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Horticultural feed preparation rules

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Technology of preparation of forage type hay


In farms widespread use is ensilage grass silage. Plants dried to a moisture content of 50% and incorporated into hermetic storage facilities are well preserved with small loss of nutrients. This type of feed is called haylage.


The use of haylage makes it possible to implement a fundamentally new technology for feeding cattle and sheep with less labor. The mass of the hay ration is 2 times less than that of the root-silage, the hay ration is a finely divided free-flowing mixture, the distribution of which is easy for animals to mechanize. Haylage does not freeze through in metal and brick towers and trenches during long and severe frosts. This allows it to be used in animal rations and in harsh winters in conditions where the silage freezes deeply. Nutrient losses during harvesting and storage of silage are 25–30%, hay 35–45%, and haylage 10–12%.


On average, 1 kg of haylage from clover contains 0.4 feed units, 55 g of digestible protein, 40 mg of carotene. Studies show that the production of haylage due to the use of more advanced methods of harvesting and storage compared with the hay harvesting provides an additional yield of 1000-1500 feed units per 1 ha, and compared to silage 400-500 feed units. The cost price of the feed unit during harvesting and storage of haylage is much lower compared to hay and silage.


Production of haylage is the most rational way to use herbs when they are harvested for feeding farm animals. In the diets of cows with a daily milk yield of 13-14 kg, haylage can be replaced by hay, silage, and partly root crops without reducing the productivity of animals and the quality of the products. In young cattle at the age of 9–11 months on hay rations (10 kg of haylage from clover and 1.1 kg of concentrates per day), the average daily increments are 850–880 g.


When replacing root crops, silage and hay with haylage, the cost of feed spent on 1 centner of milk is reduced by 28%.


For the preparation of haylage suitable any herbs that can be removed after wilting with their simultaneous grinding. High-quality haylage is obtained from leguminous grasses, mown in the budding phase, and from cereals - at the beginning of earing.


Technological process of harvesting haylage: mowing the grass with flattening, wilting on the field to a humidity of 50-60% with a single twisting, raking into rolls, picking grass from rolls with simultaneous grinding and loading into vehicles, transporting from the field, loading into hermetic storage and their sealing. It is very important to establish control over the timely termination of the drying of herbs in the field. When the water content in plants is more than 60%, the mass is preserved according to the type of ensiling. With a decrease in moisture content up to 40%, the loss of nutrients already in the field reaches 20%, and the loss of carotene - 60–70%. Therefore, we must carefully monitor the readiness of the masses. There are several ways to determine the moisture content of mowed grass. The most accurately and quickly determine the water content in plants with Chizhov's moisture meter. Grass moisture can be determined by repeated weighing. At the same time, it is assumed that legumes, slanted in the budding phase, contain 80-85% of water, in the phase of the beginning of flowering - 75–80% and full bloom - 70%, and thin-stemmed cereals in the earing phase - 65-70%. Thus, to achieve the desired moisture content, the grass should lose approximately 40–50% of its mass. Practically, the humidity is determined as follows: 10 kg of freshly mown grass is laid out on the frame covered with gauze in the same layer as on the stubble. Grass is considered ready for canning, if the weight reaches a weight of 5.5-6 kg.


To facilitate calculations to determine the moisture content of the dried mass and the yield of grass harvested for haylage, you can use the table.


For example, the humidity of the grass mown and spread out on the frame is 75%. If the initial weight decreases from 10 kg to 6.2 kg, then the humidity is 60%, to 5.5 kg - 55%, to 5 kg - 50%. With a grass moisture of 75% per ton of mass of dried up to a humidity of 60% - 1.6 tons, etc.


Preventing the self-heating of the dried forage stored in the storage is ensured by sealing, that is, the complete cessation of access to the haylage mass of outside air. The oxygen in the air that enters the mass deposited is quickly absorbed, and the released gases (C03 and others) contribute to the preservation of the feed. Lengthening the storage time of the repositories causes nutrient losses due to the mass self-heating.

When laying haylage in concrete trenches, it is necessary to have a hermetic cover of the pledged mass with plastic wrap, the edges of which deepen between the wall and the preserved mass to a depth of at least 0.5 m. From above, the film is sprinkled with 2–3 cm layer of lime to protect it from rodents. Then a layer of straw is laid on the film in 20-30 cm. Haylage harvested in sealed trenches does not differ in quality and nutritional value from the haylage harvested in towers.

When laying haylage in a trench, the length of grass cutting can be longer than when laying the mass in the tower with the lowest discharge. Therefore, for the selection of rolls can be used the same pick-choppers, which are used for harvesting crushed hay. In the trench, it is also possible to lay an unmilled, dried mass, but this complicates the tamping, compaction and removal of haylage from the trench.


After filling the trench It is recommended to put a layer of freshly cut grass 20-30 cm thick over the dried mass. This contributes to better compaction of the hay mass and increases the tightness of the trench. The trenches are covered with plastic wrap immediately after completion of the weight transfer. In the recessed trenches, the edges of the film are laid behind the side walls of the trench and buried in the ground to a depth of 0.3 m with a slightly increased mass moisture (50-60%).

