Feeding of farm animals, if professionals are engaged in it, is accepted to be carried out not intuitively, but according to the approved and approved system.
It has its own characteristics of fattening sheep, there are traditional schemes of fattening sheep. Developed guidelines for cattle.
1 Fattening calves in the first 6 months
Feeding rates vary for calves up to 6 months of age and older. Feeding and maintenance until a calf reaches six months has several features. During this period, the intensity of growth does not depend on gender, but is determined by the month of birth, weight at birth, quality of feed.
After birth, the calf should receive colostrum or specialized feeding. A mass rich in vitamins, immunoglobulins and bactericidal components prepares the digestive system for normal operation.
During the first or fourth month, calves should eat 1.5-2.2 kg of dry matter per 100 kg of body weight, later - 2.1-2.4 kg. The first six months the diet is under control. on the content of the following components:
- Fat. In the first or fourth month in the feed should be no less than 17% fat, in the fifth or sixth month - 10%.
- Proteins. The first four months, the food should consist of protein by 20-26%, then - 15-17%.
- Carbohydrates. In the first four months, 10-11% of fiber, 8-15% of starch, 14-16% of sugar (hereinafter - 18-19%, 15-16%, 8-12%, respectively) should be provided in the feed.
- Minerals. To provide the necessary elements of food supplemented with premixes. The need for calcium at an early age is 10-12 grams per kilogram of dry food. The required amount of iron is 65-70 mg, zinc-30-40 mg, iodine - 0.4-0-5 mg.
- Vitamins. The young animals feel the greatest need in carotene (25-40 mg per 1 kg of dry feed for cattle), vitamin D - 500-600 IU, vitamin E - 35-50 mg.
It is possible to fatten young growth in the first six months according to three agricultural schemes:
- Traditional. Used for animals born in the spring, and involves feeding on pasture. Calves for the first six months are on the pasture together with cows, where they receive milk and concentrated feed.
- Safe. Most often it is practiced in relation to the autumn offspring - calves are taught as early as possible to vegetable food for animals. With this method, youngsters gain mass faster, but the method is time consuming and expensive.
- Regulated. Calves are gradually weaned from milk, allowing the cow 3-4 times a day with a gradual transition to two times milk feeding.
1.2 Feeding young cattle to replenish the herd
Repair cattle are especially fattened, that is, animals that will replenish the main herd - future dairy cows, breeding heifers, manufacturing bulls.
Cx nutrition of heifers and calves is different. In winter, the daily ration of repair heifers is 40-50% juicy feed, 25-35% - roughage, 10-15% - concentrate.
Approximate ration calf weighing 300-350 kg is:
- hay - 3.5-4.5 kg
- straw - 1-3 kg,
- corn silage - 5-7 kg,
- clover haylage - 7.5-8 kg,
- feed - 0.2 kg
- molasses fodder - 700 g,
- salt - 42-48 g
In summer, the diet changes structure:
- green mass - 26-28 kg,
- wheat straw - 2.5-3 kg,
- feed - 200 g,
- salt - 42-48 g
For breeding bulls the diet should be high-energy, with plenty of vitamins and minerals for the development of sexual activity. Unlike heifers, they try to provide for a high content of concentrated feeds in the diets of bulls.
Table of norms feeding calves
With moderate cultivation for feed should account for 20-30% of all food, with intensive - 40-45%.
Approximate winter daily ration of breeding gobies weighing 300-350 kg:
- hay - 3 kg,
- corn silage - 8-10 kg,
- clover haylage - 6.5-7 kg,
- concentrates - 1 kg,
- treacle - 700-800 g,
- salt - 40-46 g
In the summer, the diet should consist of 24-27 kg of green mass, 1-1.1 kg of concentrates.
to menu ↑
2 Fattening young cattle for meat
Young animals fed for meat receive food intensively in order to quickly reach the desired body weight. Autumn calves are weaned in the spring from cows and grazed on pastures until the next fall. It is recommended to supplement the diet with concentrated and other foods.
For calves born in the spring, the weaning process takes place in the fall. After that, they are grown in premises with cattle feed feeders or on cattle feeding grounds. With full feeding, the weight gain per day can reach 1000 g.
Beef cattle in different regions uses different diets, starting from the prevalence of certain feeds.
