There is a wonderful creation of nature in the world - delightful living flowers with a slightly marvelous name Eremurus, which begin to decorate gardens by themselves closer to May. Powerful, tall, bright, these plants always attract attention and arouse admiration. Meanwhile, they are not at all demanding of care or of conditions, they live, trying not to give their masters unnecessary trouble.
The Eremurus flower is the child of the endless Mongolian steppes, the semi-deserts of Kazakhstan, the deserts of Arabia, the foothills of Transcaucasia and the Himalayas. It grows in other areas of Europe and Asia, and in Russia it is even listed in the Red Book. "Eremurus" in free translation from the Greek means "tail of the desert." The name originated from the appearance of the flower. This plant is a very tall perennial, reaching 2 and even 2.5 m. It is a rosette of leaves and one flower spike, really remotely resembling someone's tail sticking up. His stem is powerful, naked. The leaves are long, narrow, drooping, with three faces. In the outlet they can be quite a lot. The roots of the plant are similar to a living creature: in the center is the “body” - the bottom, from which non-thin “paws” - the roots. Eremurus is famous for its spectacular colors. The photo represents the Isabella variety.
The color of the petals is very different: from white to blue and from pink to burgundy, including apricot. Flowers begin to open from the bottom of the spike and gradually reach the top. Each individual flower is located on a pedicel and has a corolla of 6 petals, surrounding 6 stamens on long threads and an elongated pistil. The fruit of the eremurus is a three-leaved, smooth or slightly wrinkled ball-shaped box. Inside there are seeds with uneven and sharp three edges.
Biological cycles of life
Fresh flowers by the name of Eremurus grow in areas where constant fluctuations in air temperature and humidity occur. It rains there in spring, it is hot in summer, and frost in winter. That plant and adapted to adapt to all these climate change. Its active development begins with the arrival of warm spring days. A rosette of leaves appears from the ground, a stem quickly grows, flowers open. During this period, Eremurus requires moisture and sun. In the period of ripening seeds of water, a lot is no longer necessary. By midsummer, dry boxes appear on the ears, and the plant “retires” to rest. All of his above-ground parts die off, it seems that he dried up altogether. He will sleep until the new spring. Only in the fall, if it rains often, can the underground parts of Eremurus awaken to form new buds and roots. The flower tolerates frosts with endurance, usually it doesn’t need any shelters.
This method is simple, but long. If you propagate the eremurus with seeds, you can only wait for flowering for the 4th year, and sometimes only for the 7th year after the emergence of the seedlings. But nevertheless, often only the seeds are available, and with the right actions you can get great beauties from them. Sow the seeds in the fall in specially prepared containers. They must be deep. The seeds are sunk into the ground by no more than 1.5 cm. Sometimes it may seem that they have not risen, but you should not despair. Eremurus rises to 2 years! Containers are kept in a bright sunny place, but direct sunlight on the ground should not fall. The soil must be kept wet. Sprouted shoots have a peculiarity in the summer to shed their leaves and dry out. In this state, they are removed from the sunny place, and watering is reduced to a minimum. Well put them on the street to dry out in nature. For the winter, the containers can be left in the house, only cover them up with spruce leaves or peat (20 cm layer, no less). Seedlings can be planted to a permanent place only on the 2nd or 3rd year, when the bottom is growing.
For those who already grows in the garden eremurus, reproduction is more profitable to produce a spine with a bottom. Such a flower can throw an ear the next year. Sometimes rhizome with Donets is on sale. When buying planting material, you need to make sure that the roots are not broken at the bottom and there is at least one living kidney so that at least one eremurus can develop from it. Planting and care in the open field are made in the fall. Separate the root system of old Eremurus should also be after the end of flowering. This is done if new small rosettes have formed near the outlet of the mother plant. They do not touch them all spring and summer, and in the fall they try to undermine and divide. If this does not work out easily, it means that the plant is not yet ready for reproduction and the process is transferred to the next autumn. Some gardeners divide the rhizome without taking it out of the ground, only wounds are covered with crushed activated charcoal. For the next year, independent sockets should be developed from such cases.
