Irga shrub is perfect for growing in a harsh climate, however, despite this fact, has not yet gained popularity among our gardeners, despite the fact that more than a dozen of its species have been tested.
These species are endowed with unique decorative properties and give delicious berries.
Varieties and types
Irga Canadian the most famous representative of the genus from northeastern North America. It reaches 6 meters in height, and sometimes even turns into a tree up to 10 meters high. Foliage up to 10 cm long, flowing, has a brown-green color, in the fall - crimson-golden.
During the flowering period of 7-10 days, the plant is densely covered with tassels consisting of 5-12 whitish flowers, which look especially nice against the background of young reddish stems. The berries have a rounded shape, a darkish-purple color with a bluish bloom and a pleasant sweet taste.
Irga Lamarck in comparison with other species, it is distinguished by an even greater decorative effect, typical of the whole season. It is mainly recommended as gardening for group plantings, and it, along with the previous species, is excellent for the role of stock for pears and apple trees, increasing the frost resistance of the graft, and endowing it with the ability to grow in overmoistened soils.
Cultivated in the European zone of the Russian Federation and the Crimean Peninsula, which is the birthplace of this species. This shrub is characterized by a growth of 0.5-2.5 meters, erect branches and ovate leaves with jagged edges.
Dissolving, young foliage is trimmed in the lower part, then this specific feature disappears, but there remains another - the tassels, formed by flowers, have a corymboid shape and look especially elegant during flowering in early May. The fruits of black with a bluish tint of color ripen in mid-summer, starting at 5 years of age.
Irga is spiky grows in North America as a deciduous shrub, sometimes a tree up to 5 meters in height. Numerous stalks of a darkish-gray (old) and red-brown (young) colors form a dense oval crown. The foliage in the summer is painted in a dark-green color, and in the autumn - in red-orange. Flowers with fragrant scent can be white or pinkish.
The berries are as tasty as the “relatives”, up to 0.9 cm in diameter, red-black, covered with a bluish bloom. Its decorative qualities, especially noticeable during flowering in the middle of May and fruit ripening in the first days of August, have found application in the arrangement of hedges. Fruits in 4 years.
Also from North America, in our conditions forms a bush up to 4 meters in height. Virtually all parts of this plant, starting with the stems and ending with blooming leaves and buds, are pubescent. The berries are black, slightly oblong, appear from 5 years of age.
In the autumn, the foliage of this irgi is especially good when it is colored in yellow-orange tones. Flowering begins in late spring, and fruit ripening should be expected after mid-summer.
Irga oval also known as “Irga ordinary”Occurs naturally in southern Europe, the Crimea and the Caucasus. Growing up to 2.5 meters in height, the shrub forms a sprawling crown on young silver-colored stems from the pubescence, which later turn out to be bare, shiny, purple-brown. The egg-shaped foliage is dark-green during the summer, and red-orange in the autumn.
The berries are bluish-black with a bluish bloom. The colors ripen in July-August, starting at the age of 5 years. Flowering begins in the first days of May. In addition to showiness during the growing season, the species also has high phytoncidal properties.
Irga Smokey not a particularly common variety with large, tasty and very fragrant berries. Taking into account the spreading of each individual bush, they are planted at a mutual distance of not less than 3 meters from each other. The variety is characterized by relatively weak drought resistance compared to others.
It grows up to 3 meters in height, sometimes becoming a tree. Berries - medium in diameter, fragrant and sweet, ripen in mid-July.
Irga smooth one more species from North America growing 3.5 meters in our climate. Compact crowns are oval. With the onset of the annual flowering period, which lasts more than 2 weeks from the first half of May, the shoots are covered with copper-brownish-pinkish leaves, bringing a high decorative effect, especially on the background green from the surrounding vegetation.
This effect is complemented by racemes that are formed from 7-12 flowers with petals of pale pink color. Flowering shadberry smoothberry combines irresistible beauty with the grace of color and shape.
Do not lag behind other parts of the plant and its berries - 0.5-0.7 cm in diameter, creamy yellowish shade with a pinkish side, with time acquiring a reddish color and no less delightful in taste, when compared with other species. Bears fruit from 4 years. Flowering begins in late spring.
Irga planting and care in the open field
Pre-preparation includes steps that are relevant for currants. Autumn planting is preferred, and, in any case, seedlings should be 1-2 years old.
They are planted 5-8 cm deeper, comparable to the depth in the nursery, according to the 4x2, 5x3 meter scheme or in a checkerboard pattern (for the hedge), observing the distance in rows of 0.5-1.8 meters. Having prepared deep furrows for planting, they are taken for the organization of landing holes 50-80 wide and 30-40 cm deep.
The plant survives well and is practically not demanding to care, elements of which are cutting out old trunks, removing excessively long branches and diseased shoots.
After planting, it is recommended to perform watering in the amount of 8-10 liters of water per pit. Then it is also important to mulch the soil surface with peat or humus and shorten the aerial part to 10 cm, leaving 4-5 good buds above the soil surface.
For the successful planting of irgi you will need to mix the upper soil layer with 1-2 buckets of humus, and also add to it superphosphate (300-500 grams) and potassium salt (150-200 grams). This mixture is then poured into the landing pits.
