How to deal with a singing pest
- Fact: In addition to singing talent, the insect can no longer please anything good.
- Fact 2: All parasitic plants should be destroyed at the root, especially during the pest breeding season.
- Fact 3: The buffalo cicada is particularly voracious. If earlier the source of its food was wild plants, today it is the most dangerous pest of gardens and vineyards.
- Fact 4: As a preventive measure, it is worth planting onions and garlic near trees.
This is also interesting!
Although it is pleasant to listen to the melodious chirping of the tsikadok, it sets it in a romantic way, and the whole world around seems kind and beautiful, but farmers and gardeners will quickly lower it from heaven to earth. In addition to singing talent, the insect can no longer please with anything good.. On the other hand, it bears so much harm that, when transferred to the monetary equivalent of numbers, it captures the spirit.
Every year, agricultural industries suffer losses for dozens or even hundreds of tons of crop loss. And all this is the result of the activity of cicadas, a real disaster for vineyards, berry fields, orchards, fields of grain and vegetable crops.
What makes this small, insidious and voracious creature? Here's what:
It sucks the juice from the plant, which is necessary for it to feed, causing the culture to stop developing, partially or completely dying.
Spreads infectious diseases that quickly weaken an already damaged plant immune system.
It damages the young growth in the period of laying eggs.
Of course, the question of how to get rid of the pest is very serious among gardeners.
The extermination of cicadas is not an easy task, but with perseverance and the desire for success can be achieved. And even without the help of chemicals:
Collection and disposal of damaged crop parts (they contain larvae). Incineration will be most effective in this case.
Digging the soil after the autumn harvest. This will help to lay on the ground surface egg clutches and insect larvae settling for the winter. Frosts and hungry birds will do the rest.
Bird feeders, birdhouses, houses will help attract birds to your possessions, and birds - the worst enemies of the Tsikadok.
Attacked by the cicadas, the squares of vegetable gardens and gardens should be fueled for several seasons. Well, if you manage to plant territory with onions or garlic.
And one more important rule: no weeds! All parasitic plants should be destroyed at the root, especially during the pest breeding season.
If prevention did not produce the expected result, then insecticides are indispensable.
Each tool is accompanied by instructions for use and dosage in the preparation of the working solution. However, there are a few general rules for treating plants with chemicals:
The procedure is carried out in calm weather at sunset. in the absence of precipitation wind.
Be sure to sprinkle the inner leaf plate, as the young of the pest is located in these places.
The sprayer should be equipped with a nozzle of a diffusing type so that fine irrigation should cover the entire area of the plant copiously and evenly.
Prepare the solution just before processing and do not store "for stock".
Compliance with personal safety when working with chemicals is strictly necessary. Means commonly used to combat cicada:
It is necessary to process cultures twice or three times, at an interval of 1.5 weeks. As a rule, two times is enough to achieve maximum success.
The most popular way to deal with cicadas is to use soap solution based on soap (300 g / 10 l). Two or three sprays enough to get rid of the pest.
Garlic or onion tincture (250 g / 1 l), infused in a closed form for a week, is also good as a counter. The mixture is diluted in a ratio of 1:50 and sprayed on the affected plants. Repeat the procedure several times.
Fighting white and buffalo varieties
The white species is considered to be one of the most malicious of the entire cicad family. Algorithm of action in the fight against insects:
Spring flushing landings means "30 Plus" (before bud formation).
May treatment with Dynadim, Ditoks, Tagore alternately (during the larval period). To process and grape plantations, and garden plantings.
In the process of active fruit ripening processing is prohibited. unless there is a risk of losing a significant part or the entire crop. It is better to use Fitoverm or Akarin.
The buffalo cicada is particularly voracious. If earlier the source of its food was wild plants, today it is the most dangerous pest of gardens and vineyards. What to do:
Constantly weed landing.
Handle with the beginning of the season chemicals.
When spraying, grab a growing grassy surface and neighboring crops. As a preventive measure, plant onions and garlic near trees.
This species is distinguished by a black-brown body in the female and yellow-orange in the male, the size is no more than 4 mm. On the head there are 2 black stripes between the eyes, the proboscis is long, pointed at the end.
The wings are transparent, on the underside of the front wings, the females have a brown speck; in the males they are half-smoky, sometimes shortened. Hind legs are mobile.