Preparing a landing site
In order to grow an eremurus, planting and caring for a plant must be carried out taking into account the climatic conditions of its usual distribution points. Since this, as noted above, semi-deserts, deserts and rocky slopes, a sunny spot on a lawn open to all winds, where there are no surface or ground waters, will also be suitable for gardening for Eremurus. Absolutely any soil will suit it, be it sandstone, heavy clay, stony ground or, conversely, fertile black soil. If the groundwater is close to the site, when planting Eremurus, it is necessary to make a drainage consisting of a layer of rubble at least 20 cm thick. Some gardeners are advised to plant eremurus where there is protection from the wind so that tall stems do not break. In principle, this is not required, since the stems of this flower are quite powerful.
Eremurus: planting and care in the garden
Choosing a place on the site, start planting Eremurus. Something like a low embankment (about 20 cm) made of pebbles or small crushed stone is arranged on a flowerbed, ground is filled (about 40 cm) from above. An embankment is needed to remove excess moisture more easily. The soil can be prepared from a mixture of garden soil, compost (humus) and sand or pebbles. On this elevated bed make holes under the rhizomes. Eremuruses should be located no closer than 40-50 cm from each other. If the plants are planted in several rows, the distance between them should be from 60 cm. Growing eremurus is also subject to its natural natural cycles. Thus, the planting of new plants and transplanting old produce only in the fall. The most suitable month is September. Strongly deepen the rhizomes in the ground should not be. They are planted to a depth of 10 to 20 cm. The well is made so that it has enough space for all the roots in the straightened state. On top of the planted eremurus, soil is covered (mulched) with peat or manure (only rotted soil can be used).
Eremurus, landing and caring for which are executed correctly, usually does not cause trouble. Watering a plant requires only in spring, when its buds awaken. But it is impossible to fill it with much. In summer, he practically does not need water. Moreover, it must be protected from rain. They can cause the plant to die. In winter, in regions with a harsh frosty climate, eremurusa should be covered with spruce or peat. Fertilize the plant to spring. Eremurus thanks beautiful flowers for complex fertilizers (60 gr. Per square), responds well to rotted quality manure and compost. Before wintering, it must also be fed by adding superphosphate to the ground (40 grams per square). Eremurus, planting and caring for which is carried out correctly, that is, the regime of irrigation and removal of excess water is observed, practically does not get sick. But its roots can damage moles and mice, which leads to the decay of the root system. If the plant is sick, it must be dug, cut off the damage and sprinkled with activated carbon wounds.
Eremurus is valued for its somewhat unusual beauty. The photo shows one of the design options for the garden. This plant is powerful, tall and majestic. It looks wonderful in group plantings, especially when eremuruses are concentrated in one color in several colors. Just do not forget when landing to maintain the proper distance between them. Underived soil gives a unique opportunity to plant these charming fresh flowers in rockeries, alpine slides. Eremurusa can be beautifully decorated curb, make them a spectacular bright spot in the center of the lawn or in front of the house. This plant is high, so all the other flowers-neighbors (cornflowers, poppies, kachima, spireas) will be much lower and perfectly cover the bare stems of Eremurus, leaving only his candles burning with colored lights to his eyes. Eremurus blooms for about a month.
To date, known and described 60 species of Eremurus, differing in petal color, height, habitat. The most popular among gardeners are:
- Eremurus powerful. As the name implies, this plant is tall (up to 2.5 m), with a thick stem and large flower ears. The color of the petals - from white to pink.
- Eremurus Himalayan. Named by the place of his homeland, but it is so unpretentious that it is grown everywhere. The height of its peduncles is up to 2 meters, the color of the petals is white.