Calves drink milk
So, in the winter period in Polesie the ration for 10-12 monthly calves for fattening may look as follows:
- hay - 16%,
- silage - 37%,
- haylage - 16%,
- fodder beet - 6%,
- concentrates - 21%,
- treacle - 4%,
For forest-steppe farms, the share of haylage increases:
Meat animals for intensive growth need not only complete feed, but also mineral feed additives for cattle (sodium chloride, phosphorus-containing compounds, minerals). A special extruded feed with additives has been developed. which includes food chalk, sodium chloride, sodium phosphate, sulfur, iodine, as well as compounds of copper, zinc, cobalt, manganese.
to menu ↑
2.1 Feeding the bulls
When fattening the manufacturing bulls, it is important to maintain a carbohydrate-protein balance of 1.2-1.5: 1. Proper organization of food allows you to get high-quality seed, the fattened adult bull will remain active longer.
Feeding and keeping of livestock raised for meat
The higher the intensity of the use of manufacturers, the richer the food should be. You can use extruded pet food with trace elements and vitamins.
Feed additives for cattle should include 5 g of salt, 5-6 g of calcium, 3-4 g of phosphorus, 55-65 mg of iron, 2-3 g of sulfur, 40-60 mg of carotene, 800-1300 IU of vitamin D, 30- 32 mg of vitamin E.
The food itself during the warm period consists mainly of grass in the pasture. Depending on the intensity of the load, the daily need for compound feed varies from 2 to 4 kg.
In winter, the manufacturing bull weighing 600-1000 kg with an average load will need daily:
- grass-legume hay - 1500–2000 g,
- corn silage - 7.5-11 kg,
- feed - 3.8-4.5 kg
- treacle - 1.2-1.6 kg.
Bulls are forbidden to give food such as pulp, bard, beer pellet, cruciferous meal and other nitrogen-rich foods.
to menu ↑
2.2 Fattening dairy cattle
Feeding dairy cattle depends on age, body weight, and especially on the lactation phase. Share the first period (up to 100 days after calving) and the second (100-200 days).
After the cow that had been cast off was transferred to the main herd and began to distribute, the feeding of cattle should be particularly nutritious. In the diet should be hay, haylage, fodder beet, silage and concentrated feed. In addition to the bulk of the food, the cow provides advanced feeding to increase milk productivity.
Approximate ration of a milk cow with daily milk yield of 25-35 kg of milk:
- haylage - 10%,
- hay - 16%,
- silage - 18%,
- fodder beet - 18%,
- compound feed - 38%.
After 100 days of lactation, when the cow has reached the highest possible level of performance, food is organized so that the achieved level of milk yield is kept as long as possible. Cows provide high-quality bulk food (silage, root crops, hay, mono).
The amount of feed calculated per kilogram of milk - up to 360 g / kg. Control animals on growing and fattening and dietary correction is carried out no more than once a month, since the change in diet is fraught with reduced milk production. After 200 days of lactation, the proportion of feed reduced to 260-290 g per 1 kg of milk.
to menu ↑
2.3 How to fatten culled cows and bulls?
According to CX norms, rejected animals should be fed before sale in such a way that in a short time it is possible to increase fatness. The increase in body weight in adulthood is achieved due to the deposition of fat, so the need to enrich the food protein protein (enough 80 g per feed unit).
Feeding the meat of cows
In winter, you can feed animals like this:
- hay - 2 kg,
- wheat straw - 2500 g,
- corn silage - 33-35 kg,
- concentrates - 500 g,
- treacle - 700-800 g.
A well-organized farm is not only animals for growing and fattening, but also its own feed preparation facility, where features of different types are taken into account (sheep, cow), characteristics of the breed, gender and age indicators, and depending on these factors, animal feeding is organized.
The concept of fattening and the factors affecting it
Fattening - this is abundant feeding of livestock in order to quickly increase its live weight and well-being.
As fattening progresses with the improvement of the fatness of animals, changes occur in their body:
- The chemical composition of the carcass changes, the amount of water in the carcass, protein decreases, the amount of fat increases.
- With the increase of fatness of the animal fat deposition occurs in the subcutaneous tissue, on the internal organs and in the muscular tissue.
- Slaughter weight and animal slaughter increases, the amount of edible carcass products increases.