In the spring, with the onset of the warm season, females lay eggs for several pieces in the fabric of the old basal leaves. After that the insect perishes. Eggs develop 30–35 days. The larvae are yellowish before the molt, with gray stripes on the abdomen; after two molts they become gray-brown.
The larvae live on the lower leaves of the plant, sucking the juice out of them. Hibernate in the upper layers of the soil. More mature larvae that survived the winter climb closer to the top of the plant. At the end of April - in the first half of May, adult mating occurs, during the whole summer and until the end of autumn one can find in the fields and larvae, and the adult insect, the border between these stages of cicada development is blurred.
After sprouting winter cicadas fly over to these fields, feed on the sap of cereal plants and harm the young shoots of cereals. This species is dangerous as a carrier of viruses of the disease of cereal plants.
This type of cicada lives everywhere, has a body no longer than 3-4 mm. Yellow-green head with clear black spots.
Eggs laid by cicadas in the leaf tissue of cereal crops survive the winter and spring in the last decade of April, in the first days of May brown larvae appear from them. In the future, they acquire the color of an adult insect. The larvae mature in 20–30 days.
During the summer, up to three generations of six-point cicadas develop. In the autumn months, the cicada makes the last egg laying on winter plantings or carrion. These eggs hibernate until spring, and the vegetation cycle repeats again.
Adult individuals and larvae are fed with juice from leaves of wheat, rye, oats, corn, rice, millet, buckwheat, sunflower, beets, legumes. They greatly harm this agricultural planting, as the plants, spoiled by cicadas, wither, discolor, weaken and die.
In order to protect the grasslands from cicadas, the destruction of the carrion caddis is practiced, since the cicada lays eggs in it, from which new generations of insect pests appear in the spring.
With the same purpose, they try to sow winter crops as late as possible, and spring crops as early as possible. This makes it impossible for an insect to lay eggs in them. With too large a multiplication of pests produce spraying young shoots of winter crops with insecticidal agents.
Black point cicada
This type of cicada lives everywhere, it feeds on the juice of leaves of mint, sage, catnip of Transcaucasian and other plants. An adult has a body length of less than 4 mm, the color is darkgreen or yellow. All parts of the body are marked with black or black-brown spots, the abdomen is black and the legs are yellow. Yellow-green larva of flat shape.
This type of cicadas winters on the stage of eggs, which were laid by females in the remains of plants on mint fields. In the spring with the beginning of heat, at the end of April - the first half of May larvae appear from eggs. In the middle of May, they move to the pupa stage, or pamer, with the rudiments of wings and move to the fields of labiotour plants.
In late July - early August, in the period of tying the buds, adult cicadas return to the mint fields and cause great damage to the plants. Insect and its larvae suck the juice from the leaves of mint, causing their spotting, aging and premature abscission. In a year, cicada reproduces up to 4–5 times.
To protect against cicada, sowing of mint is carried out on fields remote from the places of previous sowing, resistant mint varieties are selected for sowing, and with strong multiplication of the pest spraying with insecticidal agents is used.
The damage caused by cicadas to plants is as follows:
- sucks the juice from the plants, which destroys the young shoots,
- cuts delicate shoots ovipositories,
- is a carrier of viral diseases.
Despite its small size, cicadas cause significant damage to crops.
Root aphid - one of the most dangerous pests, as it settles in the roots of plants. How to deal with this insect, read here.
If you like beets, then you definitely need to know how to deal with pests that also like to eat this plant. Read more at http://stopvreditel.ru/rastenij/selxoz/vrediteli-svekly.html link.
Measures and means of dealing with tsikadkami
In order to protect plantings from harmful insects, first of all, new sowing is carried out on plantations geographically located far from the wintering grounds of the cicada. Cactus plants in which cicadas laid their eggs are destroyed. This measure reduces the number of larvae reborn from the eggs.
In early spring, during the periods of gestation of larvae and the appearance of adult individuals, the plants are sprayed with insecticides. Moreover, the back side of the foliage, the place where the insect makes eggs, should be subjected to a more thorough treatment. In autumn, the soil should be sprayed between rows of plants so that the conditions for wintering eggs and larvae and the pest are unfavorable.
