Black nightshade is an annual plant that is quite common in Asia, Europe, Australia and America. Most often it is perceived as weedy and poisonous. Not much is known about the benefits of this plant. Can the nightshade be harmful? How is it used in traditional medicine? We will tell about this in the article.
The black nightshade, the photo of which you can see below, is widespread in our country. It grows everywhere, including the northern regions. The plant is found even in the southern regions of Siberia. This is a native of Europe and Asia, which was later introduced into North America. The plant perfectly adapts to a temperate climate.
Weed black nightshade is considered because of its unpretentiousness: it is undemanding to the composition of the soil, moisture. Equally actively developing among garden plants and in ravines, beams, along roadsides.
Black nightshade is an annual grass. Unlike other varieties of this plant, it does not differ in outstanding beauty of flowers and is practically not grown on garden and summer cottages, it is rarely cultivated for harvesting. The need for this plant, as a rule, meets the nightshade, which grows in natural conditions. Consider the structure of nightshade:
- Stems. Nightshade has massive, erect cylindrical stems that branch upwards. Stems can be both bare and poorly pubescent.
- Leaves. They are simple, without stipules, on the stem placed on the cuttings alternately. Leaf plate ovoid, slightly elongated. Its length can reach 13 cm, with a width of 8 cm. The surface of the plate is deep green in color, matte, with a well-marked venation. The edge is most often even, but sometimes angular-notched.
- Flowers In black nightshade they are bisexual, painted white. Flowers have double perianth and five-pointed star-shaped corolla. Small flowers (up to 1 cm) are collected in umbrella inflorescences, they are often called curls. Flowering black nightshade begins in mid-May. Under favorable weather conditions, it lasts until September.
- Fruit. The spherical black berries of black nightshade do not exceed a centimeter in diameter. They are covered with a smooth, matte skin. Fruits ripen from early August to mid-October.
There are different opinions about the benefits and dangers of black nightshade: some consider the plant poisonous, others useful and healing. You'd be surprised, but both sides are right. The fact is that only green berries of nightshade are poisonous, containing solanine, which has a toxic effect on the body. When the fruit ripens, solanine is destroyed, and ripe berries become an effective remedy.
The composition of the different parts of the plant nightshade includes many useful substances. This explains its powerful effects on the body. The main beneficial substances include:
- glycosides and alkaloids,
- organic acids
- ascorbic acid
- sugary compounds
- magnesium salts,
Useful properties of nightshade are used by folk healers to get rid of many diseases. For healers and healers, the entire above-ground part of the plant is valuable. The selectivity of the action of nightshade in the manufacture of preparations in the same ways is interesting. For example, an infusion of a plant is equally effective for both internal and external use.
Nightshade has the following properties:
When is the use of grass indicated?
Preparations of the grass of nightshade black used in the following cases:
- with diseases of the stomach, intestines,
- with cholecystitis, pyelonephritis,
- with epilepsy, neurosis,
- with skin diseases.
Water extract from the grass with lichen, furunculosis, allergies of unknown nature purifies the blood. In addition, herbal infusions are an effective addition to therapeutic baths. Known grass solanum expectorant and bronchodilatory properties, and therefore use drugs based on it for colds, bronchitis, bronchial asthma, tuberculosis.
Numerous feedback from patients confirms the benefits of the black nightshade fruit in the use of its fruits in different forms:
- Fresh berries. Fresh berries are useful for hypertensive patients, are used as a preventive and therapeutic agent for atherosclerosis, infectious diseases, kidney disease, improve vision.
- Alcohol extractor hood. It has anticonvulsant, sedative, muscle relaxant properties. It is used in the treatment of neurosis, mild forms of neurasthenia.
- Juice from the berries. This remedy of nightshade is used to treat inflammation of the oral cavity: periodontal disease, stomatitis, tonsillitis. Lotions of juice help fight conjunctivitis and chronic rhinitis when instilled into the nose. Juice from the berries has anti-inflammatory, astringent, healing, bactericidal properties. It is diluted and used in the form of compresses for the treatment of psoriasis, eczema, herpes.