The success of fattening affects:
- age of the animal
- breed and type of livestock,
- growing conditions
- condition of livestock when fattening,
- feed and feeding
- care and maintenance
- the floor of the animal.
The sources of fat formation are the products of fermentation in the rumen of carbohydrate feed, and the sources of the synthesized protein in the body are the products of the transformation of nitrogenous substances of the feed in the digestive organs of the animal. In beef, protein and fat are in a favorable ratio, the fat is distributed so that it gives a good structure and taste. Intensive processes of biosynthesis in the rumen of livestock lead to the enrichment of beef with biologically valuable proteins due to amino acids, vitamins, especially group B, enzymes and other compounds.
- Age fattened livestock affects the composition of the meat, the payment of feed by weight gain and the duration of fattening. In young animals, protein is more deposited, and in adults, more fat, therefore, in young animals, the increase in body weight is due to protein tissue. Young animals have more water in their bodies.
Age has a great influence on growth. An adult animal gives high gains only during the first 1-1.5 months of fattening, and the young gives stable daily gains, therefore age affects the duration of fattening and the payment of feed. Young animals need less feed to get 1 kg of growth, as it is able to eat more feed, therefore, it remains more nutrients that go to the formation of growth. The meat of young animals is less caloric and therefore they need less nutrients per unit of growth (per 1 kg increase of 7-8 k. Units.). Age also affects the quality of beef: in young animals, the meat is tender, and in adults it is coarsely fibrous, fatty, its biological value is lower than that of young meat (young beef is a more suitable product for preparing second meat dishes, and the old one is for making soups and borscht, where good profit is required). Very young veal waterist, poorly nourished and unripe. Due to its easy digestibility, it is used for feeding the sick and children. Economically, this is the most expensive meat.
- Breed and type of livestock. In beef cattle, the muscles are interlaced with fat and the meat has a “marble” appearance. Meat of wide-bodied cattle, belonging to breeds of meat type, is much more nutritious, more complete and more digestible by man than meat of narrow dairy cattle.
In animals with wide-body enzymatic and absorption functions are increased, and the processes of assimilation more strongly prevail over the disintegration and release of substances than in narrow-bodied animals. Well-fed beef cattle have a slaughter yield of 60-65%, and in dairy-type livestock 51-53%.
- Conditions for growing livestock. In order to have a good increase in fattening, the animal must be fed from birth to slaughter very intensively. It is very important that the animal weighed about 350 kg by the year of age, if the weight is less, then the animal must be reared, and after rearing the meat turns out to be of poor quality and the feed costs per unit of increase are high.
- Condition when putting on fattening. The fatter they put on fattening of cattle, the faster they finish feeding. Juveniles of good fatness are fed in 80-110 days. Fattening of young with an average and below average fatness is delayed up to 4-5 months. Skinny youngsters first grow and only then feed. Cows of average and below average fatness are fed 75-90 days, and above average cows - brought to the highest conditions of slaughter in 30-40 days - and they are fed as in the last third of fattening.
- Gender of the animal. The sex of the animal is reflected in the growth and quality of meat. Heifers and alters give the beef more fat and soft fiber, but with high feed costs. When fattening, the calves of meat go up more, and the cost of feed is less than that of castrati.
- Care and maintenance. It is necessary to regularly distribute food, clean the feeders, clean manure, etc.
Feeding young stock for meat up to 6 months old
Proper feeding of the young during this period should ensure an intensive growth of at least 700 g and the achievement of the live weight of animals of dairy and milk-meat breeds of 160-170 kg at the age of 6 months. To do this, it is necessary to carefully balance the rations on the basis of the detailed norms of the needs of the young in energy, nutrients and biologically active substances.
Young animals up to 6 months of age per 100 kg of live weight of dry matter are required at the age of 1-3 months 1.9-2.3 kg, 4-6 months - 2.5-2.6 kg. For 1 kg of dry matter should be feed units at the age of 1 month - 2.1, 2 months - 1.6, 3 months - 1.3, 4 months - 1.0, 5 months - 0.93, 6 months - 0 , 85. The fiber content at the age of 1-3 months in dry matter should not exceed 10-12%, 4-6 months - 14-16%. Pre-protein intake per 1 ECE should be at the age of 140-150 g.
