Many farmers earn good money by keeping egg chickens. Peasants and gardeners are breeding laying hens in order to provide their families with eggs of the first freshness. Due to the fact that eggs have a high nutritional value, the demand for this product never drops.
From the conditions in which the hens are laying hens, their productivity depends. The quality of the feed and the diet of chickens are very important. People who are breeding chickens of this breed are interested in what chickens should eat, how their feeding should take place, so that they bring eggs for a year.
Ration of laying hens
In order for chickens to have good egg production and high nutritional value of eggs in the diet of chickens must be correct and contain certain types of feed.
Feed of mineral origin provide chickens:
The shell is kept strong thanks to these additives. Mineral feeds include: shells, chalk, salt, attorney, feed phosphates and limestone. They need chop well before feeding and add to the grain or wet mash.
Protein-based feeds are the building material for laying hens. Feed of animal and vegetable origin provide proteins. Vegetable proteins are found in:
- nettle flour
- cake and meal.
Animal protein contained in the following products:
- cottage cheese,
- skimmed and whole milk,
- meat-bone and fish meal.
It is not recommended to feed the hens with fish meal, because it can spoil the taste of eggs.
Vitamin feeds are designed to replenish vitamin reserves. They increase the percentage of the safety of chickens and their immunity. Recommended following vitamin feeds:
- grated carrot
- coniferous and grass meal,
- in the winter dry hay, and in the summer fresh greens.
Foods that contain a lot of carbohydrates include vegetables and cereals. Cereals include:
Farmers who have a lot of experience recommend sprouting a part of the grain, because it increases the content of vitamin E in cereals.
Vegetable crops include:
All chickens are very fond of melons. Bran also contain a lot of carbohydrate, they are recommended to be added to the feed dry and wet mixture.
What can not feed chickens
- Bread any. Although, white stale bread in very small quantities is possible. Black also causes digestive problems, diarrhea or polyuria.
- Sausages in any form, they contain too much fat, salt, spices, preservatives, dyes, flavors and other additives. These products can trigger a heart attack or stroke.
- Milk (as well as bread or porridge soaked in milk on milk), it leads to dysbiosis, since they normally have little lactic acid bacteria and lack an enzyme that processes lactose.
- CheeseSince, as a rule, it contains a lot of fat and salt, some are preservatives, and the fused ones also contain salt-melters. Any bird is strictly contraindicated.
- Soups, any, except vegetarian vegetable without salt and spices. Both fat, salt, and seasoning are harmful to birds.
- Coffee, Cocoa, Chocolate - These products are generally contraindicated for most animals because of caffeine and theobromine.
- Alcohol in any form. As an exception, medicinal alcohol tinctures can be used, and even then, very strongly diluted (2-3 drops per 100 ml of water) and not more than a week. Otherwise, the rapid degradation of the liver is guaranteed, since it is completely incapable of processing alcohol.
- Jam, compote, marmalade due to too high sugar content. The pancreas of birds cannot produce this amount of insulin, and even the remnants of unprocessed sugar is a nutrient medium for pathogenic fungi.
- Oil any again, because of the impossibility of the liver to process fat in such an amount, because a drop of sunflower oil in terms of fat content is equal to ten seeds.
Is it possible to give chickens the following products
We all know that domestic birds, mostly chickens, are almost omnivorous creatures. It is for this reason that many poultry farmers, especially beginners, think that in exchange for purchased feeds, you can feed these birds with the most common provisions, even from the master's table. As the practice of feeding chickens demonstrates, in this process certain products should be treated very carefully, and some should be avoided altogether. Consider specifically the list, whether it is possible to give the chickens the following products.
Needles or pine branches
This needle-shaped organ of trees and shrubs of the spruce and pine genus is for any kind of bird a unique vitamin carrier containing valuable biological substances. Fat pigment carotene, as well as vitamins F, tocopherol and ascorbic acid have a positive effect on the rate of development and overall health of chickens, as well as on the productivity of layers.