- Eremurus Olga. One of the "low" species (stem up to 1.5 m), but the flowers in the ear are quite large, making the overall appearance of the plant extraordinarily elegant. The color of the petals is white.
- Eremurus Isabella. It differs from the previous view in the color of the petals. In "Isabella" they are soft-apricot.
- Eremurus the narrow-leaved. Fresh flowers of this species are charming. They can be orange, yellow, golden. The stamens peeking out from the middle of the flowers create a semblance of a nimbus around them. The size of the flower spike is also impressive. Its length is up to 70 cm.
All Eremuruses are suitable for bouquets - both live and dry.
Eremurus is not too picky in relation to the place of growth. But some features still worth considering.
The plant prefers a lot of sunlight. Therefore, the area with Eremurus should be in direct sunlight. Shaded areas should be avoided. Shiryash shelter is not required. He very steadfastly endures almost all impulses, so one should not be afraid that his tall stems bend under them.
Eremurus does not require a special composition of the soil for its growth. It will take root perfectly on any type of land - both neutral and sour. But it grows particularly well on a mixture of loam and peat.
A prerequisite for the successful growth of Eremurus is drainage. Without this, it will not be possible to provide high-quality watering, without stagnant water at the roots of the flower.
On poor soils, flowering will begin 1-2 years earlier than on well-fertilized. Just on fertile soil, a young plant will first grow green mass.
Sowing on seedlings begin in the fall in greenhouses or boxes. The depth of the box should be at least 15 cm. The optimum temperature for shiryasha seedlings is +15 ° C.
The first shoots appear within two years after sowing. Young plants need more abundant and frequent watering than adults.
After the seedlings gained strength, they can be planted in separate pots and grown further in the open air. For overwintering, pots of plants are covered with a layer of leaves, compost, peat (at least 20 cm). In the spring, this layer is removed as soon as the frosts stop.
Thus, the seedlings are grown for three years, and then planted in open ground.
Planting in open ground
Planting seedlings of eremurus flower in the ground is carried out in September and October.
Carefully place the Shiryash root in the hole for planting (do not damage the thin roots) and cover with the ground. The soil layer above the root should be 5-6 cm. After that the flower can be watered.
It is necessary to maintain a distance of 40 cm between plants. The interrow distance is 70 cm. You will see flowers on new plants 4-5 years after planting.
Watering and soil care
Watering is needed to start flowering. If the weather is rainy and natural moisture is enough, additional moisture is not required.
But here it is necessary to be careful - abundant watering, especially without drainage, will lead to stagnation of water and rotting of the plant. After the flower has bloomed, watering can stop.
An important procedure is loosening. It removes excess moisture and opens air access to the roots. Loosening can be combined with weeding and remove weeds, spoiling the aesthetic appearance of the flowerbeds.
While performing these procedures, try not to overdo it and do not damage the Shiryash roots - they are very fragile and tender.
Another important procedure - plant nutrition. It involves the introduction of 30-40 g / m² of superphosphate before frosts; in March-April, you can feed the flowers with complex fertilizer based on the norm of 40-60 g / m² and compost or humus (approximately 5-7 kg per 1 square meter).
If the soil is poor in nutrients, add 20 g / m² of ammonium nitrate before flowering. However, it is not necessary to “overfeed” the shiryash with nitrogen and manure, since the plant will grow on them and will not have time to prepare for winter.
Protection against diseases and pests
The most frequent pests found in eremurus are aphids and thrips. Succulent stems also attract slugs that tend to feast on their juice. Roots can suffer from mice and moles.
To fight insects, use ordinary garden insecticides (for example, Aktara, Bi-58 New). It is better to fight slugs manually.
Of the diseases most dangerous fungi (rust) and viruses.
Fungal diseases appear from excessive moisture. Therefore, the first method of prevention is to comply with the irrigation regime. If the disease does appear, then it must be treated with fungicides (for example, “High”, “Topaz”).