Folk healers believe that nightshade is able to heal from malignant tumors, including blood cancer. When oncology take extracts of flowering grass or fruit. The plant cures hepatitis of any origin, liver cirrhosis. The hypoglycemic properties of this plant have a beneficial effect on blood sugar levels.
Salmon grass is used to treat many skin lesions: infectious, mechanical, allergic, trophic, autoimmune. To enhance the effect of the ointment is covered with a bandage. The procedure lasts two to four hours. To prepare the ointment using dry grass nightshade. It should be ground to a powder in a mortar or coffee grinder.
Mix a teaspoon of powder with four teaspoons of refined vegetable oil. The resulting drug lubricates the damaged skin three times a day.
Used for edema, ascites, hypertension, for external use in diseases of the mucous membranes and skin. Making juice is easy. To do this, you need to rub a glass of berries through a sieve or grind it in a blender. The resulting mass must be squeezed through gauze. A quarter cup of fresh juice is diluted with boiled water at room temperature to a full glass.
The resulting solution can rinse the mouth, throat and wash the wound. When rhinitis bury 2-3 drops of diluted juice in each nasal passage. With cystitis, hypertension, dropsy, every day take 30 drops of undiluted juice. It should be washed down with milk or clean water. Herbal decoction is used as an antispasmodic, antitussive, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-allergic agent.
Pour a glass of boiling water with a spoon (tea) of chopped dry grass of the nightshade. Heat the mixture in a water bath for 15 minutes. When the composition has cooled, strain it. Take the remedy for a spoon (tea) twice a day. A new batch is prepared every two days.
When ingestion has anti-inflammatory, cough, diuretic and choleretic agent. Dry fruits of nightshade fill with 60% alcohol in the ratio of 1: 6. For a week, the mixture is infused in a dark place, shaking the container daily. Take the drug in 15 drops once a day.
Used to treat joint, stomach, headaches, and nervous system disorders. From the warm infusion make lotions for ulcers, boils, wounds.
Pair 5 grams of grass for the nightshade with a glass of boiling water. Let the composition stand for three hours. Then the composition can be filtered. Inside the infusion take a tablespoon to four times a day.
In the cold season, such a bath enhances body resistance, relieves joint and muscle pain. Eliminates allergic rashes, helps in the treatment of eczema, psoriasis. Two liters of boiling water pour three spoons (table) herbs. Her insist until then, until it cools to room temperature, filter, and squeeze the cake. Pour the resulting infusion into a bath filled with warm water.
When you open any handbook for herbal medicine, you can see the photo of nightshade black. The benefits and harms of this plant are closely intertwined. We have already said that the green fruits of the plant are toxic, so you need to be extremely careful when harvesting raw materials. You can only collect fully ripened fruit, evenly painted black.
Preparations based on black nightshade are contraindicated for children under three years of age, pregnant women, and also during lactation, to people with individual intolerance to the substances that make up the plant. The side effects that should be paid attention to when taking medications made from nightshade include:
- increased fatigue
- nervous irritability,
According to reviews of people taking these funds, the negative effects of the plant is very rare and only if the dosage was exceeded. Its violation leads to intoxication of the organism, which, in the absence of medical care, can be fatal, since the harm of the nightshade is caused by the content of potent substances in its composition. Folk healers claim that the side effects of nightshade effectively eliminate natural bee honey.
The so many controversial plant black nightshade is the closest relative to all of us well-known eggplants, potatoes, tomatoes. By its appearance, it even looks a little like tomatoes of some varieties, especially when its sprouts are just sprouting. And its flowers and green berries are like potato ones. Only he does not form tubers. In height, the plant is stretched to a meter, sometimes slightly higher, sometimes slightly lower. What does the nightshade look like? The description is as follows: its stem is grassy, upright, branched, but not curly and not creeping, like that of bittersweet (red). Leaflets without denticles, oval, but pointed at the end. Flowers, like a potato. Their petals are white or blue-violet. Seeds are also almost like tomatoes, only smaller. The berries are about the size of an average pea and become black when ripe. Their taste is difficult to convey in words - slightly sweetish, slightly sourish, have a characteristic smell, not too juicy, but not porridge. In short, peculiar. And absolutely harmless! You can be sure.
