Each flower is beautiful in its own way.
One of the brightest and most exotic representatives of the flower world is, of course, an orchid. Attracts us with its fabulous shapes and incredible colors of the petals. However, this plant, being from the tropics, requires particularly careful care.
After buying a lot of questions arise. What kind of soil does this gentle creature prefer? How to transplant? How much water? At what temperature is the orchid comfortable?
We will answer these and other questions in this article.
Differences in content in store conditions and at home
Differences in content in store conditions and at home. When buying an orchid, it should be remembered that in the store it is in comfortable conditions. The optimum temperature is maintained, a certain humidity of the air, the plant is in the right neighborhood with the sun's rays. Orchid is a capricious plant that requires special care and attention.Therefore, acquiring this flower, you must create conditions that are as close as possible to those in which it was in the store. At least you need to comply with these conditions the first couple of days after the purchase, so to speak adapt the plant to your home environment.
Do I need a transfer just bought?
This question is asked all novice flower growers. Buying a flower, you get it in a homely pot, and therefore the desire to transplant into more aesthetic dishes is understandable. However, is it worth risking the beauty of a flower and its longevity for the sake of aesthetics?
It should be noted that the best time to buy an orchid is spring. It is at this time of the year that the flower ends its flowering period. The vegetative period begins. The main reason for transplanting is the moment when the orchid becomes cramped in the old pot, or rather, it begins to grow.
It should also be noted that it is necessary to put a pot with an orchid at a decent distance from other plants, otherwise the overgrown beauty will feel uncomfortable and interfere with other flowers. Based on the above, we can conclude that if the flower feels comfortable in the purchased pot, then it should not be immediately repotted. Let it adapt to the conditions of your home.
Why is it important for the plant?
It should be noted that the orchid transplant is still necessary. Consider the direct causes of the transplant:
- The first cause is ground. Often the soil used by flower warehouses and shops consists of peat with different additives. This is a little like the soil, which is necessary for long-term use.
- It should also be remembered that in the industrial conditions of growing orchids watering is automated, it is arranged and adjusted to the size of the orchid, the pot in which the flower grows. At home, this substrate is too moisture-intensive and creates difficulties for care.
- You should also remember that before you get into the home, the flower wanders from warehouse to warehouse, and then to the store. Many wholesalers and sellers, in order to artificially prolong the life of a flower, use frequent watering and flower processing. Orchid is a very delicate flower and such excessive watering can lead to the death of the roots.
This is explained by the fact that the roots of a flower are very susceptible to excessive moisture and can simply die. Inexperienced flower growers do not immediately transplant the flower, because it continues to delight the eye with its beauty, and at the time of transplantation they may notice that there are partially dead roots. But at the same time the orchid has a viable form and blooms.
When is it better to relocate a flower?
The most suitable and productive orchid transplanting time is spring. It is during this period that the flower enters the vegetative phase.
The main reasons for orchid transplantation:
- the soil has decomposed (it is easy to notice, after watering, the soil remains wet for a long time, more than a week),
- Orchid root system is affected (blackened roots, spots of roots, or completely dried root system will indicate this),
- Orchid leaves began to turn yellow, but do not confuse yellowing with the natural process of leaf death.
Features of the selection of the pot and soil
If a beautiful orchid feels comfortable in the pot in which you bought it, then you shouldn’t worry about it; you will still have time to transplant the plant. If the orchid begins to grow and it becomes crowded in the old container, then, naturally, it is better to transplant it into a more suitable pot. However, it should be remembered that it is advisable to transplant to the substrate in which you bought itor similar.
Step-by-step instructions on how to properly transplant
- The first step is to prepare the tools for transplanting:
- new plastic pot,
- the substrate in which it is planned to grow a flower
- sharp scissors or professional pruner (the latter is preferred),
- activated or charcoal, cinnamon,
- fungicide (used if dark spots or rotting have been noticed).
- The next stage is watering. It is necessary to water the orchid in order to separate the old soil from the roots.
- Next, you need to remove the flower from the pot, for this it is recommended to slightly squeeze the pot on both sides.
- If germination of the roots through the holes is observed, the pot should be carefully cut so as not to damage the flower.
- After removing the flower, you need to carefully remove the pieces of old soil from the roots.