A well-packed and leveled mass over the surface is covered with a canopy of polymer films (polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride. Lay films should not be overlapped. In places where the edges of the films are overlapped, haylage is usually moldy and deteriorates at a depth of 15-20 cm. Films are glued into panels that correspond to the size of trenches. Polyethylene the film can be glued together by warm welding, and PVC is a special glue. Good results when gluing all films are obtained when using tape with a sticky layer. The width of adhesive tapes should be 6-8 The narrower tapes are not suitable for use as they do not provide reliable sealing of the cloth.The edges of the films can be glued together with adhesive tape into the canopy after spreading them on the surface of the forage. Polyethylene films 8–9 meters wide and 0.2 thick are most suitable for covering the haylage. It is undesirable to use polyethylene and polyvinyl chloride films of lesser thickness to cover the haylage, since they do not seal the forage store. After hiding the haylage, the whole surface is pressed with earth, dry peat and sawdust . The thickness of the earth's layer is 5-8 cm, peat and sawdust 20-25 cm. In order to avoid freezing, about 50 cm of straw is laid on top.


Excavation of hay.
Compliance with the rules for removing haylage is very important to prevent self-heating and reduce the quality of the feed. While the storage is closed, the entire space between the feed particles is filled with carbon dioxide (C02), partly nitrogen. After opening the store, carbon dioxide begins to evaporate, and air takes its place. As a result, various microbial processes that reduce the nutritional value of the feed develop in the senazh. If there are signs of warming it, it is necessary to use the food faster, otherwise it may become moldy and become useless. Therefore, the shelter is gradually removed from the trenches and the feed is cut with a vertical layer of not less than 0.5 m across the entire width and height of the storage. The cut and removal of the haylage is done so that the solidity of the remaining part is not disturbed. This requirement is easily fulfilled when the haylage is excavated by the loader PSK-5. Grade loaders are widely used for removing haylage. They have high performance and easy to use. However, when using them, a layer of haylage, properly excavated, should always be cut off from the rest of the mass. Failure to comply with this requirement leads to loosening of the mass up to 2-2.5 m along the length of the trench. The loosened mass quickly heats up and molds.


Senazh is subject to daily seizure. With a break in the excavation after 3-5 days, it molds at the cut and heats up to 50–55 ° C to 1–1.5 m along the length of the trench. Haylage removed from storage cannot be stored for more than a day. The vitamins contained in it are quickly destroyed, it loses its flavor, coarsens and is much worse eaten by livestock.

Before feeding haylage determine its quality. To do this, prior to opening the storage or at the beginning of the feed excavation, medium samples are taken and sent for analysis to the agrochemical laboratory. Samples are taken with a special sampler, or for this, a layer is cut from top to bottom (in trenches). When excavating, weigh the daily released amount of haylage in each storage facility separately.

Best herbs

Experts recommend using herbs such as alfalfa, clover, as well as a variety of grass-bean mixtures. This is due to the fact that they are not intended for silage and of them are not recommended to make hay.

To make the food quality, you need to mow the legume grass, while it is budding, and cereal - when the tube is coming out.

Recently, harvesting of haylage in rolls has become quite popular. Thanks to this method, the feed is of high quality with the preservation of a large number of useful elements. Weather also in no way interferes with the preparation of food in this way.

So, mowed grass is recommended to agitate twice a day. This is done with the help of special rake-tedders. As soon as the mass reaches a humidity of 50%, it is raked into rolls for the purpose of subsequent pressing. It is important that the rolls were of the same density and not more than 1.4 meters wide. Rolls need to be formed no later than two days after mowing. They are pressed into rolls with the help of special balers equipped with a grinding device. The mass of the finished roll is about 700-800 kg.

To prepare haylage at home, it is necessary to mow the grass in the above manner. After the future feed has been mowed, it should be left to lie in the swaths for a while, and then be harvested. So the plants should lie down until their humidity reaches 50%. After that, the grass must be collected, chopped and put in storage.

Storage rules

Grass, pressed in rolls, must be immediately put in a vertical position, because grass fermentation occurs rather quickly. To store the rolls, use a special loader with the capture of the roll. It is necessary to ensure that the film is not damaged. Store rolls preferably under a canopy. Allowed to lay the rolls in two rows on each other, if space is not enough.

For storage of home-made haylage, it is necessary to use storages into which air enters. Thus, they make a storage space similar to a tower (aluminum, brick, steel, concrete or plastic can be used as materials). When loading feed into the tower, remember that it is necessary to load more than five meters of haylage a day. Full load should be no longer than four days.

It is important to properly remove the grass in order to prevent deterioration. So, it is recommended to remove the haylage from the towers using a special unloader with one or two augers.

The haylage must be fed to animals for one day, because later it loses its beneficial properties. Also, be sure to take small portions of haylage every day, because otherwise it will begin to deteriorate in a few days after the cut.

