Breeding quails is becoming an increasingly popular occupation, which is due to the unpretentious care and the need for a small area for their maintenance. Moreover, in the end, you can get high-quality eggs and meat. As a result, the question is widespread - “How to feed quails in poultry houses?”.
Grain and cereal crops
Must be no more than 50% of the daily feed rate. Their excess can lead to obesity of birds, therefore they will cease to rush. In the diet of quail, you must include the following crops:
- Corn. Due to the high percentage of starch and carbohydrates, it is an indispensable source of energy for birds. But it contains too few amino acids, so it is recommended to add fish or meat and bone meal to the croup.
- Oats containing vitamins of group B. It needs to be prepared, carefully sift before feeding.
- Wheat is needed to improve bird productivity. It must be included in the daily diet of quails.
In addition to cereals and cereals, legume products are useful for quail layers. They contain amino acids, protein and fats. You should also include in their diet rice. Under its influence increases egg production. But rice is much more expensive, so it is extremely rare for quails to give it.
Often, farmers use meal and cake for cooking mash. Both are obtained in the process of squeezing the oil out of soy and sunflower. They contain vitamins and amino acids that are good for chickens.
Vitamins for quail can be contained in various products. But you need to use these products with a measure. Moreover, they must be fresh and without rot. So, quails give the following vegetables:
- carrot containing carotene and B vitamins,
- sugar beet, which is necessary for the normal development of young and adult individuals,
- cabbage. It contains vitamins A, B, C. Due to its use, the quality of the shell is improved, which reduces the likelihood of eggs hitting,
- potatoes. It contains starch and vitamins of group B. But you need to give it only in finished form.
It is also recommended to include greens (nettle, grass) in the diet of quails. But before feeding it needs to be crushed.
Quail food must necessarily include minerals. They not only improve the digestion of birds, but also improve the quality of the eggshell. So, it is recommended to give birds fodder chalk, which is rich in calcium. Equally useful and trusted salt, which is a source of sodium.
Eggshell can also be used as a temporary feeding. But it must be well grind, then add to food. A large amount of calcium is also found in river shells. You can either buy them or assemble them yourself. They must also be ground well before use.
Components that are part of the feed
There are several varieties of feed for quail. They differ in the ingredients that make up them, as well as in the name:
- PC-1, includes corn, salt, chalk. Wheat bran and barley are also added to it. It is the cheapest variety of feed. Mainly used for feeding young animals.
- PC-2. It consists of the same elements as PC-1, as well as fish and meat and bone meal. For one individual, 27 grams of feed per day is sufficient.
- PC-3. It is used for feeding chickens that are to reach sexual age. This is a small grains obtained from corn and wheat.
- PC-4 and PC-6 have similar characteristics. 60% of them are cereals (corn and wheat). Another 30% is meat and bone meal and fish meal, and minerals are only 5%. Suitable for feeding adults.
- Pk-5. 35% protein, 60% grain. Salt and chalk are also added to the compound feed. One adult is enough to 30 grams of such food per day.
Store food for quails, which includes more than 20% protein, must be in a dry place. If you give the quail spoiled feed, they can poison them and die.
Where to contain
Experienced poultry farmers recommend growing young in cages with heaters. They are covered with a grid of 10 by 10 millimeters. For 100-150 chicks, optimal sizes are:
- Width - 150 centimeters.
- Depth - 50-70 centimeters.
- Height - 25 centimeters.
For the floor using a grid with 10 10 or 8 by 8 millimeters. Under it is installed tray for litter. In the first 5-7 days of life, chicks can be laid on the floor burlap, only necessarily exactly. Contaminated litter should be changed daily.
For heating often used incandescent bulbs with lampshade.
Newborn quail transferred into a pre-disinfected and equipped brooder. It should be spacious so that it can be divided into 2 zones:
- The first is warm, most of it is under the lamp.
- The second - cold, so that the chicks are not overheated.
Temperature and humidity
For day-old chicks, the optimum temperature is 37 degrees Celsius. Within a month after birth, it should be as follows:
- 1-7 days - 35-36 degrees under the heater, and 27-28 degrees indoors.