For young animals grown for meat, there are two typical feeding patterns that provide calves with a live weight of 150–160 kg at the age of 6 months for medium-sized dairy and dairy-meat breeds and 170–175 for large breeds. The total consumption of feed for calves for 6 months of growing for large breeds is, kg: whole milk 250, skim 700, concentrates 143, silage - 597, root crops - 279, hay - 128, salt sodium - 3.8, chalk - 2.3 .
In the 1st decade after birth, calves are fed colostrum and mother's milk, in the 2nd decade they begin to teach them to eat hay and give table salt, they dissolve milk replacer, which can be replaced with skim milk. From the 3rd decade they begin to give sifted and oatmeal or special feed starter and mineral supplements. From the 4th decade, they gradually accustom themselves to eating silage and root crops, some of which can be replaced with an equal amount of haylage for nutritional value.
Calves aged 6 months when grown for meat in the stall period are fed per day, kg: hay - 2.0, silage - 6.5-7.0, root crops - 3.5-4.0, concentrates (compound feed) - 1 , 5-2.0, mineral supplements (chalk, bone meal, feed phosphates, etc.) - 20 g, salt - 30 g. In the summer, instead of hay, silage, haylage and root crops give 15-18 kg of green fodder.
Feeding the young when growing and fattening
The structure of diets changes with the course of fattening. At the beginning rations consist mainly of coarse and succulent fodder. It supports a good appetite, prevents obesity and reduces the cost of fattening. With an increase in fatness, the demands on taste, nutrition and volume of rations increase, the cost of feed increases by 1 ECE. The proportion of bulky feed in the diet decreases, and concentrated feed increases. With good feeding, care and maintenance costs can be reduced by 1 centner of growth by 8-10%. With poor maintenance costs increase by 10-20%.
All fattening is divided into three periods:
- the beginning of fattening
- mid fattening
- the end of fattening.
The first and second periods in time are the same, and the third is 10-15 days longer. If fattening is 110 days, then the first period is 30 days, the second - 30, the third - 50.
Gains are planning a few declining, less than 0.7-0.8 kg are not planned. The share of the main feed of the first period can account for 80-85%, in the second - 70-75% and the third - 60-65% of the total nutritional value of the diet.
At the age of 6 months, young cattle are put on rearing and intensive fattening, which end at the age of 14-18 months upon reaching a live weight of 400-500 kg. Feeding rates depend on body weight and average daily gains - 800-1400 g. The higher the level of full feeding, the greater the gain in live weight and lower the cost of feed per unit of growth. Youngsters over 6 months old are required for 1 kg of growth from 6.1 to 9.7 ECE for growing and fattening. For example, a bull with a live weight of 300 kg with 800 g of daily gain requires 6.1 ECE, and with 1400 g of growth - 8.4 ECE / day. In the first case, 7.6 EEC are spent per 1 kg of growth, in the second - 6.0 EKE.
Energy requirement is taken into account in k.ed. and in the exchange energy. Young cattle aged 6-9 months. - 6.5 ECE, 9-12 months. - 7.6 ECE, over 2 years - 8-9 ECE on 1 kg increase in live weight. Adult animals per 1 kg gain - 12-14 ECE. In 1 kg of dry matter 10-10.5 MJ of exchangeable energy.
When growing and fattening older than 6 months, young animals require an average of 2.3 to 2.7 kg of dry matter per 100 kg of body weight. На 1 ЭКЕ рациона должно приходиться переваримогопротеина в возрасте 6-9 мес — 130-140 г, 9-12 мес — 110-120 и 12-18 мес — 100-110 г. В рационе регулируют протеиновое отношение — в период доращивания оно должно быть 1:5-7, при откорме — 1:8-10.
Потребность в жире — 3-5% в сухом веществе рациона. Большие дачи жира понижают аппетит у животных и влияют на прирост.
Потребность в углеводах. The sugar content in the dry matter of the diet requires an average of 9.7-8.0%, the sugar-protein ratio in the diet should be in the range of 0.8-1.0: 1. Starch requires 12-14% in the dry matter of the diet and the ratio of starch and sugars is 1.4-1.5: 1. Fiber - 18-22% in the period of intensive rearing, and in the fattening period - 15-16% in the dry matter of the diet.