- Then follow all dry, rotten, black roots. Healthy roots should be green and firm to the touch.
- If after removing the dead roots there is a large number of healthy roots and they do not fit in the pot, then you need to take the pot 2 cm larger in diameter.
Problems and struggle with them
The orchid is a very delicate flower, it can even die due to improper care. It is necessary to carefully monitor the condition of the plant after transplantation. For example, small cracks, cuts and wounds on the roots may occur. In this case, you can not water the orchid itself for 5-7 days. In extreme cases, you can spray the top layer of soil, but not the flower itself. Spraying should be done once a day in the morning.
Aftercare at home
To transplant a plant after purchase is, as they say, only half of the question, it is important to know how to look after it and take care of it.
- First of all, it is necessary to observe the correct temperature condition. For orchids, this is a daily maximum of 24 degrees, and nighttime is not more than 16.
- Watering the plant should be carried out as the soil dries, the main thing is not to overdo it, because the orchid is not a particularly moisture-loving flower.
- It is also recommended to keep the flower away from heating devices and batteries.
- The orchid is not very fond of direct sunlight, so you should ensure the flower diffused lighting, pritenyat matte film or block a dense curtain. This is extremely important, as a delicate flower can burn leaves, especially in the summer.
- You should also use a special dressing for orchids, but with it, too, need to be careful not to overdo it.
- Orchid pot should be placed away from other plants, as the beauty can grow. And in general, she loves space. However, you should not reposition the flower container too often.
The orchid is certainly one of the most beautiful flowers, and will always delight the eye with its flowering. However, it is necessary to follow the simple rules of maintenance and care.
Watch a video about orchid transplanting after purchase:
When you need to replant an orchid: the main causes of transplantation
It should be borne in mind that transplanting to a new container is a definite test for a flower. Therefore, it is important to be very careful throughout the process. The main reasons for planting orchids are in the soil that has outlived its time and in too tight a plant for the plant. As for the period when it is preferable to replant orchids at home, this is the spring season, as the plant begins to grow actively.
There are several external signs indicating the need for orchid transplants:
- If you notice that a lot of free space has formed in the container and the ground has almost completely collapsed and crumpled. In this case, try to wait until the budding period ends and the plant begins to produce new leaves and roots. This is the best period for transplanting an orchid, in which it is well mastered.
- If there is a noticeable smell of dampness, mildew or rotting leaves.
- If after watering the container becomes heavier than usual.
- If the roots of the orchid are darkened and become gray or brown. If you find rotten roots orchid urgently need to replant. Healthy orchid roots should be green.
- If the orchid has a faded appearance.
How to choose a pot and substrate for transplanting orchids at home
If you have purchased an orchid and are wondering in which pot to plant it, our advice will come to your aid. When choosing a pot for an orchid, you first need to rely on the type of orchid and on the future conditions of the plant. In ceramic vases, the roots will grow to the walls and break during transplantation.
So that the orchid roots are not damaged and you had the opportunity to track their condition, the plant is recommended to be planted in transparent plastic pots. In addition, the plastic container helps to maintain the required level of soil moisture and roots. As for the size of the container, the new pot should be slightly higher and wider.
Prepare the soil before transplanting the orchid into a new pot. Soil should be special. Ready substrate can be purchased in specialized stores.
There are two types of soil:
- soil for epiphytic orchids (odontoglossum, oncidium, dendrobium, cattley),
- ground for terrestrial orchids (papiopedilum, cypripedium).
A mixture for terrestrial orchids contains coal, peat, sphagnum moss, leaf humus and bark.
Ideal substrate for all types of orchids - This is a collection of charcoal, bark, peat, moss, fern roots, foam and pure.
Soil for orchids can be made independently. To do this, take a dry pine bark, boil it well, then leave to dry for several days. Then boil again to sanitize against all viruses and pests. Then cut the dried bark into equal parts measuring about 2 cm and mix with dry crushed peat moss. The shelf life of the substrate for orchids is about two to three years, then the soil needs to be replaced.
How to transplant a homemade orchid: instructions
Consider how to transplant an orchid at home, following the instructions step by step. A transplant is a responsible procedure that involves several steps.
- small shears or garden shears,
- activated carbon or other antibacterial solution,
- ready substrate
- medium or large plastic pot.
