In spring and autumn it is necessary to treat apples. On this depends on the yield and well-being of the tree. To do everything right, you need to know the rules of spring and autumn processing, which are described in this article.
Processing apple trees in spring
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It is necessary to process the tree in early spring before the onset of sap flow. For this you will need a pruner and a hacksaw. The slices need to be treated with a special tool. For spraying wounds of apple trees, it is necessary to prepare a 5% solution of copper sulfate.
It is necessary to carefully examine the trunk, all branches of the tree for various damage, cracking, the presence of pests, mummified fruits. All this must be removed with tools. The mycelium must be removed with a sharp knife to lively, healthy woody tissue. In order to prevent healthy tissue from becoming infected, it is recommended to process the instrument with fire or copper sulphate solution during the process.
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Pruning trees should be done with sharp tools so as not to cause more damage to the apple tree. After the cuts, there should be no “stumps” so that the pests do not settle in them. Excess branches must be removed for the entry of sunlight and air.
When the spring frosts end and an approximate temperature of +5 degrees is established, you can proceed to further treatment of apples from diseases, the destruction of winter rookery pests - weevils, forage mills and others. To do this, you need to collect autumn leaves with a garden rake and burn them.
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Now it is necessary to lay the soil around the trunk with oilcloth and clean the trunks and old skeletal branches from the old bark, moss, lichen, growths with a plastic spatula or a stiff brush. If wounds appeared on the trunk, they should be processed immediately. All cleaned places need to be washed with a solution. To prepare it you need:
- a bucket of hot water
- 2.5 kg of wood ash,
- 2 pieces of dark laundry soap, previously grated,
- 1 kg of non-iodized salt.
All ingredients mix, give boil. After the solution has cooled, you can process the trees.
Proper whitewashing trunks
Despite the fact that in the autumn whitewashing of trunks was made, it should be repeated in the spring. This will save the tree from bright sunburn, fungal diseases, scare off annoying insects.
For spring processing of apple trees, it is necessary to prepare an effective solution with lime and copper sulfate in the ratio of 10 liters of water to 350 grams of vitriol. If the crown of trees is always damaged by rodents, then the resulting mixture is proposed to add 1 tbsp. spoon of carbolic acid.
So that the mixture does not wash off the trunk after the rain, you can add clay to it to create a viscous consistency. It is necessary to whiten the trunks, the lower parts of the skeletal branches, processing joints, forks.
Having finished whitewashing, you need to spray the soil around the trunk with a special solution (copper sulphate, Bordeaux mixture, etc.), dig the ground and spray again.
Inexperienced gardeners are interested in the processing of apple trees. Treating trees is carried out in three stages, which allows gardeners to deal with different types of insects. For a certain "enemy" is selected a separate tool.
- The first spraying of apple trees is carried out before bud break in March or April. If the tree is in satisfactory condition, then Bordeaux liquid, solution of ferrous or copper (3-5%) vitriol (5%) and other broad-acting fungicides are used. Spraying urea kills pests, feeds the plant with nitrogen. It can be used if there are no fungal diseases in the garden.
Tip! After the first spraying, it is recommended to install trap belts on trunks.
- The second spraying of apple trees is carried out during the swelling of the kidneys. At this time, the insects have already woken up and are beginning to make their way to the branches of the tree. They can be poisoned with insecticides: Bi-58, Binom, Fufaron, Lepidotsid, Ditox and others.
- The third spraying of apple trees is carried out after flowering. The last spraying is aimed at the destruction of flowering beetles, aphids, apple moths. The following drugs will help protect the tree: Fufaron, Zolon, Novaktion, Pyrimix.
Recommendations for spring spraying of apple trees
Only a gardener can know which diseases afflict trees, and which insects make a massive invasion after winter, so the treatment is carried out taking into account these circumstances at a certain time. If the apple tree is overpowered by weevils (beech and apple tsvetou), then the crown should be sprayed with lime mixture in a ratio of 10 liters of water to 2 kg of hydrated lime. This should be done at a temperature of +7 degrees. To save the tree from scab, leaf spot, powdery mildew, you can use the drug "Strobe", a 3% solution of Bordeaux mixture.