Permitted chemicals include:
- nitrofen - used in the period of early spring to destroy eggs and pupae of pests, only the bark of trees and undiscovered buds are sprayed, the foliage has a burning effect on the leaves,
- Malathion (karbofos) - insecticide with contact, respiratory and intestinal effects on harmful insects,
- fosalon is an insecticide of contact and intestinal exposure with a high degree of toxicity, retains toxic properties at low temperatures and for a rather long time up to 1 month; when processing plants, the foliage does not burn,
- aktara - an insecticidal agent of contact and intestinal exposure, spraying is performed during the period of plant growth, it is possible to inject the drug into the soil with water for irrigation,
- benzophosphate - insecticidal drug of contact-intestinal exposure, active at low temperatures, duration of action up to 3 weeks, used no more than 2 times per season,
- Faskord, CE - the most effective and economical drug contact-intestinal effects with a high poisoning rate and duration of protection against pests.
Of popular methods of struggle with cicadas practiced:
- planting in the first 2-3 years between rows of garlic plants and onions, repelling pests,
- careful weeding from the weeds in the period of the appearance of the larvae,
- spraying plantings with decoctions and infusions of burdock, burdock, wormwood and chamomile.
With a strong settlement of the site with cyclings, some gardeners advise to maintain aisles under the black steam, so that during the winter the larvae may be frozen out as much as possible. But in natural farming such measures are hardly acceptable - bare soil of harm will bring more than good.
If your site is in the south, then it is quite likely that cycadocas will appear in the garden after a warm winter. Many species of them, but signs of damage to plants are similar - sticky leaves, abscission of foliage and the presence of nimble jumping insects. These are not very nice from the point of view of the tsikadki tiller - the popular measures to combat them are still not too diverse, and all plant protection is mainly based on spring treatments.
Cicada - description
The cicadas orangery is an oblong-shaped insect, about 3 mm in size, with a whitish or light yellow color.
Each adult female gives approximately 50 eggs over its life cycle. Larvae appear from eggs, and in the summer they need one week for development, and in winter the gestation period lasts a month.
Nymphs (or tsitadok larvae) develop throughout 1-2 months, worrying during this time five molts. With each change of cover, the nymphs become more active and require more nourishment.
After the fifth molt, they become insects with wings and are ready to repeat the cycle. From the moment the eggs are laid until the appearance of the adult individuals of the cicadas, depending on the season, 4 to 12 weeks.
Greenhouse fictions amaze:
Symptoms of the presence of tsikadok can be: a slowdown in plant growth, change in shape, the death of young plants.
Cicada rosa is similar to the previous species, however, it is somewhat larger in size and is colored yellow. This pest causes damage to yard plants and breeds only in the warm period.
The first generation hatch in late May from eggs laid in mid-autumn. Nymphs ripen to adult insect for 4-6 weeks.
The next generation of tsikadok appears in the middle or end of August. It causes less damage to garden plants, but lays eggs, which endure the winter period and repeat the cycle with the onset of May.
Most often, these cicadas strike roses, especially those that have a curly structure. A sign of the presence of insects is a standstill in the growth of the plant and the discharge of leaves.
Green cicada has a color according to its name and affects cereal, as well as fruit trees during the laying of eggs.
Small pest - big trouble
The distribution of tsikadok contributed to the active import of foreign plants. Botanists now number about 20 thousand species of these insects. They are distinguished by bright colors, spotting and food preferences.
Outwardly, these are small, 1 cm in size, jumping butterflies that feed on the sap of cultivated plants. Their danger lies not only in the weakening of vegetation in the garden, in the garden and flowerbed, but also in the spread of viral infections, damage to plants by poisonous saliva and egg laying.
If nothing is done, for the season the cicadas will destroy the entire crop in the garden, and in the garden for this it will need only 2-3 years.
Both adult pests and its larvae are endangered by the cultivated flora. They pierce young leafy plates, take the juice and nutrients out of them, and inject poison in return.
As a result of such a vital activity, the foliage begins to turn yellow and deform, the culture lags far behind in growth, white or red spots appear on it. The plant gradually withers and dies. And butterflies multiply very quickly. For an adult insect to grow from an egg, it will take about 20 days. During the growing season, several generations of tsikadok are born. They easily adapt to adverse conditions: bad and cold weather without waiting for themselves they wait in the ground.
The peculiarity of voracious moths lies in the fact that representatives of different species can live in neighboring beds, since some may prefer tomatoes and others - potatoes. Consider what species are common in our area.