Works on transplanting orchids are carried out in the following sequence:
- First you need to carefully pull the plant out of the old container. The main thing here is not to damage the fragile orchid roots. Lightly squeeze the pot with your hands so that the soil and rhizome move away from the walls. Carefully remove the plant. If the process of removing the orchid from the pot causes any difficulties, cut the container with scissors.
- Before planting an orchid, you need to clean the rhizome of a home plant from an old substrate. This procedure is more convenient to produce under running water. In this case, the earth easily and painlessly moves away from the roots.
- Now proceed to the removal of dried and decayed roots. Carefully cut off excess roots with sharp scissors. Disinfect the cut area with an antibacterial or activated carbon. Try not to touch the healthy roots, it can lead to a long orchid disease.
- After cleaning and pruning the plant, carefully inspect the roots for hidden pests. For further normal growth and development of your flower, you need to get rid of pests effectively. If you find malicious insects on the roots of a plant, soak the rhizome in warm, purified water for several hours. Then it is desirable to treat the plant with a special agent for parasites.
- Thoroughly dry the rhizome. The drying phase should last at least 8 hours.
- Remove yellowed and dried lower leaves. It is also advisable to get rid of soft, empty buds. Slices need to be sanitized.
- We proceed to the process of direct transplanting orchids. Pour a small layer of drainage into a pre-sanitized pot. Dip an orchid in the middle of the tank. Pour the substrate and evenly distribute throughout the root system. If the plant has a lot of aerial roots, do not try to completely cover them with soil.
Also, do not try to press the soil too hard, the rhizome will gradually become fixed in it. But keep in mind that the transplanted plant should not freely hang out in the container. For those who are interested in the question of whether it is possible to replant an orchid with a peduncle, we note that this is undesirable. An actively blooming orchid must carefully cut the peduncle before transplanting. This will help the plant to direct all its resources after transplanting for restoration. In general, if these rules are strictly followed, home care and transplanting of orchids will not cause difficulties.
Orchid care after transplanting
For orchids, proper care after a successful transplant at home is important. Transfer the plant pot to the shade and protect as much as possible from direct exposure to sunlight (for 8-10 days). The temperature of the room where the plant will be located should not exceed 20 ° C.The first watering is made after 4-5 days after transplantation. It is advisable to boil water before watering. Pot with orchid immersed in water for half an hour. The next watering is carried out no earlier than two weeks. The foliage of the plant is also irrigated with warm purified water.
In a month, the orchid is started to be fed with mineral and organic fertilizers enriched in potassium, magnesium and nitrogen. The following feeding is done in 20 days.
After replanting, a homemade orchid may hurt for some time. In addition, the plant is somewhat restrained growth of the rhizome. Therefore, experienced gardeners do not recommend replanting the flower too often (once every 2-3 years is enough).
If you have figured out how to plant an orchid correctly at home and your exotic plant successfully underwent a transplant, then very soon the beautiful orchid will delight the eye with its magnificence and lush flowering.
Tip 1. Choose wisely, or start small
If you are just starting to get involved in orchids and, despite the fascination with the beauty of the inflorescences, you are afraid to have such beauty because of the difficult care, start with the most unkindly representatives of the family. Acquaintance with orchids is better to start with disease-resistant and standard for their requirements varieties and species. Phalaenopsis are best suited to beginners in growing orchids. Malay flowers or butterfly orchids are distinguished not only by their amazing long blooms. These orchids are really easy to care for and it is best to learn how to handle all the representatives of these amazing plants.
Orchid phalaenopsis pink hybrid. © Maja Dumat
Tip 2. Soft light - a pledge of beauty orchids
Choose the right light for your orchid. These tropical flowers in room conditions belong to the light-loving cultures, but they do not tolerate direct sunlight. On flowers and leaves of orchids, and even more so on transparent pots, if orchids are grown in special containers and belong to species capable of photosynthesis, the sun's rays should not fall. Orchids should be placed in those windows that face west or east. The most shade-tolerant of all orchids are the phalaenopsis, which can come to terms with the windows of the north orientation.
