Whatever good variety of currant planted on your site, over time, the bush will begin to age: to undergo specific diseases and bring less and less yield.
You do not need to spend money on a new sapling: you are quite able to propagate the fruit shrub by cutting, while retaining all the varietal qualities. It is much more convenient for me to do this procedure in the spring: in the fall at the dacha it is cold and chilly, but with the onset of heat, garden troubles become very pleasant.
The advantages of the method
Despite the abundance of methods of breeding currant, many gardeners prefer the method of cutting. It has a number of important and obvious advantages:
- seedlings harvested through cuttings take root quickly,
- you can cultivate currants as soon as this idea comes to your head, you do not need to prepare and stretch this process for the whole season, as is the case with the cultivation of a bush with layers;
- if your bush suffers from pests, cutting good branches is the only quick way to get new healthy plants,
- you can cut any number of cuttings from a bush and plant them in the future to get more yield or realize varietal bushes, having received a small and pleasant profit from the sale.
The main advantages of reproduction of currant cuttings in the spring - thrift and reliability. You do not have to spend money buying seedlings in the nursery, besides, you will be sure of the high yield of the variety you already have on the plot.
Spring cutting is done before the start of sap flow - this way you will not harm the bushes, and the cut branches in the heat will quickly take root and give rise to shoots.
- In early March, it is necessary to make formative pruning of the shrub, removing those shoots that grow inward or thicken the planting too.
- Those branches that look the most healthy and have a diameter of 6 mm, you need to take home and start working with them.
- Further, cuttings are prepared from cuttings. The optimal length of the “planting material” is 15 cm, but you can make them longer, because the larger the billet, the more nutrients it will have for the development of the root system and green mass.
- With a sharp sterile shears, the upper part of the cutting is cut horizontally in 1 cm above the extreme kidney.
- Under the lower kidney at the same distance, an oblique cut is made below 45 0.
- Prepare a solution of Fitosporin according to the instructions for processing cuttings. Sliced twigs are completely immersed in liquid for 15 minutes for disinfection.
- After disinfection, the lower parts of the cuttings should be immersed for 2-3 hours in any root formation stimulant (Kornevin, Heteroauxin).
- Planting pots with drainage holes are prepared. Sterile universal primer is filled in the tank.
- The cuttings are planted in planting pots so that 2-3 buds of the twigs are buried in the ground. The soil at the stem is compacted, then everything is plentifully shed and transferred to a warm room with windows to the north.
After planting, it is necessary to strictly control the moisture content of the soil in the pots, not allowing it to dry out, but at the same time without overflowing too much.
If these conditions are met, within 10 days the first foliage will appear in your home nursery, in 5 more days young tender twigs will grow, and on 20-25 days from the planting the first inflorescences will appear.
It is clear that no berries can ripen on the cuttings that have just started to take root, they will only take away from the plant the forces necessary for the active development of the root system. Appeared buds should be removed by hand or carefully cut off with sterile nail scissors.
Other ways of grafting
If you do not have the opportunity to arrive at the site in March, you can cut the currants on warm April-May days. In this case, freshly cut twigs are immediately planted in heated and prepared soil at an angle of, not one at a time, but in groups of 5-6 pieces.
The cuttings are placed around the landing pit at an inclination from the center, and then they are filled with nutritious soil, which is carefully primped by the stems.
In order to preserve moisture in the soil and prevent the dispersion of weeds, pristvolny circles of future shrubs must be mulched with a thick (5-7 cm) layer of sawdust. After planting, it is necessary to carefully monitor the soil moisture, and on hot days, spill the nursery 3-4 times a day, not allowing the ground to dry out.
Visually about the method of cutting and planting cuttings in late spring you will learn from the video from an experienced breeder:
- Pay attention to the correct choice of the mother plant. You need a healthy shrub that gives a good harvest of tasty berries.
- Harvest cuttings in the early morning, when the dew has not yet descended, or in cloudy weather.
- Sawdust can be added to the soil for planting cuttings.
- The first 3 weeks of watering should be abundant and regular.
- Rooting cuttings can be checked very simply, just pull a little over the top of the shoot. If you feel a little resistance, the plant took root. In this case, remove the mini-greenhouse.
- Fertilize seedlings 3-4 times per season. You can use complex supplements (at the rate of 1 tsp per 5 liters of water). Organic fertilizers are also suitable.
These useful tips will help to propagate and grow healthy currant bushes without much financial cost.
Currant grows in one place for many years, peaking at the age of four to eight years. After nine years of age, its yield decreases, the berries become smaller. The plant is often sick and exposed to pest infestation, the land beneath it is depleted. Shrubs rejuvenate pruning, but it is more rational to breed a suitable variety.
Among the methods of reproduction (seeds, cuttings, layering, division) cutting is considered the most productive. With this method, a large amount of planting material is obtained, since it is possible to root at least 90% of the blanks, and the varietal characteristics of the mother culture are preserved.