Poultry as food can be given both fresh and dried shredded pine trees or pine needles. The optimal portion of coniferous material for adult chickens - from 6 to 10 g per 1 head.
Video: how to cook the needles for chickens
Hercules are hydrothermally processed oat flakes mechanically peeled from the husk. And since chickens not only can be fed with oats, but also need to be fed, this rule also applies to Hercules.
The latter contains the main substances vital for the chicken, micro and macro elements. The amount of protein that is part of this cereal affects the growth of muscle mass. Hercules are better than ordinary oats because the husked cereal content of fiber significantly decreases, thus facilitating and speeding up the process of assimilation of the product by the chicken body.
The dosage of hercules in the diet of chickens should be very clear and be no more than 10–20% of the total daily volume of food (grain elements in conjunction with the plant).
The banana itself rarely acts as a representative of the chicken menu, although veterinarians do not mention the dangers of this product for birds. But a banana peel or peel from one banana can not be thrown away, but dried, minced and added to the daily dose of poultry feed.
It is important to make sure that there are no stickers or other foreign objects in the detailed banana peel. The substances contained in the peel of this fruit, contribute to the normal operation of the cardiovascular and gastrointestinal systems, as well as clean the chicken body.
In terms of the total fat and protein composition, rapeseed is superior to soybeans and other leguminous crops. Nevertheless, the final products obtained from rape - cake and meal - can be used as an additive to poultry feed. only in limited quantities (up to 5–8% of the total menu volume) due to the presence of glucosides in them, which can provoke intoxication of the chicken.
The presence of minerals in the feeding of birds is of considerable importance, and because of the insufficient amount of them in natural feeds, poultry farmers need to carry a special mineral fertilizer.Lime is added to feed to prevent eggs from slamming.
Calcium replenishment in the body of a bird can be accomplished with the use of a long-standing (time spent on air must be at least 6 months) hydrated lime. A freshly hooded or one that has not been quenched at all is strictly forbidden to be consumed by chickens: it can cause burns of the gastrointestinal tract, and even lead to the death of the bird.
Limestone is added to feed for birds. at a dosage of 5% of the total mass of food.
Millet groats are very useful, easily digestible and nutritious product for chickens. It is millet that increases their egg production level, since it is rich in vitamin complex (for example, B vitamins, nicotinic acid), as well as useful chemical elements. Dosage of this cereal 30–40% of the total portion and the alternation of wheat with other crops, such as barley, wheat, etc., are the basic rules for the use of this component of chicken nutrition.
This fermented milk product in the nutrition of chickens is usually used as one of the components of mash meat and is a protein feed of animal origin. Due to the presence in its composition of beneficial microorganisms, kefir has a beneficial effect on the digestive system of the bird.With the same success, kefir can be replaced with yogurt
The product also has antibacterial properties, and therefore enhances the protective functions of the avian organism.
A portion of kefir, which is filled with a mixture of feed ingredients, can vary from 10 to 100 ml, depending on the specific recipes and the number of other components.
The structure of whey includes many useful substances, among which calcium, magnesium, disaccharides, vitamins of group B, retinol, ascorbic acid, vitamin A, etc. can be mentioned.Use only fresh serum, a long-standing product can cause poisoning.
That is why it is the same as kefir, often used as a liquid element of mash for feeding birds. Proportional use should be consistent with the use of kefir for this purpose.
Experts do not recommend feeding domestic birds with rye, especially in large quantities: in chickens, it can cause disorders of the gastrointestinal system, and the mucous substances contained in the freshly harvested grain, can swell up severely, injuring the internal organs of the bird's gastrointestinal tract.
Flax kernels contain a huge amount of lignins, affecting the work of the hormonal system, which is why this product is most used in the process of feeding laying hens.
Having a beneficial effect on egg-laying, flaxseeds also prevent diseases associated with the reproductive organs of poultry. The desired rate of this dietary supplement is 10 g (if the product has a powdery consistency), or 10–15 pieces of grains per individual.