The need for minerals and vitamins. When growing and fattening, it is recommended to give 13–15 g in a daily ration of calcium per 100 kg of body weight to youngsters, 6–8 g of phosphorus, –10–12 g of sodium chloride, 50 mg of carotene, 2500 IU of vitamin D and 70 of vitamin E mg. Calcium and phosphorus needs of calves per 1 unit. decreases slightly with age, and increases in potassium, magnesium and sulfur.
The Glauber's salt cottage has a positive effect on cattle fattening, the increase is increased by 15-20%, salt requires 3-4 g per 1 k.ed.
Main types of fattening
Depending on the age of animals and the intensity of feeding, the following are distinguished. types of fattening:
- Intensive rearing and fattening of young. Weight of cattle to 15-18 months. age 450-500 kg at a cost of 7-8 k.ed. per 1 kg increase. Average daily gain of 0.8-1.2 kg. Get juicy without excess fat beef. The main feed in winter: silage, hay, haylage, root vegetables. Additionally - up to 40% of concentrates, increasing by the end of fattening. The whole fattening cycle consists of three periods: 1st period - the cultivation of milkmen calves up to 6 months. age, 2nd period - rearing super-young stock from 6 to 12 months. age, 3rd period - the final fattening from 12 months. age before selling for meat when animals reach an average live weight of 420 kg. Particularly difficult for livestock is the organization of the second period of rearing, when the young are after 6, and sometimes even after 4 months. age completely transferred to the feeding of vegetable feed, which consist of voluminous feed. At the same time, the growth rate of animals significantly decreases; during the period of rearing, it is necessary to include semi-dry food with a high concentration of productive energy (grain output) with the addition of root crops in their rations. Per day feed 8-14 kg of grain and 5-6 kg of fodder beet and, if necessary, a small amount of concentrates with appropriate additives.
A very good effect is given by feeding dry mixes (50% of the total diet) along with other feeds. The best dry mixtures should be fed in granular and briquetted form. In the final period of the animal, it is advisable to fatten on the pulp, silage and partly on the bard.
If individual animals do not grow intensively when fattening on cheap feeds (beet pulp, braga, silage), then it is not advisable to keep them on such rations. Such animals (15-20% of the total livestock) are isolated from fattening groups monthly and transferred to dry type of fattening using loose, granulated and briquetted mixtures.
- Growing and fattening of lean young. Skinny young are first put on rearing with moderate abundant feeding, and upon reaching the factory condition for feeding. Up to a live weight of 450-600 kg at the age of 2-2.5 years to get fatty beef. Average daily gain of 800 g. Feed costs 8-10 k.ed. per 1 kg increase.
- Fattening adult cattle. They fatten culled cows, oxen, bulls. The goal is to increase the fatness of animals and get fatty beef. Fattening lasts 2-3 months., Cows of lower average fatness are fed for 80-90 days, the average - 50-60 days. Growth 300-400 g. Feed costs 13-14 k.ed. per 1 kg increase. As the main feed, beet pulp, bard, potato pulp, silage, haylage, melons are used. The ration includes silage up to 10-15 kg, haylage - 8-10 kg, pulp - 15-18 kg, bards - 15-20 kg, pulp - 10-13 kg per 100 kg body weight per day. At the beginning of fattening these feeds are fed more, in the end - less. In the structure of the ration, the share of concentrates or compound feeds of the KK 65-1 brand should not exceed 20-25%, roughage - 20-25%, succulent and technical production waste - 50-60% of the daily need for feed units. Apply the premix P 63-1 in the amount of 10 g per 1 kg of dry matter and fed in a mixture with concentrates. When fattening in a silo or sour pulp, livestock appetite sometimes falls due to the “acidification” of the rumen and the body. In this case, 4-6 kg of beets are included in the diet, and acid-base balance is restored within a week, and the livestock appetite is resumed.
- Veal production. Fattening calves up to 3-4 months. age with a live weight gain of at least 900 g per day, when fed to these calves other than milk, hay, concentrates, roots and tubers. Used veal in the diet.