Adult irga transplants with difficulty, since its roots go far into the soil - almost 2 meters. In this regard, for a 7-, 8-year-old bush, the required diameter of a transitional earth clod is 1.25 meters with a depth of about 70 cm. With increasing bush age, this indicator rises.
After transplantation, it is recommended to compact the soil in the pit, water the shrub well and mumble the near-stem circle.
Fertilizing irgi first year should be carried out using a solution of ammonium nitrate in the amount of 50 grams per 10 liters of water, bringing it into the near-barrel circles. For these purposes, also suitable solution of bird droppings or slurry.
After 5-6 years, fertilizing is carried out with organic (2-3 buckets per bush) and mineral (500 grams of ammonium nitrate and potash salt plus 1 kg of superphosphate per bush) fertilizers, alternating them over the years.
In the first 2-3 years it is better to leave only strong zero stems, in the future - 2-3 shoots, pruning everything else and forming a bush consisting of 10-15 branches of various ages.
The following pruning procedures involve the removal of accumulated basal stems and weakened, old, sick, broken branches.
If there is a slowdown in the growth of the branches, rejuvenating pruning is needed, which is carried out once in 3-4 years for wood aged 2-4 years. Irga perfectly tolerates pruning, later growing independently with root suckers.
Irga is a very winter-hardy plant capable of withstanding cold down to -52 ℃ and frost in the spring under -7. This makes it possible to use it as a protective culture towards the prevailing winds and, at the same time, to maintain the decorativeness of the front part of the garden.
Irga breeding cuttings
For breeding shadberry root cuttings are cut into 10-15 cm long from root shoots, are planted vertically and produce mulching with humus.
Immediately you need to perform abundant watering, and then ensure that the soil moisture was increased. In autumn, annual analogs of the parent plant are formed from cuttings.
Reproduction irgi green cuttings
Green cuttings for breeding cut the same length from the tops of the branches of developed 5-, 6-year-old bushes. This is carried out in the first half of summer with the removal of the lower leaves from the cuttings, leaving 1-2 pairs of the upper ones.
Next, the lower sections for 6-12 hours are left in the root-forming agent, then they are washed in clean water and disembarked at an inclination of 3-4 cm from each other in a cold greenhouse.
Soil for planting should be sprinkled with sand to a thickness of 7-10 cm. The height of the greenhouse dome should be more than 15-20 cm above the cuttings. Further care involves soil moistening through a fine sieve of water, maintaining the temperature at least 25 25 and opening the greenhouse after 2- 3 weeks, when rooting of cuttings will occur.
Cuttings of 3 weeks of age have a fairly well-developed root system, allowing them to be planted on the training site. After they have taken root, you can feed them with 30 grams of ammonium nitrate dissolved in a bucket of water, take care, as for adult specimens and, next autumn, transplanted to a permanent site.
Diseases and pests
Irga is not susceptible to shading, gas pollution of the air, to pests and diseases. Its main enemies are seed-eating and mottled moths.
- The impact of the first can lead to loss of fruiting, as seed-eaters feed on seeds and pupate in berries.
- Mottled moth causes desiccation and crumbling of the leaves. Both in the first and in the second case, treatment with actellic, fufanon or karbofos helps well.
Irga useful properties and contraindications
Many vitamins contained in fruits of irgi, including C, A, B, B2, and trace elements such as iron, iodine and manganese, make the plant very useful in preventing diseases of the cardiovascular system and gastrointestinal tract.
In addition, the fruit reduces blood pressure and strengthens the walls of blood vessels. Accordingly, contraindication to the use of irgi is low blood pressure.
Irrigation tincture on vodka
For preparing tincture of irgi on vodka - the most popular means of traditional medicine - you will need 1 kg of dried irgi berries and 1.5 liters of vodka. Berries in containers are poured with vodka and left to infuse for 24 hours in a dark room.
After the liquid is decanted, the container is filled with fresh berries and poured over the previously decanted liquid. Leave the mixture to infuse for another 2 days, and the drink is ready to drink.
Jar of irgi
On the jam from irgi need 1.5 kg of berries, 200 grams of boiled water and 800 grams of sugar. Berries fall asleep in a saucepan, add water and set on high heat. After 30 minutes, the mixture is stirred and sugar is added. Cook it for another 30 minutes, but now on low heat.
Then it should be cooled to room temperature and, using an immersion blender, it is good to break up the berries to the state of porridge. Spilling all the banks and leaving to cool, we get a uniquely tasty jam in the form of jam.
Wine from irgi
The recipe for wine from rygi is as follows. Ripened fruits are crushed, slightly crushed, heated to 60-70 ° C and squeezed out after one day. After squeezing, the juice is mixed with water in equal proportions and 0.3-0.4 kg of sugar per 1 l of juice is added and poured into a container for fermentation under a water solution.
After 2-3 weeks, the wine is removed from the sediment, poured into the bottle, corked and put for 3-month in a cool room.
It is recommended to store in the cellar room or in the dark and cool, bending the neck down. The resulting wine will have a dark-red color with a purple tinge and slightly tart taste, which lasts for 10-15 years.
Mors from irgi
Morse from irgi in cooking is extremely simple. After washing the irgi berries (250 grams), they are kneaded and squeezed juice. Squeezed fruit is boiled for 10 minutes, then the broth is mixed with squeezed juice, add sugar (100 grams) and water (1 liter). Next, incubated for 10-12 hours and served cold.