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Flower xerantemum Cultivation from seeds at home Photo and description of varieties

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Xeranthemum (Xeranthemum) is an annual culture from the Compositae family. The plant has been known since the end of the 16th century. It comes from the southern regions of Europe. However, in Russia, it has become very widespread due to its simplicity.

Erect stem has a height of about 60 cm. It is covered with whitish hairs. Inflorescences are represented by single baskets. These baskets are hemispherical in shape. Ornamental plants usually have terry or semi-double inflorescences. Possible colors: white, purple or pink. The flowers are small, their diameter does not exceed 3 cm. The next leaves are usually elongated. May also be lanceolate.

Flowering begins in July and ends in September. Flowering is abundant. Even after drying, the flowers for a long time retain their shape and color. Xerantemum is often used not only for bouquets, but also for decorating garden plots and flowerbeds.

Seeds of plants ripen at the end of summer. They differ in very small sizes. 1 g usually has about 700 seeds. They are able to maintain germination up to 3 years.

Types and varieties

Xerantemum has 6 species.

The most common and interesting for gardeners is the annual view of this culture (lat. Xeranthemum Annuum). This variety is commercially available as simple and terry varieties. The height of flowers does not exceed 60 cm. Colors: white, pink, purple, red or lilac. Flowering occurs in July-September in a temperate climate. The diameter of the inflorescence is no more than 5 cm. The leaves have a lanceolate shape and a slightly silver tint.

Among the varieties of xeranemuum should highlight the following:

  • Rose- This is an unpretentious variety. Its height is about 50 cm. Scale flowers have a beautiful pink color. Terry inflorescences. Their diameter is about 3.5 cm. Flowering occurs in July-August. The variety requires abundant watering,

  • Carmine - another plant variety. Grown to create winter bouquets and dried flowers compositions. Also used in the design of flower beds, borders and mixborders. The stems are about 60 cm tall. The flowers have a rich purple color. Even after drying, the inflorescences do not lose color. The variety is resistant to cold and prefers the sun. Flowering - from July to September.

Growing from seed

Growing seedlings will require a wooden box or plastic container. It will be better if the container is shallow. Sow seeds required in March or April. The soil should be loose and moist.

Seeds are sown to a depth of no more than 1.5 cm. After sowing the tank, cover it with a film.

When the seedlings reach a height of 3 cm, they dive into shallow pots. Their depth should be no more than 10 cm. If the climate is warm, then dives can be avoided by planting seedlings immediately in open ground. However, it is necessary to do this only in the warm season so that the plants do not die. Planted in open ground is required in May or early June.

Planting and care

Planting in open ground is carried out not earlier than May. The main thing is that the time was warm. Xeranthemum is not demanding of soil, but it is better to choose nutritious and light soils. It is necessary to plant seedlings in places that are rich in sunlight, as the plant is very fond of light.

During the growing season it is important to control that the soil is hydrated. But in the period of budding, it is not worth watering the plant abundantly. It is desirable that the soil was dry. Also in the flowering period, the process of watering is limited.

Flowering occurs in July or closer to August. If the climate is warm, then it is better to sow the seeds immediately in open ground, since the xeranthem does not like transplanting.

In addition to watering, it is also necessary to loosen the soil and regularly remove weeds.

Use in landscape design

Xerantemum is used to decorate flowerbeds, rockeries, rabatok and create borders. Bright terry inflorescences perfectly decorate any garden area. With it decorate the rosaries. He is great in single landings. It also goes well with cultures such as:

  • Astrantia,
  • Salvia,
  • Yarrow

Xerantemum in bouquets, collection and drying

The culture is usually grown for pruning. With her help, beautiful flower arrangements of dried flowers and winter bouquets are created. They are able to maintain color and shape after drying.

Plants are cut at the moment when the buds are not fully open. They are collected in bundles and suspended to dry. The drying place must be dark and dry.

Over the course of several years, dry xerantemuses retain their bright color and shape. If there is a desire to give the flowers a brighter shade, then you can use this recipe: before drying, lower the buds for a couple of seconds in a weak solution of hydrochloric acid. For 1 part of hydrochloric acid, you need to take 12 parts of water. Then shake the flowers and dry in the usual way.

A bouquet of dried xerantemus.

When the xeranthem is blooming

Flowering kserantemuma begins in July and lasts until the onset of autumn.