Fattening adult cattle
Fattening is mainly put on rejected cows to get “soup” meat. The duration of fattening averages 2-3 months depending on the fatness of the animals: with lower average fatness, the cattle feeds more slowly, with the average - faster. Standards of need depend on body weight, daily gain and fattening period: the beginning, middle, end. In the stall period, silage is used as the main feed - up to 10-15 kg, haylage - 8-10, beet pulp - 15-18, bard - 15-20, pulp - 10-13 kg per 100 kg body weight per day, etc. At the beginning of the fattening of these feeds give more, in the end - less. The structure of the diet: concentrated feed (compound feed brand KK-65-1) - 20-25%, roughage - 20-25, juicy and waste of technical production - 50-60% of the daily need for ECE. For balancing diets, premix P 63-1 is used at the rate of 10 g per 1 kg of dry matter and fed mixed with concentrates. With double feeding of cattle daily increments are higher than with 3-4-fold feeding. To maintain a good appetite in animals, systematically cattle are provided with easy walks, remove the remnants of food and do not allow it to sour. When the main food is fed up it is flavored with concentrated food. It is useful to skip one cottage main feed. When fattening on a silo or sour pulp, the appetite sometimes falls due to the “acidification” of the rumen and the body. In this case, 4-6 kg of beets are included in the diet, and acid-base balance is restored within a week, and the livestock appetite rises.
Goals and technology
The correct fattening of cattle on average per day per cow should give from 1.2 to 1.4 kg of weight gain. With such indicators, the main goal that needs to be achieved is the weight of a healthy individual for 16-18 months in the region of 600-700 kg.
At the moment when the calf stops receiving milk and goes on to a new, coarser and more varied diet, the fattening period begins. The adaptation time usually takes 4 to 5 weeks. The calf should gradually get used to such feed:
- corn silage
- concentrated nutrition.
Conventionally, the fattening time can be divided into two main stages:
- 400 kg live weight set
- set from 400 to 650 kg of live weight.
To feed the young cattle gave the desired result, the main diet should be supplemented with concentrated feed. Thus, animals will receive protein and exchange energy in the optimal amount.
In the early stages, more intense nutrition is required. A 200 kg cow should consume about 4.5 kg of dry matter. At the same time, for a more adult individual with a live weight of around 600 kg, the required amount of dry matter will already be only 9.5 kg.
The diet of animals must include corn silage and high quality hay. Cows will receive significantly more dry matter than with the consumption of mediocre feed in the same volumes. The difference will be 1 kg.
KRS fattening types
There are two types of fattening:
Bull on intensive fattening
- Intensive - suitable for rapid muscle building, often used for young and meat individuals,
- stall - used for all species and age groups of animals, can vary in nutritional composition depending on the availability of feed and time of year, suggests a smoother weight gain.
Intensive fattening of cattle has as its goal the collection of young animals exactly muscle mass.
To gain 1 kg young cows require smaller amounts of feed than adult individuals. The average feed intake for 1 kg of weight gain for calves can be from 7 to 7.5 conventional units.
Intensive fattening is usually chosen for:
- bulls related to the meat direction
- young cows
- calves belonging to the first calving, born of meat bulls and dairy cows.
This type of fattening applies to meat and dairy and dairy groups. The meat of these animals also has high quality characteristics, yielding to beef cattle for fat content.
The ration base for intensive fattening will be corn silage with high quality characteristics.
Important! Nutrition should always be supplemented with concentrated feed (an additional source of protein) and mineral supplements.
The method of stall fattening is equally well suited for adults and young animals. This type of fattening involves the use of these types of feed:
- molasses and bard,
- beet pulp,
- potato mash,
Young animals should also receive a rough and concentrated diet.
Usually the process of fattening in a stall can be divided into 3 main stages:
- initial (30 days),
- average (40 days)
- final (20 days).
Each stage differs not only in duration, but also in the composition of the diet consumed by the cows. In the first 70 days (initial and middle stages), animals can get cheaper food. But in the final stage, the amount of concentrated feed must be increased several times.
Cows should be fed 3-4 times a day, and the transition to a new, more intensive fattening should be carried out gradually, within 7-8 days. Animals should have constant access to drinking water. Its quantity cannot be limited.
Stages of fattening are also distinguished by weight gain:
- The first stage is characterized by maximum weight gain (the animal intensively increases the amount of fat, water and protein in the body),
- in the second stage, the weight gain decreases, fat deposits are formed,
- if the animal receives high-quality feed, in the third stage, the volume of weight gain will begin to grow again, even at its peak values will be inferior to the indicators of the first stage.