- 8-14 days - 30-32 degrees under the heater, and 25-26 degrees indoors.
- 15-21 days - 25-27 degrees under the heater, and 23-25 degrees indoors.
- 22-30 days - 20-22 degrees under the heater, and 20-22 degrees in the room.
If the chicks are cold, they will begin to stumble towards each other; if it is hot, the wings will droop, breathing will become more frequent, the appetite will decrease, thirst will appear.
Optimum humidity of air - 60-70%. If you do not feel the dampness in the room, then the psychrometer will not show it.
The first thing I want to say, troughs and drinkers should always be clean. Feeding chicks can be divided into several stages:
- From birth to 7 days. During this period, chicks are fed hard-boiled eggs (chicken or quail). From the second day, you can enter low-fat cottage cheese (no more than 2 grams per individual). Eggs can be given with ground to a flour shell. On the third day, fresh chopped greens are added to the diet (the number of eggs is reduced).
- 8 to 30 days. At this age, you can give feed for chickens. It mainly contains finely crushed corn and wheat, proteins. From the second week, they introduce the shell and gravel (ground).
- From the first month to slaughter. During the week, young animals are transferred to adult feed. To avoid early puberty, the protein in the feed should not exceed 18%.
The best option for day-old chicks - feed with high protein content. For good mastering, it is recommended to grind it in a coffee grinder.
IMPORTANT! On the first day of life, the chicks must be shown where the feed is. Do this by tapping with a stick on the trough.
Water give only boiled.
ON A NOTE! Drinkers make small so that the chicks are not drowned.
Diseases, how to deal with them
One of the most common diseases, the so-called "twine". The paws of the chicks disperse on a slippery surface (which is why litter is important), dislocation occurs. Sometimes this happens because of the cramped brooder. You can fix the situation as follows:
- The paws are tied with a soft woolen (cotton) thread, so that the chick can stand, and its paws do not separate.
- After 3 days the thread can be removed.
From the third day of life, the chicks are put in a multivitamin feed (a drop in 2 individuals), feed biomitsin (a teaspoon per 100 individuals). A day later - levomycetin-succinate. All this will avoid such a disease as pullorosis (clogging of the cloaca). As a preventive measure of infection, in the first days of life, instead of water, give a light solution of potassium permanganate.
If cloacal blockage occurs, the following manipulations are carried out:
- The feathers near the cloaca are washed with warm water.
- Treat with vegetable oil.
- Give "golofak" according to the instructions (antibiotic).
As you have already seen, the chicks require attention and careful care. But for the hard work there will be a reward - a strong and healthy livestock.
Feeding quail at home
The pledge of harmonious development and good health of birds is strict adherence to the daily norms and rules of feeding, which are individual for each age.
The optimally balanced nutrition of quails guarantees perfect health, vitality and high egg production. Therefore, care must be taken to ensure that birds always receive the necessary amount of nutrients, minerals and vitamins.
Quail and quail with chicks
The optimal diet for healthy eating
Useful food rich in valuable vitamins and minerals is not difficult to cook on your own. Consider the most successful options for recipes.
The simplest nutritious food will come from carefully mixed together:
- 100 g finely chopped barley,
- 400 g of corn flour,
- 1 teaspoonful of meat and bone meal,
- 50 g of twisted raw fish or meat
- 50 g fresh cottage cheese,
- 0.5 teaspoon of sunflower seed oil, which has not passed the refining process.
For the preparation of another nutritious and healthy treat, you will need exactly 100 grams of cereals from millet and oats, minced meat obtained from any kind of fish, and also cottage cheese, regardless of the degree of its fat content.
Dry food for quail
All types of feed, cooked independently, must be given to birds exclusively fresh. Minced meat and fish waste should be stored in a refrigerator at a temperature of -1 to -3 C. You can add a little onion and garlic to beef and fish mince - they must first be cleaned of husks that can clog bird's stomachs.
The following table shows the types of food, as well as their optimal daily volume for different stages of bird life.