Grapes are not only not allowed to be given to chickens, but it is also necessary to protect them from the exit to the grape bushes so that they do not eat enough of these berries. Their harm is that hydrocyanic acidincluded in the structure of the berries, instantly causes poisoning and severe intoxication of the avian organism. Very often, this is completely fatal.
Cruciferous roots of the genus cruciferous used as a food additive to poultry feed, but with regard to radish, its amount should be as limited as possible.Radish, before giving to chickens, should be finely grated
The product itself, before mixing with others, must be thoroughly chopped on a grater, while using the secondary element of the root crop - the tops.
An impressive amount of vitamins (A, group B, E, ascorbic and nicotinic acids, etc.), mustard oil, fiber are the main advantages of this root crop.
Much less often, meat broth is used as a component of the chicken ration. Experts have no special cautions about this broth, except that it is undesirable to use it in its pure form due to the increased amount of mineral salts. Sometimes broth can be diluted mash taking into account the volume of other products.
Citrus fruits, orange and tangerine peels
Experts do not recommend feeding the bird neither the pulp of tangerines or oranges, nor the peel of fruit: they can irritate the stomach lining and seriously disrupt the digestive system. Other members of the citrus family (lime, lemon, grapefruit, pomelo, bergamot) are also contraindicated.
Along with barley and oats, this cereal culture plays an important role as a food additive in the poultry diet. This is a real storehouse of valuable nutrients, so it is simply necessary to give it to chickens in the form of a mixture based on corn or wheat unpeeled from the grains. The percentage of millet content in the total feed composition should be no more than 20%.
Fats of plant origin are direct sources of lipids, which are actively involved in the biological synthesis of nutrients, thereby ensuring the best assimilation of vital vitamins and other substances by the avian organism. Adults can add vegetable oil to the mash in the amount of 2-3.5 g of oil per day.
Pure sunflower oil, on the contrary, can negatively affect the durability of the shell, and the size of the eggs, and accordingly, the normal functionality of the reproductive organs of poultry. That is why the introduction of sunflower oil into the total weight of the feed should be extremely limited: not more than 1.1%.
At the same time, the addition of oil cakes and sunflower meals in the amount of from 11 to 14 g per day feed laying hens guarantees them increased egg production.
Fodder turnip varieties are also can be included in the chicken diet like radish. The fruit contains a huge amount of vitamins (carotene, retinol, thiamine, riboflavin, pantothenic and folic acids, pyridoxine), as well as many useful chemical elements.
Feed for rabbits
Combined feed for rabbits, according to experts, not suitable for inclusion in avian diets, as it contains a large amount of fiber. Excess of this element can negatively affect the work of the digestive system of chickens.
Yeast - not only possible, but also necessary food admixture to the feed of chickens. They include: riboflavin, thiamine, pantothenate and nicotinic acid, protein, other valuable trace elements and enzymes.
These substances are necessary for birds to maintain a strong immune system, increase the functionality of muscles, skeleton, heart and blood vessels, normal internal biologic exchange, growth and development of the organism.
A portion of the yeast should be calculated so that its percentage of the total daily menu is within 3–6%.
Beginner poultry farmers should learn that chickens in general can not be given salted fish, including herring. Despite the fact that the fish is rich in calcium, in this form, it can cause dehydration and indigestion in birds.
The best option is to feed the chickens 1-2 times a week well-cooked unsalted fish, in which the bones become soft (it is better to feed the birds in a well-ground form).
Chalk is the main source of calcium, which is vital for chickens, especially layers, since it is thanks to him that shells are formed around the eggs.
Supplementation of the diet of feathered calcium should be made daily in quantities 3.5 g per 1 individual, but not in its pure form, but only in combination with the main feed. This is due to the fact that the salivary glands of chickens are not adapted to the processing and safe intake of such a product in the whole form.
Very often, apples are called “fruits of health”, and this applies not only to people: their beneficial effect also extends to birds.
Fruits are recommended to be added to the main combined consistencies of feed and mash, previously ground by means of a knife or a grater, in the amount of 15–20 g per individual.