During flowering trees are not sprayed, because the preparations can scare away beneficial insects, then a rich harvest and not worth the wait. But in some cases, gardeners do it, but only with the biological preparation “Ovary” in cold weather.
Processing the apple tree after flowering, you can be sure that it is protected from diseases and pests. Each gardener decides on his own what to process the fruit tree, but experts give some useful tips:
- Strobbi, Fundazol, Scor, Raek, Kumuluks, 1% Bordeaux liquid will save the fruit from rot, fungal diseases, scab,
- Decis, Fitoverm protect the tree from moths, silkworm, aphids, winter moth, leafworm,
- Karate, Apollo scare the gall mite,
- Karbofos, Novaktion, Kemifos, Fufan - from the sawfly.
To care for the fruit tree must constantly. It will require not only timely spraying, but also the removal of weeds, loosening the soil around the plantation. To get a notable harvest, you need to feed the tree with useful substances, regularly water it. Having found a fungal disease, it should be eliminated immediately.
Watch the video! Processing of apple and pear in spring
A set of activities for the autumn care of apple trees
Autumn care for apple trees should be comprehensive and include
- cleaning leaves and windfalls,
- barrel cleaning,
- binding with the warming materials.
All the numerous procedures for preparing apple trees for winter will help keep the trees healthy and strong, get a good harvest next season.
Why, when, how and what to spray apple trees in autumn
The goal of autumn spraying is to reduce the likelihood of diseases and the multiplication of pests of apple crops in the spring. Indeed, many spores of infections and insect larvae hide in the fallen foliage under the bark of trees for the winter. When conducting therapeutic and prophylactic spraying, it is important to observe the optimal timing:
- early treatment can be detrimental to the tree, will cause foliage burns and its premature shedding,
- work after frost will not have the desired effect.
It is best to plan spraying for the end of October and the beginning of November after the leaf fall. It is best to carry out work on a clear and windless day, as the rain and wind will wash away and inflate the treatment solution, that is, they will reduce the effectiveness of the applied preparations to "zero."
Before processing the apple should
- examine it carefully
- identify infected places
- clean the old bark, under which may be clusters of pests,
- cut off the damaged and affected branches, be sure to treat the cut sites with garden bales,
- to clean the tree trunk by removing fallen leaves, carrion, branches and debris.
Before dilution of the drug, it is necessary to check the working capacity of the sprayer, the availability of personal protective equipment and other devices (in particular, ladders). When preparing the applied solution, it is necessary to achieve its homogeneity so that the wood is processed evenly. The composition of increased concentration can cause burns and even death of the tree.
When carrying out spraying it is necessary to remember safety measures, use overalls, gloves and points
Spraying technology with various preparations
When choosing drugs for the autumn treatment of apples should focus on the common garden pests and infections. Before use, it is recommended to carry out a trial spraying on a small section of the apple tree and observe the reaction of the tree. The absence of burns, other signs of negative impact - a signal to the possibility of complete treatment.
Urea is used to kill insect larvae, as well as fungal pathogens. This is an aggressive tool, so the treatment is carried out after the leaf fall, and not only the tree itself is treated, but also the soil around it. For autumn spraying, use a 10% solution (1 kg of urea per bucket of water). On a sapling 2 liters of mix are necessary, on an adult tree - 10 l.
Iron vitriol can protect the apple from septoria, scab and black cancer. For autumn spraying, a 5% solution is prepared (500 g of substance per bucket of water). Consumption rate - 15 liters of solution per 1 hundred squares. Gardeners are actively using iron sulfate, as it is time-tested, effective and relatively inexpensive. This drug, like urea, is sprayed only after leaf fall, as it can cause leaf burns.
Copper sulfate is used for the prevention of fungal diseases. The drug does not have medicinal properties. Copper, which is the basis of the product, does not allow spores to germinate and, thus, reduces the spread of fungus on fruit crops. Autumn spraying with copper sulfate is carried out with a 1% solution (100 g of substance per 10 l of water) necessarily after completion of leaf fall at a consumption rate of 2 to 5 l per apple tree.