1 The procedure for harvesting cuttings
To begin with, it is determined with the choice of broods for breeding: well developed, not damaged by diseases or pests, forming a high yield of tasty berries. Red currant is sloughed from late August to mid-September, black ñ the whole season. The right time to cut autumn sprouts is early morning or overcast day, starting from the 1st month of autumn and before the beginning of the 2nd. More often this operation is combined with planned pruning and thinning. Wherein:
- Annual shoots are removed entirely, leaving no hemp.
- Cuttings harvested from their middle part, preferably with a sharply sharpened knife, so the trunk tissues are less crushed.
- An oblique cut is made five centimeters below the last kidney, above the top, retreating 1–1.5 cm - straight.
- The length of lignified cuttings with four to five healthy buds is 13–15 cm, thickness - 5–7 cm.
When planting in open ground, they are unlikely to survive the winter. Stored segments in the refrigerator, in a cool basement or in the snow. Pre-holding about five minutes in a solution of copper sulfate, process the sections with molten paraffin and wrap in a plastic bag. Planted in the spring. In this case, the first season will be lost, and the harvest will have to wait longer than with the other method.
3 What is the secret to a good harvest?
Next spring, well-developed bushes are planted in place. Set at an angle of 40–45 degrees, deepening 5–8 cm to form additional roots. Between the plants, 0.7–1.2 m is left, one row is 1.5–2.5 meters from the other. Then the bushes are abundantly watered, mulched with humus and cut into 3-4 buds.
In the second year, shoots are removed, leaving three or four thick shoots, which subsequently form skeletal branches. In the future, there are many shoots. Of them retain 4-5 suitable trunks, cut the rest to ground level. At the same time, sick, weak, low-lying, rubbing fruits are removed. Gradually aging and worse fruit-bearing stems are cut off every year, preserving annual, well-located processes. Grown shrubs, having 9-15 branches of different ages, will provide abundant uniform fruiting throughout life.
The soil under the currant is loosened no deeper than 6–9 cm twice a month, weeds are periodically removed. If the spring is covered with cardboard, roofing felt or film, the trunk circles will keep the moisture better, the pests that survive in the ground will not be able to get out, and the weeds will not grow.
For the prevention of disease, until the buds have blossomed, the bushes are watered with boiled water from a watering can or through a sieve. To prevent the ovaries from freezing, spray them with water during frosts or protect them with smoke.
4 How to grow healthy currants?
Even with proper care of the bushes, they are attacked by pests. Swollen round buds give a currant mite presence. Dried shoots in the green crown indicate the defeat of the glass. When cut in its center a dark hole is found. Deformed tops will help you find aphid colonies. Fighting ants will reduce the likelihood of its occurrence. Caterpillars of the leaf-maker are easy to calculate by corroded web-spun tubules. After sawfly larvae, only stalks and veins remain on branches.
Every spring, inspect shoots and remove diseased. Manual collection of pests and treatment with solutions of garlic, onion, dandelion, burdock, wood ash successfully replace chemical agents. In the spring season they recognize the culture affected by the terry, its flowers are not of the usual bell-shaped form, but with cut petals. With partial damage cut branches, with a strong - remove the bush. To avoid the fungal disease (anthracnose), leading to browning and leaf fall, thickened plants thin out, the earth is regularly dug up.
Breeders annually produce new varieties with tasty berries and resistance to certain types of diseases. Updating old plants at their expense, you can eventually multiply successful ones and move on to growing fertile and healthy currants.
Currant cuttings in autumn: when and how
Everybody knows about the benefits of currant - the berry exceeds the majority of crops in the content of vitamin C, is inferior only to dogrose and actinidia, and its foliage is often found in winter preparations. Berry bushes differ in frost resistance, and at observance of elementary rules of cultivation also high productivity (even in the south).
Preparation of cuttings of currants
The ideal period for harvesting cuttings of black currant is autumn (the first half of October), at this time of year the plant slows down the movement of juices, which means the cuttings will not lose moisture and will root well in spring, the seedlings will be hardy and strong. Red currant cuttings should be harvested and planted in the first half of August.
The black currant root is good, the red one is somewhat worse, but with timely and proper August planting there will be no problems.
The procedure for collecting cuttings is carried out in several stages:
- Find and cut with a secateur strong, without any damage, annual lignified shoots, with a thickness of 7 mm,
- Now cut the shoot into cuttings 13–20 cm long. To divide the shoots, it is better to use a sharp garden knife, a secateur crushes the fibers, the cuttings will become less durable,
- The top of each cutting is cut at an angle of 90 °, and the bottom is 50–60 °,
- For harvesting cuttings do not use the upper and lower parts of the shoot, they are poorly rooted. Wrap the rest of the prepared material with a damp cloth and plastic.