Where and how to grow
Nightshade black can be found all over the world, even in Australia. The plant is surprisingly unpretentious. It grows equally well on fertile black soil with regular watering and in arid steppes on sandstones and loams of little use for plant life. Its habitats are forest edges, ravines, vacant lots, roadsides, gardens, orchards, river banks. This plant is an annual. The nightshade black blossoms throughout its short life, only as soon as it reaches the phase necessary for flowering. Accordingly, his fruit ripened not at the same time. Sometimes inflorescences, green berries, and black ones can be seen on one bush. The nightshade breeds by self-sowing and with the help of birds eating berries.
What is the nightshade poisonous?
Despite the fact that black berries of nightshade can be eaten (if you like the taste), there is still poison in the plant. And in all its parts, only in different quantities. This is due to the poisonous glycoalkaloids, such as Dulcamarine, Solacein, Solanine, which are rich in nightshade grass, flowers and green berries. And in the latter there are a lot of them. It is after eating unripe (not enough black or green) berries, you can get poisoned. By the way, solanine is found in green tomatoes and potatoes, especially in the old, sprouted and green in the sun. True, to poison her, you need to eat her a bucket. And in order not to poison the nightshade, you need to eat only fully ripe berries, in which solanine meager doses. Plants produce these poisons exclusively for their protection. There is practically no solanine in the ripe berries, so that birds can eat them and thus settle black nightshade over large areas.
This can happen if you eat a large amount of not enough black nightshade or allow an overdose of green mass of the plant, using it for medicinal purposes. However, overdosing of any drugs is dangerous for health, so when asked if poison is black or not, the answer is: not poisonous if used wisely.
Just in case, here are the symptoms of poisoning:
- abdominal pain,
- general weakness
- disorientation in space and time,
- dilated pupils.
In especially serious cases, there is loss of consciousness, convulsions and coma.
Treatment - as soon as possible gastric lavage, laxatives, adsorbents.
Nightshade in cooking
Remember: you can eat only nightshade! Its fruit is not particularly sweet, but it is suitable for making jelly, jams, and preserves. And with him delicious pies. In some countries, for example in India, Nightshade is happy to eat raw berries. Love them in many areas of Russia. Some call the plant a late afternoon or a funnel. Here are a couple of recipes (the calculation is given for 0.5 kg of berries):
Nightshade (its black berries) rinse well. Prepare syrup from 0.5 kg of sugar and a glass of water, pour berries (hot) over them and leave for 12 hours, then cook on low heat until ready.
Rinse the berries thoroughly, pour boiling water on it and let it burn on the fire until soft. To wipe. Add 0.5 kg of sugar. Let stand. Cook until ready.
Medicinal properties, the use of dry raw materials
Nightshade black for medical purposes was used by Avicenna himself. Now all parts of the plant, from the root to the "top", are actively used by folk herbalists. It helps with:
- pains of a different nature (head, articular, rheumatic, gastrointestinal),
- nervous disorders
- epilepsy, nervous seizures,
- hypertension and other diseases.
List them all difficult. Nightshade is used even against cancer. Harvest the plant during its flowering. Green mass is cut and dried in the shade. If you wish, you can plant the nightshade in the garden. To do this, just knead the ripe berry and place in the ground. Nightingales care is the most minimal - watering and destroying weeds.
Nightshade black is used for the manufacture of ointments, water infusions and decoctions.
- Preparation of ointment: crush the dried leaves of the plant into powder and mix with oil (olive, sunflower) in proportions of 1: 4. It is used for injuries with skin damage, wounds, furuncles, ulcers.
- Cooking broth: pour a cup (250 ml) of hot water with 1 teaspoon of dry raw material, put in a water bath and simmer for 15 minutes over moderate heat. It is used for ingestion with gastrointestinal problems (colitis, gastritis, enterocolitis), asthma, cystitis, rheumatism 1 tsp in the morning and evening. To rinse with angina, stomatitis. Digging into the nose helps with rhinitis.
- Tincture: 1 teaspoon of dry raw material is poured with a glass of boiling water, wrapped (possible in a thermos) and aged for up to 4 hours It is used for ingestion of 1 teaspoon 2-3 times throughout the day for neurosis, rheumatism, headaches. In the form of lotions with lichen and furunculosis.