Externally, these moths are distinguished by white semi-rigid wings, slightly covered with small yellow or gray specks. Insect does not go over food. White cicadas are most often seen on grapes, figs, raspberries, plums, potatoes, gooseberries, peppers, tomatoes, corn, apples, and wild rose.
In the household farms there is practically no plant that the sucking parasite would not eat. He also adores lindens, maple and boxwood.
The white variety has spread to the Caribbean islands. Today, farmers from the entire American continent of the northern hemisphere are fighting with it, up to Brazil and Mexico. The end of the twentieth century was marked by unpleasant news for farmers in Europe and Asia - the white cicadas covered all the gardens and fields; it was necessary to urgently take measures to fight jumping moths.
The insect is very comfortable in moderately warm and dry climates, it can adapt to a long drought. In the process of feeding, an omnivorous insect secretes a sticky, cotton-like substance that thickly covers the affected leaf plates, blocking the access of oxygen.
Over time, these places are observed sooty mycelium, which prevent photosynthesis.
Scientists refer this species to the family of cicadas-pennits. On the fields and in the gardens of his representatives can be found from the beginning of the summer until the very autumn. Насекомое уже покорило внетропическую территорию Евразийского континента, Северной Америки и Северной Африки. Также его можно встретить на холодной Камчатке.
Мотыльки обладают разноцветным окрасом, длина их тела едва достигает 6 миллиметров. They prefer to lie down in a tier of grass in a wet environment.
Depending on the colors, scientists distinguish between many forms of pest. Light brown and black-yellow butterflies with different stripes and shapeless spotting are not uncommon in our area. In general, the form of slobbery pennitsy is divided into 20 clean and 4 mixed forms.
Sucking the juice out of the vegetation, the cicada produces a lot of foamy saliva, due to which it got its name.
Outwardly, this is a hemiptera moth, whose body length reaches 6-9 millimeters. The front wings of the parasites are bright turquoise in color with a white border on the edges and thin black stripes on the veins. The color of the head varies from brown to light yellow. Females differ from males in brown tinge of wings and large sizes. Insects feed mainly on plant sap, and, without busting, attack both herbal and woody crops. In the last decade of August, until November, the laying of eggs begins near the canopies.
They can be seen on wheatgrass, lake rush, rush, small pike. In the spring there are nymphs. Reproduction of the species depends on climatic conditions, but does not exceed 3 generations per year.
Green cicada prefers moist areas, so it often occupies coastal areas and swamps. Once in the garden, the first thing they attack is peaches, mulberries, plums, apples, cherries, grapes and pears.
The faithful companions of insects are the bacteria Xylella fastidiosa, which cause disease in plants and destroy vineyards.
This species of parasitic insects is distributed throughout the northern hemisphere of the planet. Externally, they are tiny jumping butterflies of yellow or dark green with clear brown specks, black belly and yellow legs. At length, the pest barely reaches 3.5 millimeters.
During the mating season, females lay 8 eggs every day, which ripen in 10 days. You can notice the clutch on the inside of the leaves of chosen plants.
A visitor from North America is very dangerous for vineyards. Its appearance was recorded in 1954 in Moldova. After 5 years, they learned that a buffalo-shaped cicada was already in Armenia, and a year later - in Georgia, Azerbaijan. By 1960, the moth reached the Ukrainian Transcarpathia.
But soon all garden plants entered his diet. Especially he likes to feast on young saplings. Representatives of the species differ from their counterparts with heightened gluttony and terrifying appearance.
Outwardly, it is a green insect, up to 7–10 millimeters long, with jumping hind limbs, folded with a crib-like webbed wings, bulging eyes, and a solid shield that is also the neck and back.
There are specific pointed outgrowths on both sides of this hump-like pronotum, which are very similar in shape to bovine horns.
If you disturb adults, they do not express aggressiveness; on the contrary, they fly away.
The laying of the eggs of the female buffalo-colored tsikadki produce strictly in 2 rows up to 12 pieces under the bark of young trees. In this case, the fibers of immature plants are severely damaged, the gum leak begins from wounds.
Pathogens penetrate into the moths pierced by pathogens, destroying metabolic processes. As a result, the surface of the affected area dies off. You can notice it by ring-shaped constrictions on young stems.
