General information

Oyster mushroom - the most "home" mushroom

Oyster - useful and tasty mushrooms that grow in natural conditions, and can be grown at home.

The article will focus on the appearance, characteristics, varieties and beneficial properties of oyster mushrooms. Also you will find out where and when to collect oyster mushrooms, interesting facts about oyster mushrooms.

Why this the mushroom is called oyster mushroom - the name comes from the growing conditions on the trunks of trees, mushrooms seem to be suspended in the air.

Voshenky - description and photo

Oyster mushrooms These are mushrooms in which the cap smoothly passes into the leg. The cap itself is solid, slightly thinning towards the edge, rounded or oval-elongated. Hats come in diameters of 5-17 cm, and occasionally come across 30 cm.

Oyster Color may be different depending on the type of affiliation - gray, whitish, lemon yellow, ash-violet.

Mushroom Tubular Leg tapers to the base, reaches 5 cm in length and 3 cm in width. The color of the legs is white, greyish or yellowish.

Young mushroom usually with firm and juicy fleshAs it gets older, it becomes dry, hard and fibrous.

Spores have a white, cream or pinkish color, it all depends on the type of fungus.

Types of oyster mushrooms, names and photos

Oyster mushroom - edible mushroom, the second name is oyster mushroom. The cap is fleshy with a diameter of 5-15 cm, sometimes up to 25 cm. The color of the cap is variable, it is light gray, ashy with a slight violet shade.

Young oyster mushrooms with a pleasant taste, with hints of anise.

This mushroom grows in countries with a temperate climate, in deciduous and mixed forests on a cluster of fallen branches, rotten stumps. Often form massive clusters, forming multi-tiered beams. You can also find a mushroom on loose trunks. oak, birch, aspen, willow.

The collection of mushrooms begins in August - September and lasts until the beginning of December.

Oyster Horn - edible mushroom with a funnel-shaped cap. The cap is fleshy with a diameter of 3-12 cm with folded edges down in young mushrooms. The color of the fungus depends on the conditions and place of growth - from light sand to gray.

The hat to a leg joins sideways. Oyster mushroom grows in large groups on stumps, elm feline. Rarely found on other deciduous trees.

Abundantly fruiting from May to mid-September.

Oyster Oak - edible mushroom with a fleshy semicircular hat with a diameter of 4-10 cm. The surface of the cap is painted in yellowish or cream colors, covered with scales.

The flesh is thick, slightly harsh, but has a sweetish aroma.

The mushroom grows on the trunks of broad-leaved tree species (elm, oak). One can meet such an oyster mushroom singly, only rarely in small clusters. Mushroom picking starts in July and ends in September.

Steppe Oyster - a valuable, edible mushroom with a round hat covered with small scales, painted in red-brown shades. Leg oyster mushroom steppe is located more in the center than the side.

The flesh is white, sometimes with a pink tinge. This species of oyster mushroom forms mycorrhiza with umbrella plants, and does not grow on the trunks of dead trees. Fruiting of mushrooms occurs only in the spring months.

Oyster pulmonary - edible mushroom, often found in nature. The cap is rounded with elastic flesh, with a diameter of 4-10 cm and a white or cream color.

At the base of the leg is covered with a small pile.

Fruits abundantly on fallen trunks of deciduous trees from May to October, forming large clusters.

Oyster rose - edible mushroom, slightly convex boned with pink color, 3-5 cm in diameter. Light pink flesh with original flavor and oily taste.

The short leg connects with a cap on the side.

Oyster Lemon Hat - edible mushroom, very rarely found, has a pleasant taste and aroma. The caps are small, 3-6 cm in diameter, of a corymboid shape with a lemon yellow color.

Leg long 6-9 cm, located in the center of the cap. It grows in large clusters on the remains of elm trunks, dry branches. Fruits from May to October.

Where and how do oyster mushrooms grow in nature?

Mushrooms in nature grow on organic remnants of deciduous trees and shrubs (fallen trees, stumps, logging waste). Most often these are trees such as linden, aspen, oak, alder, but you can find oyster mushrooms on birches, poplars, and chestnuts.

Almost always oyster mushrooms grow in large groups of 30 or more. On tree trunks it grows under each other forming tiers or next to each other.

Oyster mushrooms useful properties

Most of the oyster mushrooms marketed are grown on a substrate of plant origin, so mushrooms do not accumulate heavy metals and toxic substances.

The taste of oyster mushrooms is compared with champignons, even as some gourmets say, they are superior in skillful cooking.