- Dry nightshade, burn, chop into powder, add sesame oil. This means smeared hemorrhoids.
The composition and calorie of nightshade black
Berry is considered unique in nutritional value. Its calorie content is zero, there are no proteins and fats in the composition, at least carbohydrates. How many do not eat, you will not recover.
But as part of the fruit a lot of nutrients:
- Vitamin P, rutin. Eliminates vascular spasms, reduces arterial and intracranial pressure, stabilizes the heart rhythm, has anti-inflammatory effect, suppresses histamine production.
Carotene. Slows down age changes, interferes with a malignancy and accelerates formation of a bone tissue.
Vitamin C, ascorbic acid. Its content - 180 mg per 100 g, increases the body's defenses, accelerates recovery during the epidemic season, participates in all oxidative and reducing processes.
Calcium. It is the main component of bone tissue, stabilizes impulse conductivity, normalizes the contraction of muscle fibers.
Magnesium. It contributes to the stable functioning of the urinary and digestive systems and, in combination with calcium, strengthens the bone tissue.
In the pulp of the fruit, there are other substances by which one can judge the benefits and harms of the nightshade for the body. They provide the plant with useful medicinal properties:
- Sahara. Increase the body's energy reserve, but it can trigger an increase in glucose levels.
Glycoalkaloids. They have an anesthetic and sedative effect, increase blood clotting, but there is a chance to provoke intoxication. One of the dangerous glycoalkaloids - solanine - poison.After the fruit ripens, solanine is completely destroyed.
Organic acids. Contribute to the normalization of blood, increase the strength of the vascular walls, dissolve harmful cholesterol, remove toxins, but if accumulated in the body can cause nausea and dizziness.
Tannins. They have astringent and anti-inflammatory effects, reduce the rate of peristalsis. In the mature fruits of nightshade black up to 10% tannin.
The most dangerous substance that is included in the composition of glycosides is dulcamarine. Its positive properties include an increase in the body's defenses, and a negative one - the possible development of respiratory failure.
The benefits of nightshade black:
- Normalizes the activity of the central nervous system, has a sedative effect,
Eliminates tachycardia, normalizes heart rate,
It has a pronounced antimicrobial effect, destroys bacteria and viruses, suppresses the vital activity of some species of fungal flora,
It has a diuretic effect,
Reduces temperature by increasing perspiration,
Accelerates the regenerative properties of the body, wound healing and erosive damage to the mucous membrane of the digestive tract and internal organs,
It stimulates the production of sputum, facilitates expectoration, relieves spasms of the respiratory tract,
Stops the development of inflammatory processes, prevents malignant cell degeneration,
Reduces blood pressure, prevents the development of atherosclerosis,
Reduces the manifestation of painful symptoms in rheumatism and arthritis,
Helps to get rid of vasomotor rhinitis and chronic antritis,
Folk healers with the help of black nightshade almost all diseases are treated - from chronic to infectious. Traditional medicine is trying to stop the growth of metastases with the help of fruits.
Contraindications and harm to nightshade black
The main contraindication to the use of black edible nightshade is the immaturity of the berries. The greener the fruits, the more toxic compounds they contain.
In case of mild poisoning, the pressure decreases, there is a slight sore throat, as at the onset of angina, salivation increases, diarrhea appears.
Severe intoxication is dangerous for the body. Symptoms of poisoning: diarrhea increases and becomes uncontrollable, vomiting begins, nervous excitement is replaced by drowsiness, breathing rhythm is disturbed, the pulse speeds up, cyanosis occurs.
If they do not provide timely assistance, tachycardia is replaced by bradycardia, sphincters relax, and the victim falls into a coma.
Even very ripe funnel fruits cannot be consumed:
- In chronic diseases and disorders of the liver and pancreas,
With increased flatulence and a tendency to diarrhea,
In chronic hypotension,
You can not enter into the diet of berries for children under 3 years old, pregnant and lactating.
It is very important to observe the measure when using black nightshade. Even if you eat ripe fruit, you can get poisoned.
How to eat black nightshade
It is very easy to collect the nightshade berries, as they grow in clusters. The harvest begins at the end of July and continues almost until the end of November.