The pulp will be an excellent solution for stall-fed cows due to the high content of calcium and carbohydrates. In this case, the diet should also be enriched with foods rich in proteins, fats and phosphorus. Every day, animals should receive salt and bone meal to maintain the optimal amount of protein in their bodies.
At the very beginning of fattening, the calf should receive at least 40 kg of pulp, and the adult individual - at least 65 kg. By the third stage, this volume is usually reduced.
The stability of the digestive system will depend on the amount of roughage received by animals. Per 100 kg of live weight should be in the order of 1-1.5 kg. Juveniles should be given only hay. For adult cows allowable admixture of spring straw.
If fattening on bard is used, the best option would be bread or potato. Such feeds are poor in protein content and quite watery (up to 94% of water in the composition). At 100 kg of the animal should be given at least 15 kg of bards.
Hay is also an essential element of the diet. So that the cows consume it more eagerly, the hay is steamed in a hot bard.
Adults should receive 7-8 kg of hay daily, and young - 4-6 kg. Dirt of corn and barley, as well as animal feed will be the best choice among concentrates. An animal, regardless of age, should be given from 1.5 to 2.5 kg of concentrated feed daily.
Chalk is a good mineral supplement. It provides the animal with the necessary amount of calcium. It is mixed into concentrates in the amount of 70-80 g per 100 kg of live weight.
At 10 liters of bards, there should also be at least 1 kg of roughage. Otherwise, cows may develop burgundy lice.
Silage fattening is best suited for the winter period. The most common use of two types of silage:
The lack of protein is compensated by the addition of urea. Per one young individual should be no more than 40-50 g. Adult cows can be given up to 80 g of the substance. Also, animals should receive hay, straw and concentrated feed, salt and chalk (40-50 g per day and 10-15 g per day).
In the summer, green fodder prevails. In this case, cows consume 40-80 kg of greens and 2-2.5 kg of concentrates during the day. Also essential element of the diet is salt (source of sodium).
There are three types of feed that must necessarily be included in the daily diet of cattle:
- main (it accounts for a large proportion of the volume of food, is the base of the feed of the animal),
- concentrated (serves as a supplement to the main, compensates for the lack of metabolizable energy and necessary substances)
- mineral (constitutes the minimum part in the daily diet, is a variety of impurities, the composition of which includes the necessary mineral elements and vitamins for the animal).
As a main feed, it is best to choose corn silage that meets the following requirements:
Corn Silage Harvesting
- the proportion of dry matter should range from 32-35%,
- organic matter digestibility rate of at least 73% (this can be achieved by selecting the right varieties),
- for 1 kg of dry matter should be no more than 200 g of fiber and about 70-90 g of crude protein:
- The energy value of dry substances should be at least 10.5 MJ per 1 kg.
In case there are problems with regular use of corn silage, the main feed can be replaced. In the form of alternatives, silage obtained from whole cereals is used. The nutritional value of food at the same time will fall by 10-15%.
The use of grass silage is ineffective during the fattening period, because it leads to high costs for food. The reason is the additional purchase of concentrates. Moreover, in this case, one fattening place on average will bring less income, since the fattening period will become longer.
This is an additive balancing corn silage. Concentrated feed is an essential element of the diet, because it provides cows with the necessary proteins in full. Indeed, in the corn silo contains an insufficient amount of crude protein. To fully provide animals with this substance, its content in animal feed should be at least 22-24%.
Important! It is also important to use concentrates that allow cows to receive additional exchange energy.
Protein protein feed:
- soybean meal
- sunflower meal,
- rapeseed meal
- fodder bean varieties,
Energy concentrated feed:
Use only well-treated feed, without excess dirt, fungus and mold.
The proportion of concentrated feed decreases when going from the first fattening stage to the second,
- up to 400 kg of live weight - 40% of the total dry matter,
- from 400 to 650 kg of live weight - 28-30% of the total dry matter.
Reference. On average, about 2-3 kg of concentrate should be consumed per cow per day.
Cows should receive regular calcium and phosphorus. Their ratio in the daily diet should be equal to 2 to 1. Rock salt will be an excellent source of sodium.