The virus can not be cured. The cause of this disease are insect pests. Therefore, do not neglect the destruction of aphids and thrips.
Preparing Eremurus for Winter
Eremurus tolerates winter well, so only heat-loving species should be harboring. Sketch on top of the manure, peat and spruce branches, which will ensure the delay of snow.
Thus, the plants overwinter beautifully. Young roots should not be stored until spring. It is better to plant them immediately in the fall and cover them with peat and spruce branches.
Shelters dismantle when the weather is warm and the plants start growing. A tall and beautiful plant will decorate your garden and will not require much attention. In addition, such a good honey plant can also help you in the production of unusual honey for our edges.
Varieties and types
Eremurus Bunge or narrow-leaved Middle Eastern view common in Afghanistan and Pamir. Sometimes it grows up to two meters, foliage keeled, narrow, bluish. Flower brush cylindrical shape, up to 60 cm tall, has a large number of small flowers of golden color.
Eremurus powerful or robustus mountainous view, which came to us from the Tien Shan. Has naked dark green foliage bluish tone. The inflorescence is more than a meter high and includes about 1000 flowers of brown-pink or white.
Eremurus Olga probably the most famous and common variety. It grows up to 1 m 50 cm tall, has bluish dark green numerous leaves. Flower brush, slightly larger than 50 cm, has a pink or white color.
Eremurus Echison wild species grows mainly in the wooded areas of Afghanistan and the Pamirs. It is remarkable that it starts blooming rather early in comparison with its relatives, but in return it has a short growing season. Inflorescence brush has a white and pink color.
Eremurus is wonderful quite a large plant, sometimes reaching 2 meters tall. Leaves are relatively few - up to 15, narrow, triangular. Flower stalk long, flowers of yellow coloring.
Eremurus Himalayan also a rather high view with a floral brush growing to 80 cm. The flowers are white, small, covered with greenish streaks.
Among the varietal forms are quite popular Eremurus Cleopatra or Cleopatra's needle. It has an attractive pale orange color with a pink tinge.
Eremurus pinocchio attractive for its petals saturated red color, which is quite rare for this genus.
Eremurus Romance flowers of this variety have a cute pink pastel shade.
Variety Eremurus Reksona flower brush dark orange, red color.
Also exists Eremurus Hybrid, which is a mixture of different species and its external data depends on what kind of formed the basis.
Sometimes it meets the name eremurus liatris white. This plant is not related to Eremurus, but is a representative of another glad liatris.
Eremurus seed reproduction
Eremurus is sometimes grown with seed. The material is sown in the soil at the beginning of spring, and after the emergence of shoots, they are seated observing between individuals about 50 cm. But the more reliable is the seedling method of cultivation.
Sowing on seedlings perform in early autumn. The pot must be at least 12 cm deep. Seeds are deepened by 1 cm and kept at 14-16 ° C.It is worth noting that the germination of seeds is quite high, but some seeds still may not slip, although they are quite suitable for reproduction - they simply “considered that they had better germinate next year.”
Young seedlings should be watered quite often, so that the topsoil is always slightly damp, but only slightly, since excess moisture will be harmful. Young plants are grown in containers in the fresh air, and when the foliage begins to dry, they are hidden in a dark place.
When autumn comes and frosts come close, they are taken out in containers and covered with 20-30 cm of dry foliage, which is removed with the arrival of spring. Thus, young flowers are grown for 3 years, and when the above-ground part becomes large enough, they are transplanted into a flower bed and are cared for as adult plants.
Liatris is also grown when planted and cared for in the open field, some varieties are even confused with eremurus. Although it is not difficult to grow a plant, it is still necessary to know and observe a few nuances. All the necessary recommendations for growing and care can be found in this article.
Eremurus outdoor planting and care
In the spring and to the middle of July, when the weather is arid, watering should be carried out. After the end of flowering watering is not needed.