Oyster mushroom can be consumed only after heat treatment. Mushrooms are made into soups, sauces, fried, stewed, pickled.

Oyster Pulp contains a whole range of useful substances for the human body

-- vitamins B, C, E, PP, D2

-- such minerals like calcium, iron, potassium, iodine

-- amino acids: threonine, leucine, valine, phenylalanine

Fat in the pulp a small amount (a group of polyunsaturated fatty acids), they reduce the level of cholesterol in the blood.

Carbohydrates 20% consist of fructose, sucrose, glucose is easily absorbed by the body, does not lead to the deposition of fat.

Polysaccharides have an antitumor effect.

Oyster mushrooms are able to excrete toxins and radioactive isotopes. These low-calorie mushrooms therefore, they are actively used to combat excess weight.

Oyster contraindications

Remember that chitin is present in the pulp of these mushrooms, which is not absorbed by the human body. To destroy the structure of this substance, the mushrooms are finely cut and subjected to heat treatment.

- it is impossible to completely get rid of chitin, therefore it is not recommended to give oyster mushrooms to children who have not reached 5 years

- teenagers can eat mushrooms, but in small quantities and with care

-- allergy sufferers for mushroom spores must be careful when collecting and preparing

- do not eat oyster mushrooms more 2 times a weekthen they will benefit you.

Interesting facts about gingerbreads

In cooking, used for cooking only young oyster mushrooms. Aging mushrooms become hard and lose their taste. Store oyster mushrooms in the refrigerator can be no more than 3 days.

Oyster mushrooms can be called predatory mushrooms, they release nematoxin paralyzing nematodes (primary bandworms), thus obtaining nitrogen for growth.

Description of oyster mushroom

The diameter of the cap varies from 5 to 15 centimeters. The cap is fleshy, rounded, its edges are thin. The shape of the cap is concave, ear-shaped, or almost round. At a young age, the caps are convex with curved edges, and as they grow, they become flat with wavy edges. If the fungus grows in a humid environment, then the cap is often covered with mycelial bloom. The color of the cap may vary from brown and dark gray to light gray with a violet tinge, and over time, the mushrooms fade so that they become whitish, yellowish or grayish.

The leg of the common oyster mushroom is dense and short, lateral, cylindrical in shape, narrowed towards the base, often it is curved. Leg length ranges from 2 to 5 centimeters. The leg is smooth, white in color, at the base it is slightly felt, brownish in tone. In old oyster mushrooms, the leg becomes very stiff.

The plates are rare, their width is 3-15 millimeters, at a young age they are whitish, but with time they turn gray or turn yellow. Spore pinkish or white powder.

Oyster mushroom spread

These mushrooms are classified as wood-destroying fungi saprophytes. They are widely distributed in forests that grow in the temperate zone. Oyster mushrooms grow on tree trunks rather high off the ground.

Most often, oyster mushrooms grow in large bunches, which consist of more than 30 fruit bodies. Mushrooms grow together at the base, resulting in "multi-tiered structures." Oyster mushrooms perfectly tolerate negative temperatures.

The influence of common oyster mushrooms on trees

Oyster mushrooms grow on weakened trees, which cause yellow rot. Most often they settle on deciduous trees, and coniferous prefer less often.

Trees are usually infected with these fungi through frost cracks. In the place where the rot was formed, fruit bodies begin to grow. Oyster mushrooms continue to grow even on dead wood.

Nutritional value of oyster mushroom

This mushroom is a dietary product, as it has a low calorie - 38-41 kcal, in addition, it contains many nutrients necessary for the health of the body.

In terms of protein content, these mushrooms surpass any vegetable crops, according to this indicator they are equal to meat and dairy products. Oyster proteins are well digested. Polyunsaturated fatty acids are found in oyster mushrooms, they do not allow atherosclerosis to develop, they help to normalize the amount of cholesterol in the blood and reduce the level of triglycerides.

Polysaccharides contained in the common oyster mushroom have a high immunomodulatory and antitumor effect. In addition, these mushrooms contain minerals: phosphorus, potassium, cobalt, calcium, zinc, selenium, copper, which are necessary for man.

Oyster mushroom is a source of fat-soluble and water-soluble vitamins. These mushrooms contain the full range of vitamins B, vitamin E, ascorbic acid and vitamin PP.

Growing oyster mushrooms

Thanks to all these food qualities of oyster mushrooms, they are grown in many countries around the world on a production scale.

Cultivation of oyster mushroom in artificial conditions.