Basket inflorescences have a hemispherical shape. They can be simple, semi-double, terry. The diameter is about 3 cm, but the flowers are numerous, open together. The colors are white, pinkish, purple, petals have a metallic sheen.

Growing seedlings

To bloom began in July, will require the cultivation of seedlings. Start sowing at the end of March. Take a shallow container (about 10 cm in height), fill it with a nutrient substrate (use a soil mixture intended for growing seedlings), distribute the seeds over the surface of the moistened soil, the depth of seeding should be no more than 0.5 cm.

Xerantemum seed seedling photos

Cover the container with the crops from above with transparent glass or oilcloth, they will need to be lifted daily for airing. It is necessary to provide heat (within 22-25 ° C) and bright diffused lighting, periodically moisten the crops. When the shoots seem, the shelter must be removed. At the stage of the appearance of two true leaves, you will need to plant xeranstema on separate containers, take care not to damage the root system.

Xerantemum growing seedling photos from seeds

Further care is to maintain the soil moisture and provide bright diffused lighting. When the seedlings start and grow, they should be hardened before planting in the ground. Take out for 10-12 days in the garden or on the balcony, so that the plants are strengthened and used to the conditions of the open ground. When the onset of heat without night frost, seedlings can be planted in a flowerbed, without fear that the plants will fall ill.

Sowing in open ground

In the open ground, xerranemum seeds are sown from mid to late May, while keeping in mind that flowering will occur almost a month later. Make grooves about 3 cm deep, pour them with warm water, let them soak, distribute seeds, sprinkle with earth. To speed up the germination process, cover with a film on top.

For the successful germination of seeds, the air temperature should be around 20 ° C, they can die even during light frost. Strong buds can withstand temperatures as low as +5 ° C. Still, there are cases when the seeds germinate after wintering in open ground. Intentional sowing of the xeranthemum for winter is possible only in regions with warm mild winters.

When to plant seedlings

The seedlings are transplanted in the open ground at the end of May. Make the holes, cross the plant together with the earthy lump, press the soil around the seedling with your palms, the root neck should not be buried, but turn out to be flush with the surface of the soil. Between individual plants keep a distance of about 20 cm.

Caring for dried flowers one year old will not be difficult.

Botanical description

Xerantemum is a one-year plant that is part of the Compositae family. It was grown at home at the end of the 18th century in southern Europe, but soon it spread throughout the world, thanks to its unpretentiousness to the growing conditions and unusual beauty that persists even after drying. The flower is characterized by the presence of an erect stem that can reach a height of 60 cm. On the stem, narrow, long lanceolate leaves are alternately planted. They reach about 3 cm in length and 0.5 cm in width. The stalk is covered with white fibers. Inflorescences have the form of baskets, represented by hemispheres. Ornamental species of this plant with terry or semi-double flowers can be white, purple or pink flowers. The flowers are small, not more than 3 cm in diameter. It blooms from early July to September. Flowering friendly and abundant. Ripening of seeds on a flower occurs at the end of summer. The seeds are rather small, grayish, in one gram more than 700 pieces are concentrated, they remain viable for up to 3 years. The genus xerantemum has 6 species, but in floriculture use only xertetemum annual.

Use in floristics

Often, the xerantemum is grown for cutting to create compositions, bouquets in both fresh and dried form. Thanks to its excellent state of conservation, the flower dries out after cutting, without losing the color of the buds and keeping the shape of the flower. In order for the xeranthemum to be preserved as well as possible, it is cut at a time when the buds are not fully opened.

After the plants are cut, they are collected in bunches and recommended to hang buds down. To dry the xerranem should be in dark, dry rooms - only in this case will be able to save the plant. Kserantemum in dry form is capable of a long time, at least 2 years to maintain a bright color and shape of buds.

Conditions of detention

Growing kseranttemm on the street, it is necessary to provide it with a sufficient amount of sunlight, so the plant should be planted on the sunny side of the site, or in an area with light penumbra. In the case of growing seedlings indoors, place the container on the south window. Capacity picked shallow, up to 10 cm in height, you can sow the seeds in pots, at least 9 cm in diameter.

Soil and fertilizer

When growing seedlings of a xseranemum indoors, the container must be filled with light, loose, moist soil; it is better to purchase it in a specialized store. For the purchase of suitable universal substrate for flowering plants. Xerantemum in open field prefers to grow on light nutrient soils. Well suited for the cultivation of this plant sandy and sandy soils with neutral acidity.