Occasionally the insect moves to more mature sprouts, where there is more juice.
How to deal with a pest
Getting rid of the unwanted guest at the site is not so easy. It matters a comprehensive solution to the problem. And in order for the efforts made to give the desired result, you need to act according to a clear algorithm:
- Immediately at the first signs of the life of the insect, remove all the damaged shoots and burn them.
- Stop root and foliar plant nutrition.
- To treat infected cultures with insecticides (Aktara, Bi - 58 New, Fufanon, Aktellik, Permethrin, Bona Forte, Kinmiks) or 30% solution of karbofos.
- Spraying start from the lower shoots, gradually moving to the top.
- After sprinkling, the foliage of garden vegetation should be sprinkled with wood ash.
- During the ripening of the fruit can not use toxic chemicals. If the pest made itself felt just then, without waiting for the harvesting, disinfect the plants with garlic tincture (a glass of cloves missed through the garlic box on a bucket of water).
- On balcony plants that have suffered from cycadocas, it is necessary to wash the leaves with “30 plus”.
The most effective prevention is competent agricultural engineering. Do not be lazy to thoroughly study all about the necessary conditions for the plants in your garden, in the flower bed and garden. Carefully take care of them.
Do not allow the growth of weeds and accumulation of moisture. Vegetables thin out in time. In the autumn, harvest not only the harvest, but also the tops of the leaves that have fallen, regularly clean the trees from old and dead parts.
Periodically organize garlic-soap irrigation. Some gardeners share the experience of preventive spraying of garden specimens with Ditox, Danadim, Tagore, Tzipi plus. The procedure must be done before bud break and repeat somewhere in the second decade of May, when the moth larvae appear.
Sicada is very poorly deduced, so do not count on a one-time result after the first sprinkling. For the final result will require a long hard work for several years. So that you do not have to get acquainted with a voracious insect, the main thing is to always keep your site clean and carry out timely preventive measures.
Cicada - methods of struggle
- - The agrotechnical measures include the destruction of all herbaceous plants in the planting of fruit trees and the soil content between rows under the black steam. This method shows good performance in preventing the reproduction of the green dikadki.
- - The biological method of dealing with cyclists is similar to the destruction of aphids and consists in spraying plants with pesticides. This method is better not to use indoors and greenhouses due to its insecurity.
- - The chemical method is the most extensive in the number of various drugs. Plants attacked by cycados should be treated with organophosphorus compounds in a timely manner.
No less effective neonicotinoids and pyrethroids. The choice of drugs is great, so you should consult directly with the seller of chemicals.
Types of tsikadok
These insects got their name because of their ability to chirp. I can not imagine summer evening in the Kuban without the "singing" of cicadas. These loud "cicking" sounds emit singing cicadas - rather large insects like flies with transparent wings stretched back. But this is only one type of cicada. And let's talk about the white cicca, a relatively new pest for our land. The exact number of species of cicadas is unknown, but there may be more than 100,000. So, cicadas of different sizes, colors can be found on all continents.
For the first time, I saw an adult white-watering-ground on the Black Sea coast, in Lazarevskoye. On the way to the sea, I saw a tall fig tree, at the foot of which there were many overgrown trees. My attention was caught by small white bumps on young green stems. One had the impression that someone purposely put white droplets of paint on all the branches. I touched one and… recoiled in surprise - a white oblong droplet suddenly either jumped or flew, sitting next to a sheet of fig.
But about two weeks before that, while still at home, in her dacha she noticed a white fluffy bloom on branches, raspberry leaves, and figs on different plants. I sent a photo to a gardener from Timashevsk - he enlightened that this was a metcalf - a white cicada. It turns out that in my garden I saw white larvae of the white Tsikadki, and a little to the south, on the Black Sea coast I saw adult pests.
Her invasion of the last 2-3 years threatens the entire Krasnodar Territory. I learned from information on the Internet that for the first time in our country a white cicca (native to North America) was discovered in 2009 in Lazarevskoye, where it was delivered with seedlings, probably through the sea ports of Yeisk and Novorossiysk.
I think that measures to combat the white cyclists, which gardeners and gardeners can use, cannot fundamentally change the situation. And now you will understand why.