Tip 3. Smart watering orchids
The moisture-loving nature of orchids and their tropical origins should not mislead you. В большинстве случаев орхидеи достаточно поливать около одного раза в неделю. Поливать орхидею лучше методом погружения в воду или методом душевания, при этом первый способ гораздо проще и надежнее.In a container with rain or other soft water immersed pot with orchid so that the substrate is well soaked with moisture (no more than 20-30 minutes). If you are lucky enough and your tap water is not tough and is suitable for the care of indoor plants, then you can substitute the plants under the faucet or soak the earth with a shower, but remember that in no case should the water be cold. Once the water is completely saturated with the substrate, carefully remove the container on a stand or tray and let all excess water drain (it should not stand around the roots of the orchids and remain in the tray).
Orchid phalaenopsis Hybride weiß gefleckt. © Maja Dumat
When you need to replant the orchid
Many doubt the need to transplant the plant: sometimes they do it untimely, and sometimes they are in a hurry with this procedure. As a result, the plant dies or ceases to bloom. To avoid this, it is necessary to clearly define the conditions under which orchid transplantation is simply necessary, namely:
- the substrate decomposed prematurely
- pests appeared in the pot (snails, centipedes, ticks, worms, etc.),
- the plant was flooded with water (due to the roots started to rot),
- the plant is hanging in the pot,
- the root system of the flower does not fit in the pot,
- A year has passed since the purchase of orchids,
- The previous transplant was 2 years ago.
The perfect time to transplant orchids
Spring months are the most favorable time for orchid transplantation. During this period, the spring sun can smooth out all the stress that the plant will receive from a change of residence. From October to February, do not disturb the flower unless absolutely necessary.
In addition, it is necessary to take into account the type of plant: if the flower belongs to the monopodial subspecies, then the orchid should be transplanted only with the appearance of green tips formed at the roots. Sympodial orchids are transplanted immediately after the emergence of new shoots, but always before they start to grow roots.
An orchid transplant begins with its drying: the roots will still be damaged, but dry wounds will heal faster, even if they have got bacteria. In the event that the flower is difficult to shake out of the pot, it can be moistened. Orchid must dry before planting. It should be put to dry on a napkin for 8 hours. In a new pot, the flower should not be watered for about a week. You should also avoid direct sunlight on the plant.
Before transplanting an orchid, you need to prepare the following materials:
- small shears,
- plastic pot with holes around the bottom perimeter,
- new bark
- alcohol (70%).
To avoid the transfer of bacteria, viruses or fungus, pruning shears and scissors should be treated with alcohol. This should also be done before cutting the diseased parts of the orchid.
In the first stage, the flower must be removed from the pot. To make this process as painful as possible for a flower, the pot should be held with both hands until the roots of the plant begin to separate from the walls.
Then you need to free the roots of orchids from the substrate. It can be easily shaken out of them. In some cases, it is necessary to sever the roots to remove the substrate. In this case, you need to move from the bottom up. Those roots that have grown into the substrate should not be touched. It will be useful to wash the orchid roots in water at room temperature.
Orchid transplantation is a long process that requires attentiveness and accuracy from the grower. So, all the roots and the substrate from which the plant was extracted should be carefully examined for the presence of pests.
If pests have been detected, all flower roots should be soaked in water for several hours. This will lead to the death of most of them. Pests need to be identified and only after that process the orchid with a suitable agent.
Then you need to prune all rotten and dead roots. The latter are easy to determine if you squeeze them with your fingers: they will be empty or liquid will flow out of them.
It is not recommended to touch other roots, even if some of them are broken. This can adversely affect the condition of the whole plant.
You can transplant an orchid in a bigger pot, but this is not necessary. Dendrobiums prefer close pots, while at the same time, orchids of a sympodial type are best planted in a large transparent container. First of all, it is necessary to fill the pot with drainage by ⅓. For this excellent claydite, granite stones or foam. To make the container more stable, and it was convenient to water the flower, often several granite stones are put on the bottom of the pot. Before they need to check: drop a few drops of vinegar.
The plant is shrunk in a pot and poured in portions of a new substrate. Periodically, the container must be tapped on the table. After transplanting orchid should not stagger in the pot. Large pieces of bark should be placed at the bottom of the pot, smaller ones - on top.
If the orchid is transplanted into an old pot, it must be pretreated with 70% alcohol. The next five days after transplantation, the plant should not be watered. You can only spray the leaves.