Senazh: GOST requirements

Properly made haylage should be green or yellow, with a pleasant fruit smell, dry and free-flowing in consistency. Feed moisture should range from 45 to 55%, and pH - 4.5-5.5. If the food was improperly harvested, it acquires a light brown shade and an unpleasant odor. Leaves dirty spots on hands.

Haylage of the first class should not contain butyric acid, and in the hardening of the second and third classes it can be from 0.1 to 0.2% of this substance.

By preparing grass for animals, you can get high-quality and healthy food. This feed will be available at any time of the year and is not dependent on weather conditions. The main thing is to know what is haylage, and master the technology of its preparation.

Table 1. Determination of moisture and yield of grass when harvesting haylage


Original

humidity,%

Reduction of the originalmasses from 10 kg

Initial weight per 1 ton of dried grass, kg

Moisture of dried grass,%

When laying haylage in concrete trenches, it is necessary to have a hermetic cover of the pledged mass with plastic wrap, the edges of which deepen between the wall and the preserved mass to a depth of at least 0.5 m. From above, the film is sprinkled with 2–3 cm layer of lime to protect it from rodents. Then a layer of straw is laid on the film in 20-30 cm. Haylage harvested in sealed trenches does not differ in quality and nutritional value from the haylage harvested in towers.

When laying haylage in a trench, the length of grass cutting can be longer than when laying the mass in the tower with the lowest discharge. Therefore, for the selection of rolls can be used the same pick-choppers, which are used for harvesting crushed hay. In the trench, it is also possible to lay an unmilled, dried mass, but this complicates the tamping, compaction and removal of haylage from the trench.


After filling the trench It is recommended to put a layer of freshly cut grass 20-30 cm thick over the dried mass. This contributes to a better compaction of the hay mass and increases the tightness of the trench. The trenches are covered with plastic wrap immediately after completion of the weight transfer. In the recessed trenches, the edges of the film are laid behind the side walls of the trench and buried in the ground to a depth of 0.3 m with a slightly increased mass moisture (50-60%).

A well-packed and leveled mass over the surface is covered with a canopy of polymer films (polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride. Lay films should not be overlapped. In places where the edges of the films are overlapped, haylage is usually moldy and deteriorates at a depth of 15-20 cm. Films are glued into panels that correspond to the size of trenches. Polyethylene the film can be glued together by warm welding, and PVC is a special glue. Good results when gluing all films are obtained when using tape with a sticky layer. The width of adhesive tapes should be 6-8 The narrower tapes are not suitable for use as they do not provide reliable sealing of the cloth.The edges of the films can be glued together with adhesive tape into the canopy after spreading them on the surface of the forage. Polyethylene films 8–9 meters wide and 0.2 thick are most suitable for covering the haylage. It is undesirable to use polyethylene and polyvinyl chloride films of lesser thickness to cover the haylage, since they do not seal the forage store. After hiding the haylage, the whole surface is pressed with earth, dry peat and sawdust . The thickness of the earth's layer is 5-8 cm, peat and sawdust 20-25 cm. In order to avoid freezing, about 50 cm of straw is laid on top.


Excavation of hay.
Compliance with the rules for removing haylage is very important to prevent self-heating and reduce the quality of the feed. While the storage is closed, the entire space between the feed particles is filled with carbon dioxide (C02), partly nitrogen. After opening the store, carbon dioxide begins to evaporate, and air takes its place. As a result, various microbial processes that reduce the nutritional value of the feed develop in the senazh. If there are signs of warming it, it is necessary to use the food faster, otherwise it may become moldy and become useless. Therefore, the shelter is gradually removed from the trenches and the feed is cut with a vertical layer of not less than 0.5 m across the entire width and height of the storage. The cut and removal of the haylage is done so that the solidity of the remaining part is not disturbed. This requirement is easily fulfilled when the haylage is excavated by the loader PSK-5. Grade loaders are widely used for removing haylage. They have high performance and easy to use. However, when using them, a layer of haylage, properly excavated, should always be cut off from the rest of the mass. Failure to comply with this requirement leads to loosening of the mass up to 2-2.5 m along the length of the trench. The loosened mass quickly heats up and molds.


Senazh is subject to daily seizure. При перерыве в выемке уже через 3—5 суток он плесневеет на срезе и нагревается до 50—55С до 1—1,5 м по длине траншеи. Вынутый из хранилища сенаж нельзя хранить более суток. Содержащиеся в нем витамины быстро разрушаются, он теряет аромат, грубеет и значительно хуже поедается скотом.

Перед скармливанием сенажа определяют его качество. Для этого до вскрытия хранилища или в начале выемки корма берут средние образцы и отправляют на анализ в агрохимическую лабораторию. Пробы отбирают специальным пробоотборником или для этого делают срез слоя сверху до низу (в траншеях). When excavating, weigh the daily released amount of haylage in each storage facility separately.

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