Concentrated feed enriched with vitamin-mineral impurities. It should account for no more than 2-3%. In some cases, the practice of distributing premix is used. Daily one cow gets from 60 to 80 g.
If you want to get a healthy, prolific, and most importantly, productive livestock, you should plan your daily ration of your animals correctly. Cows are quite unpretentious in food, but in the case of lack of protein, calcium, sodium, vitamins and other necessary substances, they will be slower to gain body weight. It is not necessary to feed the animals. Overeating can negatively affect their health. In the fattening of cows you need to know the measure, as in any other business.
Features cattle fattening
Proper feeding of fattening cattle is a long and rather complicated process that requires knowledge and certain experience. Breeders use different types of feed:
- beet pulp,
- beet treacle,
- corn or grass silage, etc.
The diet of animals is supplemented with coarse and concentrated feed. The process of fattening can be divided conditionally into 3 periods. For each of them you need to choose a separate diet. The cheapest feeds gobies give in the first 70 days. After that you need to add a lot of concentrates. Young animals are transferred to the new food gradually, over a week. It is important to observe the feeding regimen 3-4 times a day and provide the animals with the necessary amount of water. In the first period, when the body of the animal begins to accumulate fat, protein and water, you will get the maximum weight gain. Then the process of fatty tissue deposition will begin, so the weight gain will decrease. If you constantly use high-quality nutritional feed, in the third period, the weight gain will begin to grow. In the summer, cattle are transferred to green fodder, supplemented with concentrates.
Бычки намного быстрее набирают вес, чем телочки. В возрасте 12 месяцев их вес может достигать 400 кг. Если правильно составить рацион, можно получить мясо высокого качества, которое будет пригодно как для продажи, так и для личного употребления. Бычки не привередливы к еде. Он съедают все, что попадает в кормушку. Вкус корма и его аромат не имеет значения.
Если теленка только отлучили от коровы, в его рационе должны присутствовать отходы молочного производства либо цельное молоко. In addition, in the diet you need to enter the enzymes, without which the stomach of the animal will not be able to digest the rough feed of plant origin. As a result, the food will stay in the calf intestines and lead to toxins poisoning.
Experienced farmers know that a calf grows much faster if milk is present in its diet in the first six months of its life. It can be mixed with food waste or feed. Instead of water, gobies can be given warm whey. If there is not enough milk, probiotics are added to food. They provide proper digestion. Probiotic animals do not suffer from indigestion or diarrhea. Young animals are fed 3 times a day. In the summer, hay is replaced with green succulent grass. If you give the goby moldy or rotten food, the animal can get sick.
Fattening of young meat breeds with silage
When growing gobies for meat, their feeding needs to be structured in such a way that the young growth shows an increase of 750 g per day. A year later, the bulls gain weight 400-450 kg. If you want to provide fast fattening of young cattle, combine stall maintenance and pasture feeding. In the conditions of stationary keeping on a farm, silage, pulp, food industry waste, hay, potato pulp, etc. are used as feed for cattle.
The classical technology of feeding cattle involves the introduction of high quality corn silage into the diet. Feed table for corn stall fattening:
Feed Young Adults Adult gobies Corn or grass silage 25 35 Sugar beet 5 - Coarse vegetable feed 2 4 Combined feed 1 2 Urea 70 g 100 g
Such feed rates allow for a large weight gain in animals. The higher the nutritional value of the feed, the faster the bulls gain weight.
Quality silo must meet the following requirements:
- dry matter should not exceed 32–35% of the total silage,
- if the composition of the feed is chosen correctly, more than 73% of the silage will be digested in the animal's stomach,
- for 1 kg of dry matter should not exceed 0.2 kg of crude fiber,
- 70–90 g of raw protein should be present in 1 kg of dry matter.
If it is not possible to feed the bulls with corn silage, a product from whole cereal plants can be introduced into the diet of cattle. When eating grass silage, the animal does not receive enough energy, so the process of fattening for meat becomes less intense. The best supplement for corn silage is concentrated feed. There is very little dry protein in the silo, so protein-rich substances should be introduced into the diet of cattle. This may be soybean and rapeseed meal, peas or broad beans.
The minimum fattening period lasts 6–8 months.