Consider how to eat nightshade black. They are convinced that the berry is absolutely ripe, the skin has acquired a black color and glitters in the light, removes the stalks that contain toxic compounds, wash and enjoy the taste.
If the harvest is plentiful, the berries can be prepared for future use: dry, cook jam or compote. Dried fruits retain useful properties when stored in a dry dark place for 8 years.
Recipes with solanum black:
- Pie. Typically, baking pies start with the preparation of the dough, but in the case of black nightshade is recommended to first make the filling. Ripe berries are mixed with sugar in an enamel saucepan, in equal proportions by weight, mixed and wait 15 minutes for the juice to appear. Then cook on low heat, stirring constantly, so as not to burn. The finished filling becomes purple and tastes like blueberry jam. While the filling is prepared, knead the dough. For kneading required: 3 or a little more glass of flour, a glass of kefir, 1/5 of a cup of vegetable oil, a teaspoon of salt and sugar, a bag of quick baking yeast. When the dough stops sticking to the hands, it is placed in a warm place to fit. Crush the dough 1 time after the appearance of bubbles, and the second is already rolled into the reservoir. The oven is heated to 200 ° C, the form is smeared with sunflower oil - it is better to spread the oiled parchment under the cake. Spread most of the dough on the oiled baking sheet, on top of it the stuffing, fold the edges. Then a lattice is formed from the remains of the dough, the ends are fixed with the edges of the cake. Lattice and edges of the cake smeared with whipped yolk. Bake for 20-30 minutes.
Canadian black nightshade. From 2 kg of sugar boiled syrup, instead of water use the juice of one lemon. When the sugar is completely dissolved, 2 kg of washed and dried berries are dipped in it. Bring to a boil, set aside, allow to cool completely. Bring to a boil and set aside another 4-5 times. At the last boiling, another 2 lemons are poured into the saucepan, allowed to boil, so that the liquid will evaporate, and just before turning it off, they put a few mint leaves.
Simple jam. Berries, 600 g, pour syrup, boiled from 600 g of sugar, diluted with a glass of water. The pot is left on the night until the berries do not let the juice. In the morning, put the container on the fire and boil until the berries are soft. Then they are frayed and boiled again. Boil should not less than 1/3.
Quince jam. For 1 kg of ripe black nightshade need 13-15 fruits of quince. The quince is washed, in the whole form it is poured with boiling water, they insist 8-9 hours, changing the water 2-3 times. Then the fruit is cut into small slices, mixed with nightshade. The fruit mixture is brought to a boil over low heat, filled with 2 cups of water. Boil for 1-2 minutes, leave to stand, to stand out juice. After 6-8 hours, add 1.5-1.6 kg of sugar and cook as usual jam. If the quince is not present, it can be replaced with winter varieties of apples. Only in this case the cooking process should be controlled so that the apples do not boil soft.
Jam, boiled from ripe berries, can be used without restrictions.
From the fruit you can prepare a variety of drinks:
- Wine. Soft but not spoiled apples are mixed with the nightshade in 1: 1 ratio and interrupted in a blender. Add sugar - 0.5 kg a little more than half a teaspoon, pour everything into a glass jar. Leave for 4 days, covering the neck with two layers of gauze. After this time, 50 grams of sugar are poured into a jar and filled with water - the ratio of water and berry puree is 1:10. Leave to wander for 3 months. The finished wine has a very beautiful purple hue.
If you insist on vodka fresh berries, not digesting, the drink can only be used for medical purposes, not more than 60 drops per day. Alcohol tincture of black nightshade enhances immunity, normalizes blood pressure, but also accelerates the heart rhythm.
Interesting facts about black nightshade
Nightshade is rarely used. Few people know that ripe berries are not only safe, but also useful.
The healing properties of plants are known since ancient times. Hippocrates recommended eating berries to eliminate nighttime emissions, Dioscorides treated with their help erosive damage to the esophagus and eliminated intoxication, and Avicenna made sedatives and eliminated migraines. Avicenna gave preference to unripe fruits.
In England, it was believed that by drinking black nightshade, one could go insane, and the shoots surrounding the villages were mercilessly destroyed. But in Germany, ripe fruits with sprigs were placed in the cradles for children to protect children from evil.