Soybean and its products are protein species of bird food, which provide a normal level of exchange energy in the body of animals. Due to the fact that the raw soybean grain contains a lot of fat, the hens can be given this plant only in the form of cakes and oil cakes in the amount of 15% of the total diet of poultry.
Walnut is a unique storehouse of vitamins, valuable micro- and macronutrients, which sometimes and in moderate quantities can please their pet birds. It contains 75% vegetable fat and 15% protein, which are necessary for chickens during the autumn molt.
Nut should be finely chopped and added to the main feed so that its share in the portion of the portion was no more than 3-5%.
Mushrooms are also called “vegetable meat” because these products are superior to grains and legumes in terms of protein content, and are closest in composition to meat and fish. Useful for chickens mushrooms boiled, but in limited quantities - up to 2% of feed weight.
Experts do not see any harm, as well as benefit, in raw meat for chickens. And if you do not want to throw away just meat waste, you can grind them in a meat grinder and add to the main feed in the amount 5–10 g per 1 bird's head.
Poultry farmers should know that not all dairy products are suitable for feeding poultry. For example, fresh milk chickens is contraindicated, since these birds by nature do not provide for the presence of an enzyme that can process the lactose contained in the above product.It is better to give kefir or whey to chickens, as mentioned above.
Accordingly, this will entail the development of dysbiosis in chickens, therefore in no case should milk be included in the avian diet.
As for milk powder, it is not necessary to add it to food for chickens, as it is already included in some mixed feeds.
A well-known champion in the largest amount of vitamins - pumpkin is the product that very often takes place among the main food additives to poultry feed. А входящий в её состав каротин отлично влияет на зрение курочек, повышает их иммунитет, обеспечивает нормальный и полноценный рост куриного организма. 15–20 г на одну особь в сутки натёртой или мелко порезанной тыквы будет предостаточно.
Many lovers of seafood and poultry farmers in one person sooner or later wonder about the safety of feeding shrimp shells to chickens. The answer in this case will be positive, but with some conditions: everything must be done in moderation (3-5 g per day per 1 chicken), and always before feeding the product must be well boiled and chopped.
Thanks to its raw protein and calcium, chickens will delight you for a long time with the brilliant state of their health.
Supplementing the daily ration of chickens with broken glass is done with the same purpose as adding sand, small pebbles (such as gravel) or seashells to bird food, which contribute to the process of grinding absorbed food and its easy digestion.
True, breaking glass for this purpose on your own is highly discouraged, since it must be very small and with blunt edges, and at home, shrapnel is often sharp and dangerous to the internal organs.
Proteins, fats, and carbohydrates in terms of percentage and ratio, as well as mineral elements and vitamins, are the main components of each chicken food product.
This means that the food for birds must be diverse and nutritious:
- Protein - the main component of the egg and the main building material from which the cells of the avian organism are formed. In the nutritional diet of chickens, there must be two types of protein - vegetable and animal origin (for example, cake and sunflower seeds, worms, amphibians and mollusks, bone meal, incubation waste, soybeans, rape, peas).
- Fat - elements providing energy balance. They regulate the subcutaneous temperature, taking an active part in the creation of eggs (one of the foods that are rich in this component is oats and corn).
- Carbohydrates chickens need to complete the work of all organs and body systems. Food should include starch, fiber and sugar (boiled potatoes, beets and carrots in their raw, unprocessed form, as well as pumpkin).
They give food to birds 3-4 times a day, starting in the early morning and ending in the late evening, observing equal intervals between meals, constantly alternating its species. And another prerequisite for the full development - the presence of clean water in the required quantity (for a day the chicken drinks about 0.5 liters).
Their droppings can tell a lot about the health of chickens: the density, distinct edges indicate that everything is in order. In the case of the detection of a pasty consistency or liquid form of chicken stool, it is necessary to change the menu structure and the order of feeding (in the absence of other diseases) in order to adjust the work of the poultry's digestive system.
So, we have reviewed an extensive list of products that can or should not be given to domestic chickens in the process of feeding. And this means that after reading this material, the level of health of your poultry will only increase.
Use of food waste as feed for chickens: video