Feeding rates for quails at different ages per head
In addition to the correct selection of the composition of food for quails, it is necessary to observe a certain feeding regime. This type of bird is recommended 3 - 4 single, daily food intake. Ideally, feeding should occur at the same time every day.
The optimal amount of feed for one bird individual differs depending on the breed:
- egg breeds require approximately 22-30 grams of feed,
- representatives of meat breeds - 23-35 gr.
To feed the feed should be exactly one third of the feeder.
Water and drinkers
Special attention should be paid to the organization of drinking. This requires perfectly clean containers from a safe material. In its raw form, only artesian water can be used for these purposes. River water must necessarily be boiled and cooled.
As for tap water in urban environments, it is not necessary to boil it, since it is pre-cleaned of bacteria, but it must be filtered or allowed to stand for several hours until dangerous chlorine disappears.
An example of a convenient poultry drinker
It is useful to add solutions of selenium and potassium permanganate, as well as ascorbic acid and vitamins of group B, which can be used exclusively separately due to special chemical reactions, as a result of which they destroy each other.
Water with mineral and vitamin supplements must be replaced every six hours.
It is useful to add ascorbic acid to drinking water.
The choice of the drinker itself should be taken responsibly, because quail health depends on it. This product should be easy to remove and easy to clean. Plays an important role and type of material. The best options are glass, ceramics and food grade plastic. The metal is absolutely unsuitable for these purposes, since upon contact with water, reactions may occur that cause poisoning of the birds.
How to feed layers to increase egg production
To ensure a high egg production quail possible by proper selection of the daily diet of laying hens. An important role here is played not only by the type of feed and its composition, but also the observance of a certain mode of feeding birds.
Quail egg production will always be at the highest possible level if its diet is enriched with proteins and amino acids naturally present in fish and meat and bone meal. The addition of ground shells, gravel and special food chalk contributes to the hardening and strengthening of the eggshell.
Tips to follow to improve egg production:
- Every day, the bird should eat three times, while maintaining such an interval so that she can have a good appetite before the next feeding.
- The remnants of food after each meal must be removed from the trough - thus it is possible to achieve compliance with the optimal mode and not deviate from it.
- Each layer should consume at least 30 grams of feed.
- The amount of food should be consistent with the age of the hen, overfeeding is unacceptable because it will lead to obesity, which negatively affects the quantity and quality of eggs produced.
- The diet of laying hens should contain at least 25% of proteins, which are most responsible for egg production and the quality of eggs laid. Therefore, be sure to add to the feed bread or cottage cheese - at the rate of 2 grams per individual.
- In no case can not be too sharp to move from one nutrient composition to another. When such a need arises, it should be done very smoothly and gradually, in equal proportions mixing the previous and the new feed composition with each other.
- An important condition is the freshness of the feed, regardless of its type.
Increased egg production in quails
Adding fresh and high-quality vegetable oils of cotton, soybeans, corn, sunflower and rapeseed to quail egg production favorably - these fat supplements are rich in unsaturated fatty acids, phospholipids and non-sapidated lipids - indispensable for the development of quails, which not only improve the egg production of the young, but also accelerate the process of its ripening.
Adding vegetable oils to the diet will have a qualitative effect on quail egg production
Feed and its effect on egg production
Especially for layers it is recommended to prepare homemade food with the addition of vitamin-mineral premix of ten percent concentration in the amount of 80 grams. As the remaining ingredients must be taken:
- corn - 200 gr,
- wheat - 200 gr,
- well done sunflower cake - 90 gr,
- soybean meal - 90 g,
- fodder yeast - 45 gr,
- meat and bone meal - 45 gr,
- peas - 30 gr,
- unrefined sunflower oil - 10 gr.
Quail and feed
Significantly increase egg production and feed, prepared according to the following recipe. It is necessary to mix with each other:
- corn - 200 g,
- wheat - 190 g,
- millet - 150 g,
- fish and meat and bone meal - 120 g of each type,
- dry yeast - 60 g,
- sunflower meal - 50 g,
- dry milk - 40 g,
- milled shell - 20 g.