Also, care for this crop requires fertilizing for the winter at the rate of 35 grams of superphosphate per square meter of land, in addition, in the spring they make a complex mineral fertilizer in the amount of 50 grams for the same area.
If the soil in your area is poor, then it will not hurt to fertilize with ammonium nitrate before blooming - 20 grams per square meter. It is undesirable to make an excess of manure or nitrogen fertilizers, because of this, the resistance of the plant to diseases and frosts is reduced.
In addition to the above procedures, it is necessary to loosen the soil and get rid of weeds, but this should be done carefully, since the roots of Eremurus are quite tender.
As you can see, it is easy to care for this plant, but there is one feature in the care that should be taken into account. In the summer after flowering, when the foliage is dry, you should dig up the rhizomes, dry them a little and keep them outdoors for at least 20 days. Even if the foliage is not completely dry, it is dangerous to leave the roots in the ground until the autumn, as they can rot in the future.
If you can’t or don’t want to dig up a Kornedonian, then try to make a cover from the precipitation over the landing site. We also remind you that you need to carefully remove the roots from the ground because of their tenderness.
High-quality seed material is formed only in the lower part of the inflorescence, it must be taken into account when collecting seeds.
Eremurus normally tolerates cold, but heat-loving species should be covered with peat for the winter. It is impossible to leave Kornedontsa, dug out in summer, until the very spring - in the fall they are again planted in a flower bed and covered with peat, and if there is a possibility of large frosts or lack of snow, then also a lapnik.
In spring, the shelter is removed without worrying that the frosts will return, as in the case of these plants you can always cover the area with lutrasil.
Eremurus reproduction by division
In addition to the generative reproduction of Eremurus, there is also vegetative. It is carried out by dividing outlets that may appear next to the mother.
They are neatly separated by treating the places of breaks with ash and dried slightly, and then seated. Please note that the division can not be carried out more than once every five years, so as not to harm the plant.
Diseases and pests
Growing eremurus associated with pest control and disease of this plant.
Among the most common pests slugs, mice and aphid.
- They relieve the latter by washing plants with soapy water or sprinkling them with citrus extract. If the pest is too intrusive, then you can resort to insecticides.
- To protect the site from the slugs, it is sprinkled with ashes or pounded egg shells.
- Traps are prepared for mice, poisons are laid out on the site and holes are flooded.
Among the diseases most common fungi and viruses.
- Rust appears during a great dampness. She shows up by brown and dark spots on foliage. In case of infection, it is necessary to treat as quickly as possible with fungicides, for example, Topaz.
- In case of defeat by other fungi, the signs are approximately the same - dark spots andweakeningplants. They fight almost all fungal diseases with fungicides, the most common of which is Bordeaux mixture.
- It is impossible to cure a plant from viruses and if you noticed on foliage strange mosaics, then, most likely, the flower will have to burn.
Good seeds can be collected only from the bottom of the inflorescence candle. In this regard, it is recommended to choose 2 inflorescences and shorten them from above by 1/3. During ripening, the fruits turn beige. Seed collection should begin in the second half of August. Cropped pruning shears should be placed on the ripening in a well-ventilated and dry room. In the last days of October, well-dried boxes should be rubbed with hands over a sheet of paper, on which the seeds will fall. They are blown and sown.
Eremurus is generally highly frost resistant. However, there are also heat-loving species that need shelter for the winter; for this, the site is covered with a layer of peat or compost (no less than 10 centimeters thick). Kornedontsa which were dug out in the summer cannot be kept all winter, because as soon as spring time comes, they begin to grow actively even when they are not planted. Landing in open ground should be carried out in the autumn, while planting should definitely be covered with a layer of peat. At the same time, for regions with frosty winters with little snow, it will be necessary to lay a spruce branch over the top. Shelter must be removed in the spring, when the threat of frost is passed. If, however, a frost is expected, the area will have to be covered for a while with a covering material, for example, lutrasil.