Since oyster mushrooms are unpretentious mushrooms, yielding a large crop, they are in great demand in the market, so they have long been cultivated. Among the fans of mushrooms, they gained honor.

Related species of common oyster mushrooms

A relative of the oyster mushroom is the oyster mushroom, which is distinguished by a brighter hat with a yellowish color. The cap of the oyster mushroom is 3-12 centimeters in diameter. Cap funnel-shaped with wavy edges. White flesh has a floury light smell. In old mushrooms, the flesh is tighter, so it has to be cooked longer. The leg is curved, its length is 2-6 centimeters.

Carob oyster mushrooms are harvested from May to October. They grow on the stumps and fallen trees of deciduous trees. These are frequent mushrooms, but they grow in hard to reach places. Horny oyster mushrooms are common in Russia, the North Caucasus, China, Japan and Ukraine.

Oyster whitish, too, looks like an ordinary oyster mushroom. This mushroom grows from mid-summer to mid-autumn. The whitish oyster mushroom has a lighter hat, and the flesh is yellowish.

Oyster oak has a whitish hat with dark scales. Spore bag creamy gray. Leg whitish, young mushrooms leg may be missing.

The oyster pulmonary has a convex or tongue-shaped cap with cracked edges. The diameter of the cap is 4-9 centimeters. The cap color is white or cream. The flesh is elastic, thin, white. White spores.

Oyster mushrooms (mushrooms) - description, characteristics, photos.

Oyster mushrooms belong to mushrooms in which the fruit body consists of hats, smoothly turning into the leg. The hat is solid, slightly thinning to the edges. Its shape is round or oval-elongated, resembling a shell. The diameter of the cap varies from 5 to 17 cm, although there are mushrooms that have a cap size of 30 cm. In young cubs, the smooth glossy surface of the cap is slightly convex, with the edges slightly tucked inside. However, as they age, they unfold, and the cap itself flattens.

Author photo: Rob Hille, CC BY-SA 3.0

Depending on the type of coloring Oysters can be whitish, gray, brownish, lemon yellow, brown olive, ash-violet and even gray-lilac with hints of pink or orange.

Himenofor with rather rare and wide plates whitish, yellow or gray in color, it descends deeply on the stem. The white plates of the young fungus turn gray or yellow with age.

Author photo: Rob Hille, CC BY-SA 3.0

The tubular stem tapers towards the base, usually located eccentric with respect to the cap. Its dimensions reach a maximum of 50 mm in length and 30 mm in thickness. The oyster legs are painted white, yellowish or slightly grayish.

Author photo: Qwert1234, CC0

The fruit body of the young fungus is elastic and juicy. the pulpwhich becomes fibrous, dry and hard as it gets older.

Spore powder oyster is white, cream or pinkish depending on the type of fungus.

Types of Oysters, photos and titles.

The division of oyster mushrooms into species was carried out in accordance with the species of the trees on which these fungi developed, therefore the classification is rather arbitrary. Most scientific sources indicate that today there are several dozen species of these mushrooms in the species of oyster mushroom, which can be both edible and inedible. Among the most famous varieties of oyster mushrooms stand out:

  • Oyster ordinary (oyster) (lat. Pleurotus ostreatus) - edible mushroom, which also has names oyster mushroom or lump. The size of the meaty cap varies from 5 to 15 cm, reaching 25 cm in diameter for some mushrooms. As the fungus ages, the slightly convex, rounded or oval-elongated cap becomes flatter, in some cases funnel-shaped. The color of the oyster cap is quite changeable and can be light gray, slightly brownish or ashy with a slight violet hue. As it ages, it fades and becomes pale gray or slightly yellow. The edges of the cap curved inward gradually become straightened and become wavy or dissected-lobed. If common oyster mushrooms grow in conditions of high humidity, mycelial plaque may form on the smooth glossy surface of the cap.
    The oyster mushroom is whitish, cylindrical, slightly curved and tapering towards the base of the fungus. It is eccentric with respect to the cap, sometimes taking a lateral position. The leg length is barely 5 cm, and the diameter varies from 8 mm to 3 cm. Its smooth surface at the very base often becomes velvety-felt. Bright plates of the hymenophore, located rather rarely, run low along the leg. As the fungus ages, their color changes to a dirty gray or yellowish. The fruit body is dense and elastic, although over time the flesh becomes hard and rather fibrous. The taste of young oysters is pleasant, with a slight presence of anise notes. Under natural conditions, this species is common in temperate countries, where it grows in deciduous and mixed forests on rotten stumps or a cluster of dead and fallen branches. The fungus is also found on the trunks of birch, oak, aspen, mountain ash or willow weakened by diseases. Most often, these mushrooms form mass clusters, from which multi-tiered bunches are formed - they can contain more than thirty fruit bodies. The mass collection of oyster oyster mushrooms begins in August-September and lasts until mid-November-early December. In some cases, due to favorable weather, the first fruiting bodies may appear already in late May or early June.

