It is no coincidence that fragile and tender irises got their name in honor of the goddess of the rainbow: these flowers surprise with a wealth of colors and a variety of appearance. In total there are more than 250 types of irises, of which at least 20 are actively grown in Russia. They attract experienced gardeners not only with their pretty appearance, but also with unusual flowering times. They seem to fill the pause between spring and summer flowers and are perfect for those who want to always see a blooming garden. With all the external fragility it is unpretentious plants, and the cultivation of irises in the area does not require much difficulty.
General description and varieties of irises
Not everyone knows, then under the name "iris" there are three types of plants at once: these are the root irises and onion varieties common in our country, which are also divided into several groups.
These include Juno, Xypium and Iridodictum. For planting in flowerbeds, root irises are more often chosen, which are often referred to as "cockerels" or "iris".
The most common variety of irises - bearded cockerels.
- Such an unusual name they received because of the particular shape of the flower, which really somewhat resembles a head with a comb.
- Bearded irises are the most unpretentious variety, but far from the only one.
- Popular are also dwarf, blue, Japanese irises, and onion varieties even more.
- Selection work continues today, so perhaps in the future new interesting varieties will begin to appear.
All rhizomatous irises have sword-shaped flat leaves, growing in the lower part of the peduncle on the stem of leaves there. Peduncles may be several, in late spring large single flowers with a pleasant aroma appear on them. Each flower has 6 petals, which can have the most diverse color. The lower petals go down, and in color they may differ from the top.
When the petals fall off, a fruit-box with seeds is formed on the peduncle, which are used for selective breeding of the flower.
According to the color of the petals, irises are divided into one-color, two-color, two-tone, fringed and iridescent. The latter version has a very unusual coloring, in which one tone is poured into another. Elegant and at the same time modest irises can turn into a perfect decoration for the site.
Requirements for growing root irises
Root and bulbous irises differ in their requirements for growing conditions:
- Bulb varieties love heat and sunlight more, it is more difficult for them to organize an ideal environment for long flowering.
- Root irises are less whimsical, and they find a place on the site much easier.
This type of plant has the following requirements for the place and growing conditions:
- The soil should not be too dense. In order for the irises to grow well, it is imperative to add peat and sand to the soil, the mixture is thoroughly mixed with a shovel.
- On acidic soils, irises produce leaves, but in this case they will not bloom.
- At the same time, it is necessary to add ash to the ground or otherwise neutralize excess acidity.
- In the ground, it is desirable to provide a drainage layer, since the common disease of irises is root rot.
- At the same time, the iris is a moisture-loving plant, so it will have to be watered often. The ground should always be a little wet.
- The root iris is a light-loving plant, but it does not like extreme heat. In the southern regions with a warm climate, it is quite possible to grow in the shade, while it will feel great and will give large flowers at a set time.
- Excessive sun, on the other hand, can damage the leaves and cause the petals to fall.
- Fertilizer in the soil will need to be made about a week before planting. The main type is nitrogenous fertilizers that need to be applied to depleted soil. At the same time, the amount of feeding should not be excessive.
Special requirements apply to planting material. If you have taken a young root silt bulbous plant, they cannot be wrapped in polyethylene or in wet tissue before planting. The roots start to rot very quickly, so they should just be stored freely until planting.
It is no coincidence that the strongest and thickest rhizomes are chosen for planting: they have more nutrients in them and the plant will calmly transfer the transplant to a new place.
Planting root irises: reproduction rhizome
Vegetative reproduction is used most often, since it is much less laborious than growing out of seeds, it allows you to achieve the desired result faster. The very next year after transplantation, the plant will begin to bloom. Delenki are used as planting material - this is the name of one-year-old rhizomes, from which the lower leaves are cut. Delenki gather after the summer bloom ends - usually this is the beginning of July. This time is the best for plant reproduction.
- It is imperative to dig once every 3-5 years, as the plant will quickly begin to form a dense carpet in the neglected areas.
- The flowers at the same time will become smaller.
- Dug out the rhizome is freed from dry and diseased leaves, in addition, you need to carefully examine the root.
- If it partially began to rot, all affected areas should be removed as soon as possible.
- At the same time, the cut point should be filled with a mixture of sulfur and crushed coal - this will protect the root from further spread of the disease.
Planting material before placing on the bed is kept in a weak solution of potassium permanganate: this is an additional protection from decay, it will help the rootstock to settle down better in a new place.
Parts of the rhizome on the bed have about 40 cm apart from each other, so that he would have enough space for growth. The earth is dug up to the depth of the bayonet, then the rhizomes can be located on the garden bed. Planting material is placed only vertically, while the kidney must remain at the surface level. You should not plant the plant too deeply, all the remaining leaves should be completely on the surface and placed vertically.
Root Iris Care
Iris is a perennial plant that requires regular, but not at all burdensome care:
- Immediately after planting, the plants need to be watered well, and the next watering is carried out in no less than three days.
- At first, before the root system grows, it is necessary to protect the irises from weeds: they are carefully pulled out with their hands there in order not to damage the root of the cultivated plant.
- The soil should be loosened very carefully, parts of the rhizome will be located close to the surface.