In order for the birds to always carry well, they should always have cereals in their diet. Large grain must be soaked for a day, and then passed through a meat grinder.
Germinated grain brings great benefits
It is possible to use high-quality industrial feed for these purposes. It is recommended to treat the hens with such compound feeds as “Salvit” and “Fidlife”, which are rich in valuable antioxidants and anti-bacterial additives.
How to feed adult males and females
Adult quails should necessarily receive the following nutritional components:
- cereals and legumes - they are given a leading role in the diet,
- quality plant products that are the main source of natural vitamins necessary for the proper development of birds,
- animal products - as the main source of natural proteins. You can use meat and fish mince, chicken and quail boiled eggs, cottage cheese, fish, worms and pupae of ants,
- natural minerals - sea and river shells in a ground condition, egg shells, special fodder chalk, table salt and gravel.
The basis of the diet of adults is cereals - mainly wheat, corn, and oats, carefully sifted and peeled. Due to the high content of carbohydrates, they saturate the birds with the necessary energy.
An available vitamin source is vegetables — namely, potatoes, beets, and carrots. Another essential ingredient is greens. In winter, pre-prepared dried herbal mixtures are ideal.
It is important to note that special elements must be introduced into the diet of males.
Mandatory ingredients for male quail feed are:
- Canary seed rich in fiber and proteins
- boiled eggs,
- boiled fish of any varieties.
Feed for adults
Высококачественные комбикорма промышленного и домашнего производства составляют основу рациона питания взрослых особей. Поскольку для этих птиц характерен более интенсивный обмен веществ, комбикорм должен соответствовать важнейшим требованиям:
- optimum degree of crushing,
- easy digestibility.
From the industrial options are perfect PC-3, PC-4 and PC-6, which consist of 60% of the grain and 30% of proteins. They also contain food chalk, table salt, bran and phosphates.
Adult livestock is recommended to treat the combined food of their own cooking, which is particularly useful and nutritious. To prepare such feed should be kneaded:
- on 100 gr soy and wheat meal,
- 400 grams of corn kernels
- 150 grams of wheat
- 100 gr mixture of fish and meat and bone meal,
- 60 grams of a mixture of food chalk and crushed shell,
- 40 grams of fodder yeast,
- five grams of special premix and table salt.
This will saturate the avian organism with all the most essential vitamins and minerals.
How to feed the quail properly
The phased diet of the smallest quail from the first day of life and feeding nuances:
- From the first moments of life and for seven to ten days in a row, the main food for chicks is quail eggs - they should be boiled hard-boiled together with the shell, and then thoroughly crushed or ground. Alternatively, at this stage, you can use regular chicken eggs cooked in the same way.
- On the second day of life, the daily diet is supplemented with cottage cheese with 0% fat. It should be thoroughly grind through a sieve. Each chick should be given only 2 grams of such treats.
Quail and eggs
At the end of the first week of life, the quail ration should consist mainly of the following components:
- skim cheese,
- ground carrot,
- boiled lean fish
- wheat in a ground form.
At this tender age, chicks need to eat food in such quantity as their body requires. Therefore, five to six feeding sessions should be done daily. It is very important to maintain a high level of hygiene, which means that after each meal, thoroughly clean and rinse all feeders and drinkers of small ones, so that bacteria and microorganisms that are dangerous to their health and life do not start there.
As soon as the chicks reach two weeks of age, care must be taken to ensure that they have a high content of crude protein in their diet - this component should occupy at least 25% of the total mass of feed. Up to 28 days of age, quails need an increased protein content. And to improve the process of digesting food and accelerating the absorption of valuable substances, it is recommended to add shell and gravel in minimal quantities.
Green is required
Monthly quail is recommended to treat food prepared on the basis of millet, clover, spinach, alfalfa and cabbage. During the winter period, components such as sprouted oats, millet, corn, onions and wheat will become an alternative to fresh greens.
Signs of improper feeding birds
Incorrect nutrition, in particular, insufficient intake of vitamin components in the body of quails leads to significant health problems.