Photo by: H. Krisp, CC BY 3.0

Photo by: Stu’s Images, CC BY-SA 3.0

  • Oyster Horned (oyster Plentiful) (lat. Pleurotus cornucopiae) - is an edible mushroom, resembling a shepherd's horn in shape. The cap of the fungus is horn-shaped or funnel-shaped, sometimes acquires a lingual or leaf-like shape. The sizes of a fleshy and smooth cap vary from 3 to 12 cm in diameter. In young mushrooms, its edges are folded down, but as they age, they level out, bend up and often crack. The color of the oyster horns depends on the conditions, place of growth and age, and varies from light sand to gray with ocher hues. The consistency of the pulp in the cap also changes as it ages: over time, from dense and elastic, it becomes rigid, with pronounced fibers. In contrast to other species of oysters in a cone-shaped oyster, a rather curved leg is well developed; its length can reach 8 cm with a thickness of no more than 2 cm. Hymenophore plates, painted in light, almost white tones, run down to its very base, where they intertwine the result is a peculiar pattern. It attaches to the head side. Voshenka grows abundant in groups, mainly on the stumps and firs of an elm tree, although in very rare cases it is found on wood of other hardwoods. In the area of ​​growth includes almost the entire territory of Russia and the North Caucasus. There are populations of horned oyster mushrooms in China, as well as on the islands of Japan. The period of abundant fruiting begins in the first decade of May and ends in mid-September.

Photo by: Stu’s Images, CC BY-SA 3.0

Author photo: Ak ccm, CC BY-SA 3.0

  • Oyster mushroom covered (oyster mushroom covered) (lat. Pleurotus calyptratus) - inedible mushroom due to its tough rubber flesh. Свое название вид получил из-за пленки, которая у молодых грибов покрывает пластинки гименофора, однако по мере старения такое своеобразное покрывало рвется, а его остатки можно наблюдать по краю шляпки. У молодых вёшенок этого вида шляпка напоминает большую почку, однако, по мере роста гриба она охватывает ствол дерева и приобретает форму раскрытого веера с выпуклой поверхностью и подвернутыми вниз краями.The surface of the cap is smooth and slightly sticky with visible wet strips radially diverging from the trunk. The fruit body is colored in gray-brown or solid-brown tones, which in dry weather become gray-steel shade. With aging, the color of the cap fades, it becomes whitish or almost white. The leg is almost absent. Hymenophore plates of oyster mushrooms covered with a yellowish-cream color. The whitish flesh of the fruit body, which by its smell resembles sliced ​​raw potatoes, has a dense rubbery consistency. The first oyster mushrooms of this species, growing alone, appear at the end of April on fallen or dried aspen trees in mixed and deciduous forests of Denmark, Latvia, Sweden, Ireland, Austria, Germany, Switzerland and other countries of Central and Northern Europe. The fruiting period ends at the end of June.

Author photo: Aimaina Hikari, CC0

Author photo: Aimaina Hikari, CC0

  • Oyster oak (dry oyster, oak pleurotus) (lat. Pleurotus dryinus) refers to edible mushrooms. The size of the fleshy semicircular, elliptical, or tongue-shaped cap varies from 4 to 10 cm. In young oak oysters, its surface, painted in yellowish or cream colors, is covered with scales, slightly convex, but as the mushroom grows, it becomes flatter and even concave. The edges of the caps are wavy, and in old mushrooms they are sometimes dissected by shallow cracks and remnants of the blanket that protected the hymenophore. Velvety stem with remnants of a filmy ring from 4 to 10 cm long, has a cylindrical shape, sometimes thickening towards the base. In relation to the head, the oak of the Oak Oyster can be located centrally or in a lateral position. Quite frequent plates of hymenophore run down the stem almost to its base. Their color changes with age and varies from white to cream or dirty yellow. The dense, slightly harsh flesh of the fruit body has a rather pleasant sweetish aroma. Oak Oyster Pike grows in many European countries with a temperate climate, as well as in North America, preferring the trunks of broad-leaved trees (oak, elm), although it can bear fruit on the remains of other species. Usually grows singly, only occasionally forming small clusters. Oak Oyster harvest begins in the second half of July and ends in early September.