Care after transplant
Some time after the orchid transplantation, you need to watch her: a healthy plant will quickly recover from the “change of residence” and will begin to grow at an accelerated pace.
Unhealthy plants that were pruned at the time of transplantation require special attention. For them, you need to maintain a certain level of humidity. Phalaenopsis is placed with a pot in a plastic bag, and then it is periodically ventilated.
Orchid care tips
An orchid transplant is a stress for a plant. Some of them may not even recover after it. Proper care will make the flower stronger and will avoid rotting of the root system. Accordingly, this will avoid problems with the flowering of orchids.
- It is necessary to maintain a certain temperature regime. The optimum temperature is in the range of 15-28ºС
- high level of air humidity. Every day the flower must be sprayed,
- good lighting. From this will depend on the development and flowering of orchids.
An orchid transplant is a necessary, and in some cases, a necessary process, on which it will depend on whether the plant will continue to live or not.
Tip 4. Nutrition = growth
Without exception, all orchids need a sufficiently high concentration of fertilizers in the soil. For these crops, only special fertilizer intended for orchids can be used and they need to be applied only with water for irrigation. For phalaenopsis and other disease-resistant and unpretentious orchids, it is enough to carry out top dressing 1 time per month or every 3 weeks in a standard dose or 2 times a month with half the amount of fertilizer. Top dressing bring not all year, but in months of active development.
Orchid Phalaenopsis yellow. © Maja Dumat
Tip 5. Careful, but scrupulous transplant
Orchids need to be repotted on average every 2 years. These plants need to be handled very carefully, because the roots are easily injured and break off. Substrate replace completely. Orchids need special soil mixtures for these plant species, consisting of coarse parts of bark, moss and other useful components. Before planting, you need to carefully inspect the plant and remove all soft, damaged, dry areas, treating the sections with charcoal. Orchids are not buried, they are carefully placed on a rolled hillock at the bottom of the pot, and then they fill the free space with the substrate. If you are afraid of damaging the rhizome of an orchid during transplantation, for the first procedure, ask your colleague, a grower who already knows how to handle orchids, to perform the first procedure. After the procedure, do not water the plant for at least 3 days, and resume fertilizing only after a month.
Phalaenopsis rider. © Maja Dumat
Tip 6. Without temperature control orchids do not achieve flowering
In order for orchids to bloom, they need cool conditions, in particular, the temperature at night during the period of preparation for flowering should drop to at least 15-18, and ideally to 12-15 degrees. On the specific time of transfer to the resting stage and the indices required by your orchid, it is necessary to clarify the information when buying, because each variety has its own specific features and “habits”. But just providing cool conditions for orchids will be scarce. Between day and night temperatures a contrast must be observed: at night, the air temperature in the room where the orchid stands should drop by an average of 4-5 degrees compared to the day time.
Orchid phalaenopsis mariae. © Maja Dumat
Tip 7. Cropping is not like everyone else.
If you choose phalaenopsis for acquaintance with orchids, then correctly cut the faded inflorescences on the plant. In Phalaenopsis new flower stalks will develop not only at the base of the stem, but also from the eye of a sleeping bud on the shoot. Therefore, wilted inflorescences are not completely removed, but approximately half, above the second or even the third eye. If you are afraid to make a mistake, it is better to leave the shoots completely after flowering: you can cut off the tops after new shoots appear or as they dry out, removing only the dried tops.
Top 3 Reasons to Orchid Transplant
Some fans of indoor plants among the recommendations for the care of orchids meet the wording "regular transplant" and with enviable constancy, they change their pots from year to year. From them you can hear numerous complaints about the lack of flowering, pale appearance, illness and even the death of tropical beauties. In practice, the orchid needs a change of "house" rarely and for very good reasons.
Reason number 1. Substrate depletion / degradation
Orchids are grown not in the soil, but in a special substrate. Over time, the filler loses its beneficial properties and ceases to supply the plant with a sufficient amount of useful substances. In addition, salt from the tap water is gradually accumulated on the solids. Even if it is defended before watering. Roots need free access to air, and compressed substrate blocks it.
Organic filler particles are susceptible to decomposition. As a result, foci of rotting with dangerous microorganisms are created among the roots. Rot spreads to the roots themselves, hurts. To avoid this phenomenon, it is necessary to carefully monitor the state of the root system and in time to resort to replacing the substrate. It will be much more difficult to cure affected roots than to prevent a problem.