With a deficit of retinol, the growth and development of young animals is slowed down, the quality of the feathering is deteriorating, and the egg production and fertility of eggs are reduced. In addition, the muscles of the birds weaken, which, in turn, is fraught with the occurrence of convulsive spasms and paralysis, as well as impaired coordination of movements.
Lack of vitamin K3 (menadione) leads to a deterioration of blood clotting, the development of anemia and the occurrence of hemorrhage. If the quail contains insufficient vitamin D, the bone skeleton undergoes deformation and rachitis develops.
It is important to consider certain contraindications in feeding quails. In no case can you add to the feed the following products:
- buckwheat (both grain and greens),
- raw potatoes
- tomato tops,
- berries and greens solanaceous crops.
Try to monitor the health of your quails and quails, whose support is mainly the right diet.
What to feed quail
For full growth quails need proper, balanced nutrition and care. Particular attention should be paid to the diet of birds in the first weeks of their lives. This will further affect the health and egg production. Small quails need to be given food in accordance with their needs, which change with age. The diet of daily chicks differs from weekly and even more monthly.
In the first days of life (daily allowance)
The rules for feeding newly hatched chicks are as follows:
- The very first thing you need to pay attention to is the presence of pure water in chicks. She should be well off around the clock. It is better to water quail with purified or boiled water. It can be diluted with several manganese crystals. Drinking bowls should be very small, it is possible to use capron caps.
- The main component in the daily ration quail is protein. It is given in the form of ground eggs. Use quail (with shell), but possibly chicken, avoiding the shell. You can add boiled millet porridge, finely ground oatmeal or wheat to a squirrel. Four parts of protein add one part of the cereal.
- Food should be unlimited. Of course, quails will not eat much. Meals - at least six times a day at approximately equal intervals. After the birds eat, the feeder should be cleaned of food residue.
- You can also feed quail with special feed for chickens and poults. This option is suitable for those who do not want to mess with cooking. In this case, there will be no need to add additional minerals and vitamins - the complexes fully provide the growing birds with everything they need.
A week later, the frequency of feeding is reduced to five times a day. Protein is still a significant part of the diet, but the main emphasis is shifted from eggs to cottage cheese. Grown up chicks can be given porridge (oatmeal, wheat, barley) and just crushed grain. You can also add bone powder and herbs.
With age, the diet is adjusted:
- At the age of two weeks to a month, the number of feedings is reduced to four times a day.
- The amount of protein in the diet decreases (but not less than 25% of the total mass). The easiest way to use ready-made feed. When choosing to pay attention to the amount of protein and carbohydrates. Preferably the presence of crushed corn, oats, wheat. Of those offered on the market the most popular are “Sun”, “Golden Cockerel”, “Starter”.
- If there is no opportunity to buy ready-made mix, then do not forget to add cottage cheese, eggs, boiled fish, in usual porridges, in general, any available sources of protein or use protein supplements.
- In addition to eggs and cottage cheese, chicks should receive carbohydrates and vitamins. Chopped greens (clover, nettle, spinach, tops), grated beets and carrots, cabbage are excellent.
- Another important point is the introduction to the diet of mineral supplements. They may consist of chalk, crushed shell rock or gravel. Such supplements not only saturate the body with minerals, but also help cleanse the stomach.
Monthly and older
After reaching a month, meals are made thrice a day. From four weeks quail transferred to an adult diet. This should happen gradually, over 5-6 days. The protein content in the diet is reduced to 15%.
Otherwise, they give all the same as the chicks:
- cereals (rice, millet, corn, bran, oats),
- grated vegetables (beets, carrots, cabbage, potatoes, zucchini),
- greens (grass)
- fermented milk products (yogurt, cottage cheese).
If the diet consists entirely of feed, it is desirable to take into account the type of quail. For example, broilers are best served with PC-6 feed, and layers are suitable for PC-1.
Feeding rates quail
Below are the tables on the norms of feeding quail for industrial feed and conventional products.
The rate for production feed per day (weight in grams):
Consumption for the diet of the products available to the usual owner:
What can not feed
It may seem that the quail is omnivorous, but there are some products that should not be given to these birds:
- sprouted potatoes (it contains a toxic substance - solanine),
- the water in which the potatoes were boiled,
- products from the table (sausage, bread, leftover food),
- unpeeled oats and barley.