Photo by: H. Krisp, CC BY 3.0

Photo by: Stu’s Images, CC BY-SA 4.0

  • Oyster mushroom (Latin. Pleurotus eryngii)she eringi, white steppe mushroom, royal oyster. It belongs to the category of valuable edible mushrooms. The round or oval cap of the young oyster of this species is slightly convex, but as it gets older it becomes flat or slightly funnel-shaped. The surface of the cap is covered with small scales or fibers and painted in red-brown shades. The size of the cap varies from 4.5 to 13 cm. The color of the skin eventually changes to brown or pale ocher. The height of a cylindrical white or brownish-ocher leg varies from 2 to 5 cm, and its diameter in the thickening near the base can reach 2.5 cm. In relation to the cap, the leg of the oyster mushroom is located in the center, rarely a little to the side. Lamellar type homophore with often located pinkish-cream plates that run down to half of the leg. The flesh of this species is white, sometimes with a slight brown or pink shade. Steppe Voshenka is common in Germany, Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, France, Spain, Italy, Greece, Turkey, Cyprus, Egypt, Algeria, India, the foothills of the Tien Shan and the Pamir Mountains, as well as in other countries of Western Asia and Central Europe. These steppe mushrooms are also found on the territory of Russia (up to the Primorsky Territory) in the steppes of Central Asia. It is noteworthy that the mushrooms of this species form mycorrhiza with the roots of numerous umbrella plants, and do not use the trunks of dead trees as a substrate. Royal oyster fruit only in the spring months.

Photo by: H. Krisp, CC BY-SA 3.0

Photo by: LOBO QUIRCE, CC BY-SA 4.0

  • Oyster pulmonary (lat. Pleurotus pulmonarius), she is oyster whitish, oyster spring or oyster beech - It is the most common naturally occurring edible member of the genus. The sizes of the rounded, lingual or fan-shaped cap with elastic pulp vary within 4-8 cm, although in some specimens they can reach 15 cm. Its slightly cracked edges are tucked down and much smaller in thickness than the central part. The color of the cap of the pulmonary oyster is white or creamy, with yellowing becomes yellow. White or grayish leg, covered at the base of a small pile, rather short (up to 20 mm), although there were pulmonary oyster mushrooms, in which it had dimensions of about 40 mm. Rarely located white plates of hymenophore run down along the eccentrically located leg almost to its base. Abundantly bear fruit on fallen rotten trunks of deciduous trees oyster begins in May and ends in late September. Spring oyster mushrooms alone are rare, mostly form fairly large clusters that grow together with legs.

Author photo: Jörg Hempel, CC BY-SA 2.5

Author photo: Tsungam, CC BY-SA 3.0

  • Oyster rose (lat. Pleurotus djamor), or oyster flamingo, belongs to the class of edible mushrooms. Weakly convex caps of young oysters of this species are painted in saturated pink or grayish-pink color. As the fungus ages, the tongue-shaped or rounded cap, reaching a size of 3-5 cm, becomes flat with thin and cracked edges, and its color is more pale with small yellow specks. The oyster pulp is light pink in color, with an oily taste and original flavor. A whitish-pink, short, curved leg no longer than 2 cm long connects with a cap on the side. The reddish-pink plates of the hymenophore, which run low on the leg, lighten with time. The area of ​​distribution of the pink oyster mushroom includes Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Vietnam, Mexico, Brazil, Western India, Japan, Australia and New Zealand, as well as other countries of the subtropical and tropical zones. On the territory of the Russian Federation, the pink oyster mushroom grows in the forests of the Far East and Primorye.

Photo by: H. Krisp, CC BY 3.0

Author photo: Dick Culbert, CC BY 2.0

  • Lemon and oyster mushroom (lat. Pleurotus citrinopileatus), ilmak or golden oyster - quite rare edible mushroom with a pleasant taste and original flavor. The average size of the caps varies between 3 and 6 cm, although in some specimens it can reach 10 cm. In young cubs, the cap has a celtic shape, which, as it grows, gradually acquires funnel-shaped outlines with refined edges resembling dissected blades. Her lemon-yellow color fades with age and becomes whitish, sometimes completely white. Young Ilmak have a rather long cream-colored leg, up to 6-9 cm high, located in the center of the cap, but as the oyster mushroom grows older, the oyster cap shifts to the side and takes an eccentric position. Lemon and oyster mushroom grows in the North American continent and in Asian countries. On the territory of Russia, oyster mushroom is found in deciduous and mixed forests of Eastern Siberia, the Far East and Primorsky Krai. It grows in large groups on dry branches and remains of elm trunks. The number of mushrooms that make up the group can be up to eighty. The abundant fructification of oyster mushrooms lasts from the beginning of May to October.