On the basis of copper sulphate, you can prepare Bordeaux mixture, which consists of hydrated lime (200 g) and copper sulphate (150 g) dissolved in a bucket of water. The mixture is indispensable for the preventive autumn treatment of apple trees against fungal diseases.
Some gardeners prefer to spray apples with Burgundy liquid, which, in addition to copper sulfate, includes soda ash. In this case, 250 g of soda and 300 g of copper sulphate are dissolved in a bucket of water, and 40 g of soap are added for better adhesion. The drug effectively protects the apple from the spread of fungal spores.
Among the publicly available means of treating apple trees against pests, gardeners put diesel fuel in a special place. The solution of this substance is effective against insects, as it forms a film on the tree that does not allow pests to breathe. They are recommended to carry out the treatment in late autumn, even after small frosts. Prepare a solution of the following components:
- diesel fuel (9 parts),
- water (10 parts),
- laundry soap (1 part).
Popular for autumn spraying insecticide contact action 30 plus. It forms a film on the surface of the insect itself, as well as its larvae. The film disrupts the gas exchange and water balance of the pest and leads to its death. For spraying apple trees, 250 ml of the drug is dissolved in 5 l of water. The consumption of the working solution is 2 liters for trees up to three years, 5 liters for trees four years and older. Spraying can be carried out immediately after harvest.
Specialized stores offer a lot of systemic drugs that can solve a complex of problems. For autumn treatment against diseases, you can use:
Processing of apples with these preparations can be carried out immediately after harvesting. When buying drugs, do not forget to check the availability of instructions, which indicate the rules and norms of their use.
Appointment and deadlines
According to the observations of many years, experienced gardeners have compiled a calendar, thanks to which anyone can find out when and what kind of processing needs to be done, because apples are at stake.
Most of the disease is revealed during fruiting, when fruits that are not fully ripe begin to rot and crumble. Therefore, the autumn processing of the apple orchard carries with it a preventive task: that is, the pests that did not die in the fall will be destroyed in the spring.
The best month is November, processing in early autumn can lead to yellowing and abscission of foliage, and even worse - to burn the leaves, which in turn is fraught with the death of trees from frost.If the processing is done correctly, the result will be visible next year - the garden will be pleased with abundant fruiting. Spraying is carried out in dry windless weather. It is imperative that before the start of this procedure, the area is cleaned from foliage and debris.
Iron sulfate is a means by which it is possible not only to improve fruiting, if the plant is treated in the spring, but also to restore the old garden, if this procedure is carried out in the autumn.
It helps trees survive the cold and is held after the foliage has fallen. Iron sulfate is a time-tested tool and is relatively inexpensive in monetary terms.
This drug is used to protect the garden from septoria, scab and black cancer - those diseases that seed crops are prone to. In the autumn, we use a 5% solution of ferrous sulfate, and in the spring only 1%. Protective functions persist for 14 days because the substance is oxidized in air and loses its properties. For spraying, a 5% solution is made (450 grams of powder per 10 liters of water) at a rate of up to 15 liters per hundred squares of treatment area.
The vitriol does not apply on a green leaf, the solution has a very acidic reaction of the medium, thereby causing burns. To store the drug can only be long in a closed container, because it is hygroscopic.
Ferrous sulfate is not 100% protection against problems, since the solution cannot get into inaccessible places where spores and mosses persist. Experienced gardeners cultivate the garden in the fall with iron sulfate and in the spring with copper, which in turn gives a good result.
This substance is a fungicide of a preventive action and does not carry any therapeutic properties. It is used to reduce the spread of fungus in fruit crops.
If the fungal spores got into the tissues of the foliage and fruits, this drug will not save, therefore autumn preventive garden treatment is so important. Under the action of copper, which is the active substance of this agent, the spores of the fungus cannot germinate and simply die.
And if the spores have already formed mushrooms, it is impossible to destroy them, because the solution does not penetrate into the plant, but the development of the mycelium stops.