Untreated cereals can injure the chick's stomach and lead to tragic consequences.
Conditions of detention
The diet is very important for the development and growth of young quails, but no less important are the conditions of detention:
- The feeder should be slightly larger in volume than the volume of feed, so less food will wake up on the floor. It should be convenient for birds and accessible for timely cleaning.
Quails are fed from 2 to 3 times a day with equal breaks strictly according to the regime. The largest portion of the daily ration (about 40%) is given in the evening. As a rule, it is cereal, as the cereals digest longer - the bird does not feel hunger all night.
Feeding quail depending on age
On average, a healthy laying hen should eat from 22 to 27 g of feed per day.
On a note! Rushing females should never go hungry, but you should not overfeed them either. Otherwise, the bird becomes lethargic and less frequent.
The most convenient and economical option of feeding - certainly purchased ready-made feed. Preference is given to a special complete feed for quail. Its advantage over analogues is in the highest percentage of protein - from 21 to 23%. A good substitute can serve as feed for laying hens, but in this case protein supplements are obligatory.
An alternative such as parrot food is acceptable, but it needs to be supplemented with proteins (12 g / day), vitamins and minerals.
Compound feed for quails
The following ingredients may be included in the in-house feed mixture:
Quail Feeding Scheme
The digestion process of many bird species is closely related to minerals. Getting into the stomach, small stones crush food and ensure the absorption of nutrients. Quails are given gravel or quartz sand separately from the feed. Gravel must be washed.
Chalk should be used exclusively fodder. You can feed quails constantly or from time to time. Also should be included in the diet of calcium.
Why do we need minerals for quail
Table salt is a source of sodium and chlorine, so it must be present in the feed, but in very small amounts (not more than 0.3%). In large quantities, it is poisonous to quail.
The main mineral feed is sea or river shell. You can buy it in the store or collect it yourself. In the second case, the shell should be treated with boiling water.
Features of feeding in the winter
In winter, due to the lack of greenery, the need of quails for vitamins increases significantly. The most accessible sources are carrots and cabbage. Therefore, these products should stock up. If possible, it would be good to leave at least some greens in the diet. You can, for example, independently germinate grains of millet and feed them to the bird when green shoots appear.
Some important nuances
- Change the composition of the feed gradually. Quails do not tolerate sharp changes in the diet.
- Do not use potato broth in the preparation of food - this will lead to serious digestive disorders.
- Meat, fish or bone meal is easy to check for suitability. The powder should be poured boiling water and leave for half an hour. If there is a sharp smell of rot - throw away all that remains.
- Do not collect greens near roads or other polluted places. Make sure that there is no bird droppings on the grass or leaves - this is the vector of the disease.
- Grind raw fish waste with bones, otherwise a hungry bird may be injured.
- Quails adore hemp and flaxseed seeds, but they should rarely be given. The first increases the risk of obesity, impairs vision and contains narcotic substances, and the second sometimes accumulates hydrocyanic acid. Moreover, it is impractical because of the high prices of both feeds.
- After or during stressful situations and diseases, quails especially need vitamins - the amount of green in the diet should be increased.
Quails love hemp and flaxseed
What you need to know about feeding young?
Chicks need small drinkers - up to 5 mm deep, otherwise they can be drowned. An example of a cheap and convenient drinking bowl: a lid from a glass jar. Water should be boiled to avoid contamination. For the young, this is most relevant, since in warmth raw water becomes unsuitable faster.
Feed quail should contain a lot of animal protein. Most often they feed boiled mashed eggs - the most complete protein product. After a week, you can add grain feed. Very fine crushed corn or wheat groats will do. Young nettle leaves are useful for young quails - they contain a lot of vitamins and vegetable protein.
Quail feed must contain a lot of animal protein
Easily assimilable source of protein is milk, but it should be given only in a fermented form. Fresh milk quickly sours and glues the plumage. A good substitute for milk will be cottage cheese or sour milk.