Author photo: Chatama, CC0

Photo by: PookieFugglestein, CC0

Where and how do oyster mushrooms grow?

Under natural conditions, oyster mushrooms grow on the organic remains of shrubs and deciduous trees (stumps, dead trees or fallen trunks, logging waste). Most often, aspen, linden, oak or alder wood may be used as a substrate. Fungi splices can be seen on poplar and birch, hornbeam or chestnut, as well as on some coniferous trees. Almost all species of oyster mushrooms form large groups, which can include up to 30 or more fruiting bodies, and the mass of such a “bunch” can reach 3 kilograms. On trunks splices are located one below the other or grow side by side without any system. There are also some species that grow among the roots of umbrella plants.

Author photo: Jerzy Opioła, CC BY-SA 4.0

The area of ​​distribution of fungi of the genus Pleurotus includes North America, Germany, Portugal, Denmark, Slovakia, France, Poland, as well as other countries of Europe, countries of North Africa (Sudan and Egypt), Asian countries (Pakistan, India, Malaysia) and Australia. On the territory of Russia, oyster mushroom grows everywhere, starting from the borders with Belarus and ending with Eastern Siberia and Primorsky Krai.

Author photo: Richenza, CC BY-SA 3.0

At what temperature do oyster mushrooms grow?

Artificially cultivated species of oysters (strains) are subdivided by the maturity of fruit bodies.

  • Thus, for example, the winter oyster is derived from frost-resistant species that can bear fruit at air temperatures from 4 ° C to 15 ° C. Caps of mushrooms of this type can be painted in gray, blue or dark brown colors.
  • The strains of the summer fish were brought to Russia from Florida. Fruiting of this group of oysters occurs at temperatures from 15 ° C to 25 ° C. At higher temperatures, the growth of the fruit at the time stops and resumes with its decrease. Summer oyster has a very tender and fragile fruit body.
  • Year-round strains of fungi were obtained from pulmonary oyster mushroom (Pleurotus pulmonarius). They are able to bear fruit in the temperature range from 6 ° C to 28 ° C. The color of the cap in year-round oysters varies in a wide range of gray colors and can be both light and dark.
back to content ↑

Common Oyster (Pleurotus ostreatus)

Common Oyster (Pleurotus ostreatus)

The fungus is characterized by a convex cap of an ear-like or funnel-shaped shape with a diameter of 5 to 15 cm, with edges bent down. The skin is opaque, gray or brownish-brown, later acquires a yellowish tone. Strong low leg is placed on the side, the surface is white with a brown tint, closer to the base is a fleecy, in some cases the leg may be completely absent.

Large frequent plates whitish-cream, descend on the leg. Creamy soft flesh later becomes fibrous, tough. The smell is light, mushroom, taste unpleasant.

Horned Oyster (Pleurotus cornucopiae)

Horned Oyster (Pleurotus cornucopiae)

Very tasty, with a convex cap with a diameter of up to 12 cm, which later becomes funnel-shaped or horn-shaped. The skin color is whitish cream, with time it becomes brownish or brown. Strong small leg is located in the center, on the side or absent, the surface is cream or grayish.

The plates are whitish, with a yellow tinge, infrequent, run down low on the leg, forming a kind of grid with wide cells. Creamy flesh, tight, fleshy, mushroom smell, taste neutral.

Oyster whitish (pulmonary, spring) (Pleurotus pulmonarius)

Oyster whitish (pulmonary, spring) (Pleurotus pulmonarius)

The cap is white, earlike, sometimes in the form of a fan or a funnel, with a diameter of up to 8 cm, less often up to 15 cm. The edges are uneven, turned down. The skin is smooth, light tones, often beige, later acquires a brown or yellowish tint. Leg small - up to 4 cm, sometimes absent, the surface is dirty-white, fleecy at the base.

The plates are beige or milky-white, descend along the leg, the flesh is thick, creamy, with a light aroma and fresh taste.

Locations and collection times

There are fruitful oyster mushrooms everywhere, growing on rotting wood, tissues of weakening and injured trees in the form of compact clusters or rows, growing in tiers. Such colonies can reach a considerable weight, sometimes up to 2-3 kg. Gather mushrooms by cutting off the leg at its very base or carefully twisting the firmly seated fruit body.