- After the roots have grown enough, it will not be necessary to loosen and weed the bed, as the weeds can no longer damage the flowers.
Iris requires care with a certain frequency, these rules will help you provide the best conditions for it, and the result will delight you with beautiful large flowers:
- Mineral fertilizers should be applied to the soil three times: at the very beginning of spring, during the blooming of irises and a month after its completion.
- Fertilizers are applied only to the dried soil in the required amount.
- Every two weeks irises are sprayed from pests. This plant can be affected by thrips, which eats leaves. They become weak and oppressed, with them the wax coating disappears. Special protection will keep the green mass free from pests, besides, it is not a very common attack.
Far more often, plants suffer from diseases, among which the most common remains of rhizomes rot.
If the root begins to rot, it must be removed from the soil, removed the damaged areas and treated with the drug "Home". After processing, the iris root is dried for 12 hours in the open air. The most common cause of rot is waterlogging. Watering should not be excessive, and the drainage layer of sand under the bed will help remove excess water from the roots.
A common disease is gesteosporosis, which affects the leaves of a plant.
They begin to appear small brown spots especially often this can be encountered closer to the end of summer. Each affected leaf should be cut, and then the whole plant is treated with copper sulfate in the amount of 50 grams. 5 liters of water. In winter, the plants must be closed from the cold leaves, especially gentle varieties. With the beginning of spring, as soon as the snow melts, the “veil” is removed so that the plant has time for the appearance of leaves and flowering.
Rules for the care of bulbous irises
Growing bulbous irises is somewhat more complicated, as they are more demanding in terms of both the lighting mode and the amount of moisture. They need a sunny place, periodic abundant watering and fertile soil - this will provide the plants with rapid flowering with large buds. The most unpretentious type of bulbous irises remains Juno - it can grow even on stony soils, but it definitely requires the sunny side.
Onion irises bloom about two months: the first buds will appear in mid-May, and flowering will end in late June.
After that, the bulbs are dug out. If after flowering to leave them on the garden, the bulbs will suffer from fungal diseases and will be unsuitable for further use. After digging, they are treated with a weak solution of potassium permanganate and dried well. This planting material, which should be stored until September.
In September or at the very beginning of October, the bulbs are planted in the ground, after which they are covered for the winter. After wintering with the onset of spring, they will quickly begin to give shoots again. After such a cycle, you can expect real large buds, which will turn into a garden decoration.
Plant the bulbs about 5 cm from the soil surface.
Bulbous plants require more care than rhizomatous ones, since they do not like weeds and are afraid of pests. With proper treatment and care, the bulbous iris takes root well and does not cause any difficulties for the novice gardener. If the peduncles become too high, they must be tied up so that they do not break under their own weight.
What type of iris to choose for the site
Since there are many types of irises, many beginning gardeners are lost and do not know what to choose. If you are not satisfied with the usual bearded iris with blue flowers, you can decorate your garden with the following exotic species:
- Yellow Queen - a variety of bulbous iris, which is considered to be iridescent because of the special colors. The main tone of the bud is yellow, but it differs significantly on the lower and upper petals.
- Iridodictium Vinogradov - an interesting bulbous variety, with white petals covered with an interesting dot pattern. It will look unusual in the garden, and at the same time it is not particularly demanding to care.
- Juno Bukhara - a plant with narrow petals and two-tone white-yellow buds. This plant looks surprisingly elegant, it is one of the most fragile and exotic varieties.
These are just some of the unusual types of irises that can be planted. For an iris, it will not be difficult to create comfortable conditions; they can grow even with moderate watering.
If you try to propagate irises with seeds, you can get the most unusual colors of buds - your own breeding work can be a real pride of the site owner.
More information can be found in the video.
Part 1. General rules of fit and care
Despite the fact that the iris is considered an unpretentious crop, you will need to follow simple rules for planting and care. It is also important to take into account the variety and variety of plants, since each species has its own characteristics.
How, when and where to plant irises?
Before planting irises, you need to choose the right place for planting. The groundwater level at the site should not be too high. If the groundwater is still too close to the surface of the soil, then you will need to make a drainage layer or add a layer of soil, raising the area by about 15 cm.
The plant prefers the sun, so the area should be open and well lit. In the shade iris flowers are not as intense and long as the sun.
It is also important that the site is protected from the winds. If such a place cannot be found, then it will be possible in the future to use the supports for the garter of tall plants.
It is possible to plant irises with bulbs in the spring in the ground. In this case, we are talking about bulbous irises. As is known, irises are rhizomatous and bulbous. Planting dates in the spring - from March to May, the main thing is that the soil warms up to at least 10 degrees Celsius. The bloom is probably already in June, but very often the irises bloom only the next year, or the bloom is quite weak.
Planting irises in autumn should be realized a few weeks before frost. Better for a month. The main thing is that the plant has time to take root before the cold comes. Otherwise, it is likely that the culture will freeze or even die.
But most often landing is carried out in the summer, starting from its middle. Experienced gardeners recommend planting it is in the summer, because before the winter, the irises will have time to lay buds, and by the end of next spring they will start blooming successfully without the risk of frost in the winter.
Video on "Planting irises with bulbs in the ground"