What plants can be damaged by a white cicada
If I now begin to list which plants are dangerous for this pest, the list will turn out to be very long - there are more than 300 such plants. What does the cicca most prefer? These are boxwood, linden, maple, dog rose, apples, plums, grapes, raspberries, gooseberries, figs, potatoes, carrots, peppers, tomatoes, corn, and many others.
Unless gardeners will be able to apply measures to combat white cicadas on all plants? Of course not!
The main damage to the garden and garden plants is caused by the larvae, piercing the leaves with a proboscis from the lower side and sucking the juice. This leads to the appearance on the leaves of small white or yellow spots, which sometimes merge into large white spots. Immunity of plants falls, they become weak, their growth slows down, fruits can fall from a tree, and not having ripened or formed at all.
On garden plants, so far (!) I have not seen a white Tsikadka, but raspberries and figs lose their attractive appearance after its appearance.
In one source, I read that this is due to the sticky discharge of the cyclone, on which fungal diseases, so-called sooty fungi, develop. In the other - the cause of the appearance of sticky spots is considered the sap of plants, which begins to intensively drip onto the leaves as a result of active feeding of the Tsikadki. Like it or not - do not know yet.
Duration of treatments
White cicada develops from May to August. But in more southern areas adult insects can be observed already in mid-July. Here is the period from the moment of the appearance of the larvae to the formation of an adult individual preventive and protective measures are most effective.
In July and August, when the plants already have adult flowers, laying eggs ready for overwintering, no control measures will bring the desired result. It is best of all to carry out processing of plants when you notice a white fluffy bloom on them - these are the larvae of the pest, it is with them that one must basically fight.
Means and drugs against white flowers
Spraying raspberries (after harvesting) and figs with Aktara and Aktelica helped me a lot.
To destroy all the larvae, and they do not appear simultaneously, processing and spraying should be carried out every 7-10 days until the end of July, not allowing the larvae to “mature” so that they could not lay eggs under the bark of fruit trees, berry bushes.
Unfortunately, it is hardly possible now to completely get rid of the white flowers of the Tsikadka, since it can feel excellent not only on vegetable and fruit crops, but also on weeds, for example, nettle. It is unlikely that such treatments "in the teeth" or "afford" simple gardeners. And who will handle the weeds outside the garden garden. Rhetorical question!
Experts advise to alternate preparations for treatment.
Effective Akarin (Agrovertin), Fitoverm. These are insecticaroacaricides of biological origin of short waiting time, that is, they can process plants with fruits that are suitable for use within 2-3 days after processing.
Good results are visible after being treated with the Fufanon plant, but it is better for them to process the plants after harvesting (for example, raspberries), since the waiting period is 20 days (20 days after spraying you can eat the fruit).
Aktara has a waiting period of 60 days. Aktelik - 30 days.
So the choice of drugs to fight the white cyclists depends on the processing time, the ripening time of the fruit, the type of garden or garden plant. The proportions for the preparation of solutions are given in the instructions for each tool.
Not so long ago, in the Garden and Kitchen Garden in the Kuban group (at Odnoklassniki), participants asked each other how to deal with the white snake and whether there were non-chemical means. It turns out that already tested with a positive result infusion of celandine.
I was very pleased with this information, because, alas, the cicadas in this (2017) year occupied much more plants than in the past - tomatoes, eggplants, celery (the list can be added to infinity). I do not want to process chemicals with vegetables or berry plants, even if the waiting time for the decomposition of harmful components is small.
Infusion of celandine to fight the white cicada is easy to prepare. Fill 1/4 bucket with freshly picked celandine, fill it with cold water. Withstand the day, filter and spray. The solution should be the color of light tea, not too dark, and then you can burn the plants. Some gardeners in this infusion add 1 tablespoon of liquid soap to enhance the adhesion of the solution to the leaves, branches. One addition: a single treatment will not help, since the plants may simultaneously have larvae (white down) and adults - white butterflies. Infusion of celandine acts only on the larvae, it does not act on adults. The second and subsequent treatments are needed to destroy the newly emerging larvae. The interval between treatments is 5-7 days.
Another recipe. In the fall, after the foliage falls off, treat the whole garden with the DNOC preparation, it kills the eggs of the white Tsikadki, which it lays on the branches of the plants. Repeat the treatment in early spring before bud break. In a week, treat the trees with 30 drugs. The author of the recipe assures that this is the only way to defeat the cicadas.