Place the cuts should be treated with garden pitch or beeswax. Further actions depend on your plans and varieties of currants, but if you are not going to plant the cuttings immediately, the procedure can be postponed until spring. To do this, hide the shoots wrapped in the package in a box, bury it deep in a snowdrift, or leave them in the refrigerator.
August planting of red and white currants in the ground
Harvested cuttings can be soaked before planting, submerging half in a container with water, and when white plaque forms on the submerged part of the stems, callus can be planted in the ground.
Pick a site that is protected from the wind with a well-hydrated and fertile soil. Drawn shoots should be placed at a distance of 15 cm, at an angle, leaving 2 buds on the surface. It is important to maintain a moderate soil moisture, periodically water the bed and pour in the mulching material.
To avoid moisture loss, cover the top with a plastic bottle or glass jar. Shelter for the winter is not removed.
How to propagate currants cuttings at home
If you have never tasted vegetative propagation, you will like the cultivation of currants from cuttings. After all, you are giving life to new plants with your own hands, and there are quite a lot of ways - currants take root pretty easily.
With the sliced cuts, place the lengths into the water for of the length, add liquid as it evaporates, and after about 14 days the first roots will hatch.
In prepared soil mixture
Prepare a special substrate, in this case there will be no need for temporary transplantation of rooted cuttings of black currant until spring. Choose one of three mixes options:
- Peat and sand (1: 1),
- Humus or turf ground with soft wood sawdust (1: 3),
- Sawdust and peat (1: 1).
Sawdust should be steamed, then they will fully give useful substances to the cuttings. Although in the practice of natural farming, heat treatment is rarely used, because not only harmful, but also beneficial microbes die. The alternative is to use old, as it were, weathered sawdust.
Next, prepare the container, lay sand or vermiculite on the bottom, sprinkle the soil mixture on the pillow and cover with a layer of ordinary soil on top. Now you can stick the prepared cuttings, while leaving 2 buds on the surface and pour heavily.
Substrate with cuttings should be stored at a temperature of 19–20 ° C and periodically watered, the soil should always be moderately wet. On every stem that has started growing, buds will open, flowers may even appear, it is better to pluck them.
Preparations can be added to water with cuttings (in the case of home rooting of black currants) or soaking and processing red and white currants before planting cuttings into the ground. In any case, the process of root formation will accelerate, and you will get a strong, hardy root system.
Suitable drugs such as Radifarm, Zircon, Epin-extra, Heteroauxin, Kornevin and Kornerost, as well as succinic acid. By the way, spraying the cuttings in the process of rooting with Epin's solution has a good effect on the immunity of future seedlings.
Remember that all drugs have high biological activity, so carefully read the instructions before processing.
- Potatoes. Collect large tubers, remove all eyes, stick cuttings into potatoes and bury it in the ground. The stem that remains on the surface should be covered with a glass jar to impart a greenhouse effect. Do not forget to water the land. Cherenochka take root pretty quickly, as they get a large number of nutrients from the potato.
- Flower honey. In 3 liters of water dissolve 2 tsp. honey, immerse the cuttings in the ready solution to 1/3 part and leave overnight. Honey is saturated with a whole complex of vitamins necessary for the development of currants.
- Willow water. In the container with water, place the branches of willow, wait until the roots are formed - that's all, the infusion is ready! Substances released during willow germination are excellent growth promoters. Water during rooting of currant cuttings in a willow infusion cannot be changed, it can be poured as it evaporates.
- Yeast. Before germinating the cuttings in water, soak them for 24 hours in a yeast solution (50 g of fresh yeast per 0.5 l of water). The yeast will saturate the cuttings with B vitamins and phytonutrients that are beneficial for the root system.
- Aloe juice Agave has long been known as an excellent growth stimulant, it activates cell division, and also improves plant immunity. It can be added to the water with cuttings, five drops of fresh juice is enough.
Spring planting currants cuttings in open ground
First you need to prepare a place for planting seedlings. Three weeks before planting, dig holes from 30 to 40 cm in depth and from 50 to 60 cm in width, keep the distance between the holes 1–1.5 meters in each direction. At the bottom of the pits, it is desirable to pour fertilizer and sprinkle it with a layer of earth.
With proper care of the saplings, weed harvesting, timely watering, after a year they will get stronger and acquire a strong root system, but you should not neglect further care, as these are very young bushes.
The earliest spring pruning last year's shoots, so that no more than five buds are left on each branch, process the cuts. Young currants should not be allowed to bloom and bear fruit, it weakens it. Water saplings regularly and abundantly, especially during droughts. Mulch regularly. Fertilize once a month. Достаточно полить ЭМ-препаратами или слабым зольным настоем.
Двухлетние саженцы нуждаются в формировании кроны путем обрезки. Harvesting is possible for 2 or 3 years, with currants reaching maximum fructification by closer to 6 years, and by year 9, the harvest will decline. It turns out that cuttings or bending down shoots should be every 9-12 years. Well, this is no longer a problem for you, as you can easily carry out the cutting of currants in the fall.