Bunched in clusters in the form of a tile colony oyster mushroom From early summer to October, they are found on poplar, birch, beech, aspen and other hardwoods. It is extremely rare that this species settles on coniferous trees. Mushrooms grow in dense groups of several dozen pieces.

In temperate climates, floodplain wet forests on the trunks of fallen trees and stumps, many families grow horned oyster mushroom, preferring wood elms and maples. You can meet these mushrooms in gardens, most often on the wood of old apple trees. Harvest season begins in late spring and lasts until early fall.

Oyster whitish grows in large colonies on rotting moss and lichen-covered trunks of deciduous trees. Fruiting begins in May, ending in early October, can last until the first hard frosts until December.

Unpretentious oyster mushroom of different types successfully grown artificially - at home and by farms. For cultivation using substrates of sawdust, straw, or chocks of trees - poplar, maple, willow.

The method of cultivation on chocks is available in home gardens. To do this, in the harvested cuts of the tree, several holes are drilled into which the oyster mushroom mycelium is introduced and the indentations are closed with wet sawdust.

The chocks are installed in the basement, a shady corner of the garden, in the autumn-winter period it is possible to grow intensively in greenhouses until the onset of severe frosts. Infected chocks are placed one on another, the resulting stack is covered with boards, straw and a layer of earth - this will help maintain optimum temperature and humidity. The chocks installed in the garden can winter outside, since most oyster species are frost-resistant.

For sprouting mycelium and the development of mycelium, a temperature of + 22 ° C and high humidity of 98–100% is necessary. After the appearance of fruit bodies, the temperature is reduced to + 15 ° C and maintained at this level. The first crop is harvested in 2–2.5 months, and they continue to receive dense fruit bodies for several years while the destruction of the wood lasts.

False oyster mushrooms and doubles

Oyster mushrooms develop on wood - trunks, stumps, tree debris, have characteristic external features and it is almost impossible to confuse them with poisonous mushrooms. And yet there are similar inedible species, of which schizophilum vulgaris, the astringent pannelus, and various members of the genus Pilolistus are more common.

Pilolistnichek (Lentinellus ursinus)

Pilolistnichek (Lentinellus ursinus)

Small light colored mushrooms with an unpleasant bitter taste. The cap is rounded, with a diameter of up to 10 cm, convex, later prostrate with a recess in the center, the edges are wrapped. The skin of different tones of brown color, usually light brown or beige, with a reddish, pinkish or yellowish tinge. The plates are frequent, slightly descending on a low thin leg, which can be located in the center or on the side. The flesh is creamy, thin, hard-fibrous, usually odorless, with a very bitter, pungent taste.

Representatives of the genus live in small groups on the deadwood and stumps of poplar, birch, elm, other hardwoods, less often on coniferous trees. Not used in food due to acrid taste.

Schizophilum vulgaris (Schizophyllum commune)

Schizophilum vulgaris (Schizophyllum commune)

Tasteless mushrooms settle on wood, like oyster mushrooms, and at the same time. The cap is small - up to 5 cm in diameter, with an uneven wavy edge in the shape of a fan or shell. The skin is grayish, in wet weather - grayish-brown. A distinctive feature - purple or reddish shade of rare records. Leg short or absent, located on the side.

The flesh is thin, tight, dryish fibrous-rigid structure, without bitterness and smell. The species is not poisonous, but is of no value due to its low taste.

Pannelus Binder (Panellus stipticus)

Pannelus Binder (Panellus stipticus)

This mushroom is similar to the previous one, but it has an unpleasant pungent taste. Cap with a diameter up to 4 cm, fan-shaped or shell-shaped, with an uneven rough surface. The skin is brown or brown, with an ocher tint. The plates are frequent, of the same color as the cap, the leg is brown, short. The flesh is yellowish-brown, hard, fibrous, bitter with a tart, astringent flavor.

A common form, often found large colonies in rainy spring or autumn on any deciduous trees, often oak stumps and fallen trees. Dried dead fruit bodies of the binder pannelus can be seen on dry wood. Unsuitable for food due to the rigid structure of the pulp and disgusting taste.

Beneficial features

Oyster mushrooms - excellent edible mushrooms, rich in vitamins and minerals, with high nutritional value and excellent taste. Fruit bodies are characterized by low calorie content and at the same time they contain all the substances necessary for the vital activity of the body.