How to understand that it is time to get to work? Carefully take the orchid for the green near the surface of the soil and slightly raise the pot. Since the container is usually plastic and has almost no weight, the task will not be difficult. Provided that the plant is healthy, well developed, and the substrate is fresh and not rotten. Otherwise, the orchid will hang out in a pot. Then remove the substrate pieces closest to the surface. They should be firm and slightly damp, not sticky, without an unpleasant smell. If rot is present, the particles easily crawl away in the hands - it's time to urgently change the filler.
Reason number 2. Too small pot
Orchids do not need huge buckets for comfortable growth. On the contrary, they are comfortable in a small space, part of the roots feels great outside the pot, hanging picturesquely along the walls. This is the norm, because the plant receives nutrients mainly in the process of photosynthesis under the influence of sunlight.
The problem occurs when, because of the roots that have emerged beyond the pot, the increased green mass and high peduncles with heavy buds, the plant begins to lose balance and fall on its side. If the container is made of thin plastic, the walls often burst under pressure. Without waiting for unpleasant consequences, it is better to prevent them in time.
Reason number 3. The need to change the type of substrate
When buying an orchid, be sure to specify which type of substrate is used for cultivation. The options are many, and the composition of the filler depends on the irrigation scheme and the rest of the care of the plant. For example, the organic substrate absorbs moisture, so watering is needed less often, pebbles, on the contrary, does not hold water.
If the filler does not fit into your usual pattern of working with other orchids, change it. If everything suits you, leave it as it is.
By the way! The opinion that the purchased orchid in the required order must be immediately replaced in a new pot is wrong. If the flower is healthy, the substrate is fine, the pot looks decent, the plant can live in it for the next two years, and sometimes more.
How to transplant an orchid: choose the day "X"
In the case of tropical orchids living in artificial home conditions, it is impossible to talk about developmental seasons tied to a particular season. They bloom and fall into peace literally whenever they want. Therefore, it is necessary to determine the optimal time for transplantation, based on their observations of the plant.
Look carefully at whether the orchid meets the following requirements:
- faded. A transplant of a flowering plant is a guaranteed way to stay both without buds, and without beauty already revealed. If you can’t do without relocation, select a transshipment and act very carefully. In this case, the substrate does not change. The option is suitable in case of emergency, for example, if the pot is damaged,
- the entire root system has an even rather dull shade. Growing areas of the roots are distinguished by a bright green color, their appearance indicates the beginning of an active increase in the root mass, which means that they will have to wait a little with transplantation. Young roots are very vulnerable and fragile, let them grow to at least 5 centimeters,
- the adaptation period is over. Even if you are going to transplant the plant after purchase, give it about a month to get used to the new conditions of existence,
- Orchid is between the stages of growth and rest. This period is suitable for transplantation. The plant has left the growth phase, is rested and is ready to move to vegetation with new forces. It is important to have time to change the pot in front of him.
Gorgeous beauties orchids live comfortably in the simplest plastic pots. For the owner, who cares about the health of the pets, no more. But in practice, an orchid is an element of decor that should please the eye. Accordingly, the pots for her choose highly decorative, usually glass or ceramic.
How to choose the right option? Consider available on the market from all sides.
Plastic Transparent Pots
Classic orchid pot. Transparent walls do not interfere with the free access of light, the roots of the plant are clearly visible, the soil retains moisture well. The material does not allow the accumulation of salts. By the way, it is very convenient to get an orchid from a plastic pot, because it can be cut.
By the way! Typically, the pots have holes in the bottom, through them excess moisture and additional ventilation is carried out. To improve it, make additional holes in the side walls. Do not be afraid for beauty, just get a spacious transparent pots and put a plastic pot inside.
This is not about standard pots for indoor flowers, but about special for orchids. The form they resemble pot-bellied jugs with a narrow neck, but the main part is the holes in the walls. The openings are rather large, they let not only air, but also light, maintain a favorable level of humidity. The only difficulty is that the surface of the clay is rough, and orchid roots like to cling to the smallest irregularities, from which it is impossible to unhook them then without damage, so the pots have to be broken.