive, pecking it. In summer pheasants are recommended to feed at least three times a day. Feeding is necessary to try to produce at the same time so that the birds develop a food instinct. As for the fortified and animal supplements, their amount in the summer diet is slightly less than in the winter, and is respectively 5 and 9 g for each bird. In general, it should be noted that feeding pheasants in the summer is a fairly simple exercise, which does not require special skills and knowledge.
Winter feeding should be more frequent than summer. Birds are recommended to feed every 6-7 hours. It should be borne in mind that in the diet of your birds, by the beginning of winter, the amount of green fodder should gradually decrease, to approximately 7–10 g per bird. The total amount of feed should be, as in the summer, not less than 70 g per individual.
The main part of the feed during this period should be components rich in protein: a variety of grains (wheat, millet, etc.), corn, legumes. In addition, to facilitate the process of molting, which takes place just in winter, it is recommended to add to the feed a sufficient amount of mineral components (within 7–10 g per bird) in the form of shells, chalk, limestone, etc. Vitamin supplements in winter are very important, because it was during this period that bird organisms were especially weakened by natural physiological processes and the unfavorable temperature environment for them. As an additive, it is best to use a drug called Trivitamin. It is added to food or drink for birds at the rate of 1 drop per three individuals.
What can not feed
The digestive system of pheasants is quite vulnerable and does not accept every product that is suitable for feed to other birds. Here is a sample list of products that can harm these birds when they are eaten:
- green potatoes and peeling
- any fried foods
- various large seeds (sunflower, pumpkin, etc.),
- black bread,
- excessive salty foods
- too wet mash,
As mentioned earlier, small pheasants must first be taught to drink water, dipping their beaks in a container with liquid. In the future, it is necessary to remember another very important rule about the watering of these birds: they flatly refuse to drink warm water, so drinkers for them are recommended to be placed in shaded places. In addition, pheasants do not like dirty water, so try to change it after each feeding.
We hope that this article has helped you find answers to all your questions regarding the feeding of pheasants. Love and attention in relation to your pets, as well as careful adherence to all the rules on the content of these birds, will surely lead to the fact that breeding pheasants will bring you the expected benefits.
Adult individuals should receive in summer:
- grain mixtures - 40 g,
- fresh vegetation - 20-25 g,
- protein food - 9 g,
- vitamins and minerals - 4 g.
- grains and mash - 50 g,
- grated vegetables - 10 g,
- protein food - 6 g,
- vitamins - 6 g
Separately taken into account nutritional standards for chicks and young.
What to feed pheasants in winter
The winter (or autumn-winter) period is a resting time for the birds. One pheasant has up to 75 g of feed per day. In the second half of winter, the rate increases to 80 g.
Due to the lack of important substances, it is allowed to give vitamin supplements to birds during the cold season, but do so carefully, because an excess of vitamins will have a negative effect on health.
Features of the diet
Sources of proteins in winter:
- chopped meat,
- low-fat cottage cheese,
- boiled fish and fish meal,
- flour worms
- bone flour,
- boiled eggs (often give chicks).
The vegetable part of the diet - the roots: grated beets or carrots, boiled potatoes. They love pheasants and cabbage. In the food, you can add dried plants collected in the summer (dandelion leaves, plantain).
Grain mixtures consist of:
Important: You can not dramatically and often change the feed. The domestic pheasant has a gentle digestive system, so it needs time to get used to new products.
What to feed pheasants in captivity
Keeping wild birds in captivity does not imply difficulty feeding them. Preparation of feed and preparation of various wet mash will not require much force.
Features of the diet
Nestlings start taking food from the first day of life, therefore protein is necessary for their growing organisms. Its source is a steep egg - it is served in a ground form.
In the first week after birth, sour milk is poured into the chicks instead of water - it nourishes their bodies with calcium and helps to organize the work of the digestive system.
Approximate food intake mode for pheasant
- Chicks from birth and upon reaching two weeks of age should receive food every 3 hours. Often advised to feed at night.
- Starting from two weeks of age, the number of feedings is reduced to 7 times.
- Two-month-olds are transferred to a 5-time meal.
- When young pheasants turn 3 months old, they are fed 3 times a day.
In the spring period, servings to adult birds increase by 25% percent, but females should not be allowed to obesity, otherwise there will be problems with the appearance of offspring.
Cooked soft foods should be fresh, grain mixtures - without inclusions of foreign substances. If there are doubts about the safety of the grain, it is sieved, washed and dried well.
Poultry farmers do not recommend leaving perishable food in feeders after the birds have eaten. The remains are immediately removed.
Features of feeding pheasants in the summer
In summer, the diet of pheasants becomes richer due to the appearance of fresh greens. Birds walking in the aviary partially provide themselves with green fodder by eating grass. There is also a variety in protein food - pheasants independently extract insects.
During this period, fresh berries, vegetables and fruits appear - birds eat them with pleasure. For example, pheasants are given grated zucchini, apples, crusts of melons and gourds with the remnants of the pulp - watermelon and melon.
Important: Before breeding and during the molting period, which usually falls on the warm season, birds need additional mineral supplements - crushed eggshell or chalk.