The French believed that the nightshade is useful light and red-haired women asthenic addition - increases their vitality. It was in this country that a pronounced warming effect of ripe fruits and drinks from them was noticed.
Black wild nightshade makes Bulgarian pepper stock. The fruits obtained from such a bush have a pronounced tart taste, and their seeds are more viable.
From the berries of different ripeness make dyes for natural fabrics: blue, green and blue. Such materials are appreciated by fashion designers from fashion houses.
The withered berries of the nightshade was called because of the color change property. In the manufacture of beverages appears purple foam, and then the color changes all the liquid. During fermentation, it shimmers like opal. Truly a magic potion.
Knowing what to cook from the nightshade of black, you can hardly walk past him, having met him on the bank of the river or on the lawn. The taste of the fruit is original, you can experiment with them, combine with oranges, enter into cocktails.
Watch the video about the berry black nightshade:
Nightshade "Black": description and photo
Stem erect with abundant branching. Foliage slightly pubescent, with a serrated margin, lanceolate, narrowed to the outside. Prozhilki well viewed, on the back of the sheet slightly protruding above the surface.
Semi-umbrellas flower buds are white or with a slight greenish tint. In place of flowers, single berries are formed, reaching maturation of 0.7-0.8 cm in diameter. Initially green, on reaching maturity, turn black, becoming shiny anthracite balls. For decorative purposes, most often grow not the nightshade black, but rather the pepper-shaped and false-transverse, whose berries gradually turn orange or orange-red.
Visually familiar with the plant nightshade "Black" can be in the photo below:
Care after purchase
Check the moisture content of the substrate water if necessary (the abundance of fallen leaves, berries can indicate a lack of watering, and overflow, a sign of excessive moisture is the blackening of the stem base).
The nightshade is placed on the window with good lighting (in summer, the southern window is lightly shaved).
After quarantine, following the rules of transplantation, the bush is transplanted into a new, slightly larger pot.
- the content of the bush of black nightshade separately from other available plants (4-5 days),
- inspection for the presence of pests (spider mite, whitefly, aphid).
Nightshade belongs to the heavily growing crops, so the pot specimens have to be systematically cut.
- room temperature
- separated by at least 10 hours
- preferably soft.
In summer, black nightshade is poured more abundantly, taking into account the temperature, the volume of the pot, in the winter - moderately, once a week. In the heat it is useful to spray the bush early in the morning or in the evening.
The acidity of the soil should be between 6.5 and 7.5 pH. At the bottom of the pot must be placed a drainage layer, on top of which is poured nutrient light soil.
From the pot a bush is taken out along with an earthy clod.
If the roots of the plant are excessively large and have already formed a pair of rings, then they are carefully cut off with sharp scissors.
Growing from seed at home
Even planting material from the fruit on the bushes that survived the winter in the open air (if the winter is not very severe) may be suitable for breeding.
Friendly shoots from seeds sown in fertile soil appear on days 9–10. After forming the third pair of leaves the most powerful sprouts can be moved to individual pots (or leave the most attractive in a flowerpot).
No shading black nightshade badly transfers heat over 30 degrees. Dies during frosts. For pot crops the minimum threshold is 10 degrees Celsius.
Nightshade Black photophilousbut is afraid of excess direct sunlight. The best place in the house: east, west and south windows. In the latter case, summer shading is recommended.
Benefit and harm
Nightshade "Black" is poisonous, so it hurts everyone who decides to eat any part of the bush or unripe berries for food. But herbalists have black nightshade in high esteem, since they are used to make medicinal infusions, lotions, and other similar products. In traditional domestic medicine, the plant is not used.
Some housewives are made from ripe solanaceous berries, jams, the top for baking.
Diseases and pests
The plant is well against most typical plant diseases, but may be subject to occupation. aphids, spider mite, whiteflies.
Vs insects any kind it is advisable to use insecticides.
Vs ticks effective prevention in the form of support for optimal humidity with the help of systematic spraying in the summer and with the onset of the heating season.
Black nightshade, like many other nightshade, attracted flower growers because of the long flowering period and decorative attractiveness of the fruit.
Healers and herbalists appreciate this poisonous plant for its widespread distribution and its ability to help in the fight against many diseases.