The protein composition is extremely valuable, essential amino acids are found in the pulp, including valine, lysine, leucine, threonine, phenylalanine, methionine. Proteins are easily digested and the nutritional value of hearty meals from oyster mushrooms is close to meat and dairy products.

In the pulp found compound lovastatin, which reduces cholesterol levels, prevents the formation of plaques and the development of atherosclerosis.

The complex of polysaccharides secreted from the tissues of fungi inhibits the growth of tumors, has an immunomodulatory effect. Fiber elements are able to absorb toxic substances, playing the role of natural sorbents.

The vitamin composition is superior to many vegetables and fruits, in addition there are fat-soluble vitamins, which are found only in meat and dairy products. По содержанию витамина C и PP вешенки превосходят овощи в 6–10 раз, а кроме того в них представлены все витамины группы B, отвечающие за работу кроветворных органов, нервной системы, здоровое состояние кожных покровов.

Contraindications

Вешенки, как и многие другие грибы, способны впитывать токсины и вредные соединения, включая соли тяжелых металлов. Поэтому не стоит собирать их в промышленной зоне или в придорожных посадках. When collecting, try to take young small mushrooms - they are not only tastier, but also safer.

The content in the tissues of the element chitin, which is poorly broken down in the digestive tract, complicates the assimilation of fresh mushrooms. Heat treatment of oyster mushrooms increases their digestibility by up to 70%, so they are often used to cook delicious soups, roasts, caviar, or stew fruit bodies with vegetables and poultry.

Do not recommend mushroom dishes to people suffering from gastritis with low acidity, insufficient production of enzymes, duodenal ulcer, hepatitis and any dysfunction of the gallbladder.

Recipes of preparation of dishes and preparations

Oyster mushrooms in sour cream

The popularity of oyster mushrooms is not accidental - mushrooms growing on trees and stumps are fruitful, they are easy to find, they are not polluted by soil and rarely worms. Fruit bodies are suitable for cooking any dishes, go well with vegetables and poultry, serve as an excellent side dish and filling for pies.

Oyster Caviar

For cooking caviar take: 5 kg of mushrooms, 4 spoons of vegetable oil, half a teaspoon of mustard, 3 tablespoons of 5% vinegar, citric acid, salt, spices to taste.

Fruit bodies are cleaned, washed and immersed in boiling water, salted and acidified, at the rate of 1 tablespoon of salt and 4 g of citric acid per 1 l of water. Mushrooms are boiled on low heat until cooked, periodically removing the foam, and then drained and washed.

Boiled slices are passed through a meat grinder with a large grille, vegetable oil is added, mustard, salt and spices are diluted in vinegar. The mass is stirred, packaged in jars and sterilized with a gentle boil for one hour. After that, the workpiece is sealed and stored in the basement.

How to grow oyster mushrooms in nature

There are about 30 species of fungus, although only about 10 of them are grown in home gardens. However, these mushrooms are quite popular due to their high taste, rich aroma and carelessness.

Under natural conditions, they grow on tree trunks, mostly deciduous, but some species can also be found on conifers. The most unpretentious - steppe, which can grow on trees of any breed, and even on old fallen trunks or stumps.

Where to grow oyster mushrooms, on what trees

Experienced mushroom pickers believe that the oyster mushroom harvested in the forest is much tastier and more fragrant than artificially grown mushrooms. It is forest species that are considered a valuable source of vitamins and minerals, but to collect them you need to know where the oyster mushrooms grow, namely, on which trees.

Fig. 1. Locations in nature

In fact, they are parasites that feed on tree sap (Figure 1). Therefore, they can often be found on fallen trunks and old trees that begin to rot. Most often in natural conditions, these mushrooms grow on birch trees, but sometimes they can be found on aspens, pines and even willows.

How and where do oyster mushrooms grow in nature, you can see in the video.

It is possible to learn about the "inoperability" of the product only when the bags with the substrate turn green. And the breeding of oyster mushroom requires a certain time, and 40% of the cost goes to the substrate. In this case, the mushroom growers, not trusting the unknown producers, grow their own mycelium.

Oyster harvest

These mushrooms ripen in clusters. When harvesting oyster mushrooms, they are unscrewed from the substrate or cut at the base so as not to damage the mycelium. After 10–15 days, a second harvest wave appears.

In the process of fruiting can be up to four waves of the crop, but the greatest number of mushrooms harvested during the first.

After the completion of fruiting, the mushroom blocks are removed, and the growing room is disinfected with a solution of chlorine, closed for several days, and then thoroughly aired. Then you can upload a new batch. Up to four such cycles can be performed per year.