In order to stimulate the formation of buds, it is recommended to feed the plant with special complex fertilizers with a high content of phosphorus and potassium. Such fertilizer is purchased in specialized stores, used according to the instructions, which is indicated on the tank with fertilizing.

Watering and moisture

Xerantemum is a drought-resistant plant, so air humidity and watering are not particularly important. Watering the plant is recommended only in the process of growing seedlings and after its planting in open ground, until such time as it finally takes root. At this time, the flower is watered regularly, after the topsoil dries. Completely stop watering after the plant has increased the green mass.

Relation to temperature

In order for the seeds to germinate simultaneously, the temperature must be at the level of +20 degrees. It is worth remembering that the seeds may die during light frosts. The plant is cold-resistant, so it can withstand temperature fluctuations up to +5 degrees. Since the flower is an annual, it is sown for 1 season, that is, wintering is excluded. If the seeds were not collected on time and hit the soil, then next year self-seeding may occur, if they do not die in the winter. Germination of seeds that fell into the soil in the fall can only be achieved if the xeronetemum is grown in the southern regions with warm winters.

Breeding

It is possible to propagate a flower with seeds. To grow a xeranthem is most effective in a rassadny way, therefore initially seeds are sown in a container, which is placed in a well-lit place. Sowing occurs at the end of March, and planting seedlings in open ground is produced in the first month of summer. Sowing of seeds in open ground is also practiced: in this case, it is necessary to sow in mid-late May, when a strong drop in temperature at night is excluded. If the seeds are sown in open ground, then the area is covered with a film before the appearance of the first shoots. For sowing in the soil they make small grooves (up to 3 cm in depth), sprinkling soil on top.

Possible difficulties in growing

In the process of growing a xerranem can encounter the following difficulties:

  • poor germination of seedlings in case of non-compliance with the temperature,
  • slow germination and increase in green mass with non-compliance with regular watering,
  • the inconspicuousness of an adult plant with strongly elongated pale-colored leaves, small flowers, or their absence,
  • the rapid end of flowering in the absence of dressings.

Pests, diseases and prevention

The plant is fairly resistant to various diseases and pests, but can sometimes suffer from heavy rain or watering, which provoke rotting of the stem and roots. To prevent this from happening, it is necessary to avoid over-wetting the soil, since the xeranthem does not like excess moisture and prefers to do without watering even on hot summer days. It is no longer possible to cure the plant if rotting has occurred, therefore it is better not to allow it.

To pests that can appear on xertemum, include:

  1. Gall nematode - microscopic worm, which settles on the root, provokes problems in development and brings fast death of the flower. On the roots of a plant affected by a nematode, yellow growths appear, which soon become brown. The plant slows growth, leaves curl, the root system ceases to function. The nematode appears in well-moistened soil when the air temperature is within + 18 ... + 25 degrees. The pest can be defeated using chemical agents such as Mercapthos or Phosphamide. They should be used according to the instructions on the package. To avoid the appearance of nematodes on the roots, it is necessary to monitor the soil moisture, eliminate excessive watering, do not use dubious organic fertilizers in the care of flowers.
  2. Leaf aphids - small midges of green or black color, which feed on plant tissue, especially eat leaf and flower buds. Aphids cause great harm to plants, as they can quickly multiply, forming huge colonies that densely settle on the green part. Under the influence of aphids, the leaves of the flower are deformed, flower stalks die, and young plants do not stand up and soon wither. The best means in the fight against smoldering are: "Aktara", "Tanrek", "Konfidor", which are used according to the instructions on the package. In order to prevent around the plant should regularly remove weed vegetation, inspect plants to identify the first signs of the appearance of aphids on flowers, as well as to destroy anthills. Leaf aphid.

How to feed

To stimulate flowering, feed the immortelle with complex mineral fertilizers, favoring the potassium and phosphorus content. Follow the instructions on the package.

Periodically loosen the soil, clean the area of ​​weeds. Be careful not to damage the roots.

Diseases and pests

For diseases and pests immortelle has a high immunity. Dampness (prolonged rainy weather, excessive watering) can cause rotting of the root system and stem. "Cure" the plant will not work, so watch the level of soil moisture, with prolonged rains, you can even build a temporary shelter, more often loosen the soil so that it dries faster.

  1. The gall nematode is a microscopic worm that infects the root system. They settle in moist soil when the temperature varies between 18-25 ° C. At the roots appear yellowish growths, the root system ceases to function, the growth rate stops, the leaf plates are twisted, with time the plant dies. It is necessary to treat the insecticide drug (for example, Phosphamide, Mercaptophos), following the instructions on the package.
  2. Leaf aphid is a small midge of green or black color. They feed on plant sap, devour the leaves and flower buds. Aphids multiply rapidly, can very quickly destroy both young and adult plants. Act immediately: treat with insecticide (suitable Konfidor, Aktara, Tanrek).

It is better to prevent unpleasant phenomena than to deal with their consequences. Do not overmoisten the soil, do not thicken the planting, regularly remove weeds.

Other difficulties

In the process of growing xerrantum the following difficulties are possible:

  • Seeds germinate poorly, if the temperature is disturbed,
  • При недостаточном поливе на первоначальных стадиях роста (рассада, адаптация после посадки в открытый грунт) темпы роста будут медленными,
  • Если питательных веществ недостаточно, растение будет вытягиваться, оттенок цветов – бледнее, период цветения станет короче. Do not forget about dressings.

Xerantemum in landscape design

Xerantemum in landscape design photo

Xerantemum is quite popular in landscape design, because it has original beauty, unpretentious in the cultivation and care. It is used to decorate flower beds, rockeries, curb plantings. Group planting looks like natural vegetation, lawn. Xerantemum pleases the eye after the end of the flowering period.

Xerantemum in floristics

Often, the xeranthem is specially grown to produce inflorescences for pruning, they look great in flower compositions in live form and after drying. If done correctly, the shape of the buds and bright colors will continue for at least 2 years.

Cutting is done when the buds have not yet fully opened. Cut the inflorescences in a bunch. Drying conditions - shaded, dry, well ventilated area. Hang the inflorescences down. There is a little trick. To inflorescence after drying were brighter, process them with hydrochloric acid solution. Take 12 parts of water and 1 part of hydrochloric acid, mix thoroughly, immerse freshly cut blossoms (buds) in liquid for 4-5 seconds. Then gently shake and send to dry.

In bouquets xerranthem is combined with other dried flowers: Kermek, Helipterum, Helichrizum. Also spectacular compositions with anafalis, gypsophilia, yarrow, pearl oyster, lavender, astilba, will add a bouquet of spikelets of wheat, decorative cereals (breeze, lagurus), physalis, lunaria.

Plant description

Annual culture, with straight branched stems, up to 60 cm high. Leaves of the flower are sessile, lanceolate, single inflorescences, collected in small baskets. The inner leaves of the plant are tough, kept on thin peduncles.

Fruit - achene, ripens in late August, the seeds remain viable for several years. The plant can multiply by self-sowing. Xeranthemum has been cultivated since 1570. The most common varieties include:

"rose" - with terry buds,

"purple" - with raspberry buds.

The flower xeranthemum looks as in separate, and group plantings, is suitable for cutting and drawing up dry bouquets. Inflorescence color can be pink, white, purple.

Cultivation and care

The plant propagates with seeds. To do this, at the beginning of spring it is necessary to fertilize part of the soil, moisten the substrate, make a drainage to a depth of 0.5 cm, sow the seeds, cover the sowing site with a film to create a greenhouse.

In 2-3 weeks saplings dive into separate containers or land in open ground, carefully transporting the root system with a clod of earth. Under favorable weather conditions, the plant will bloom in the same season.

Criteria for plant care:

light nutrient soil

weed weeding,

Growing kserantemuma need to be done in sunny areas, but it is cold-resistant. North is better to use seedling method, otherwise the plant may not bloom at all.

The xeranthem from seeds quickly takes root, the first time requires regular watering, after which this procedure can be stopped altogether and watered only on dry hot days. The plant looks great with astrantia, salvia, yarrow, in a mixed type as a curb culture.

The plant is not damaged by pests. Maintains temperature to +20 ° C. In winter, requires warming, in the open field does not tolerate even weak frosts - the root system dies.

Dried flowers retain their shape for several years. Photos xertemone attracts riot flowering, bright color, lush leaves and strong stem. This is a decorative plant for decorating landscape compositions and original flower bouquets.

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