Careful processing should be carried out on the connections of skeletal branches with the trunk. Copper sulfate is used both independently and with other substances. To prepare the composition, there are simple rules:
- the use of glassware,
- substance is dissolved strictly before use in warm water,
- the solution must be filtered to avoid lumps,
- The mixture must be prepared with gloves and used for 10 hours.
If the tree is susceptible to fungal diseases, the question of how to treat an apple tree in the fall to avoid these evils, the answer is the most common drug - urea.
Spraying of this substance can be carried out after up to 50% of foliage has fallen from trees. with a concentration of up to 5% (500 grams per 1 liter). For greater effect, spraying is carried out in the late autumn on a bare tree, maintaining the solution concentration up to 10% (100 grams per 1 liter).
We do the processing not only to the tree, but also to the earth around it, using urea for two purposes at once: the fungicide and the fertilizer. Such a concentration of the solution can not be used on the leaves - they will burn and fall prematurely, not giving up the nutrients to the tree, and this may adversely affect the resistance of the plant in the cold.
Whitening of trees with this preparation at all times is not only decorative, but also protects the bark of plants from adverse factors:
- protects against burns when the foliage that protects from the sun is not there yet,
- protects against temperature fluctuations and, accordingly, helps against crust cracking in winter,
- is a barrier from various pests in the winter.
Gardeners with experience advise to lime trees 3 times a year. The white color of the whitewash reflects the rays of the sun, and the trunk does not have time to heat up, but it is necessary to carry out this procedure correctly.
Gardeners recommend to whiten the entire trunk with the lower skeletal branches to half the length in dry and calm weather, so that the lime could gain a foothold and dry on the trunk.
- the prepared mixture was not very thick, as there will be lumps, and not very liquid, otherwise the solution will drain from the barrel,
- only white color - a guarantee of reflection of sunlight,
- so that the rain does not wash the whitewash, the presence of glue in the solution is necessary
- для молодых деревьев, которые нужно обязательно белить, концентрация смеси должна быть меньше, чем для взрослых растений,
- the tree trunk should be cleared of lichen, dead bark removed and disinfected with a soap-and-soap solution.
Garden pitch is a well-known tool that is used to treat large cuts from branch cuts and to cover up wounds on trees in order to protect them from pathogenic germs, fungi and loss of tree sap.
It is one of the safest and most effective means of garden medicine: you can buy ready-made barrels in retail outlets, or you can cook it yourself. The advantages of this tool are:
- Easy to prepare and apply to the surface.
- Good hardens and does not fall away from the treated surface.
- It retains moisture and prevents wounds from drying out.
The basis of garden warrior take the following substances:
- Bee products - propolis, wax.
- Fats that are eaten - various vegetable oils, lard.
- The mixtures used in farming are ash from the vine, heteroauxin.
An apple tree, in addition to the substances listed above, can be protected with special liquids, therefore, everyone can decide how to treat the trees in the fall, depending on time and money.
One of the most popular drugs is the Insecticide Drug 30+. With it, struggling with aphids, moths, whitefly and many other pests. The tool is pre-diluted in water in a ratio of 1:50 and the barrel is treated with the resulting solution.
As a result, a film appears on the bark, which leads to the death of all harmful insects. Good results are also shown by Entobacterin, which helps to fight a large number of parasites.
The big plus is that the drug does not affect the beneficial insects. The peculiarity is that it is used only on a warm and sunny day: in such conditions, positive results will be most noticeable.
Processing of apple trees in the fall: goals and objectives
After picking apples, the gardening season continues. It is in autumn that the basis for the future harvest is laid, and how it will be depends on the owners. Only beginner gardeners consider that treating apples for the winter is optional. Why spray trees at the end of the season? Autumn processing of apple trees:
- eliminates a significant part of the pests and their larvae wintering on the bark and in the ground,
- destroys pathogens affecting the apple tree during the growing season,
- protects trees from rodents that cause damage in winter and late autumn - hares, mice.
Treatments include protective and therapeutic measures:
- cleaning of trunks and skeletal branches from old bark and lichen,
- treatment of all types of injuries,
- protect the tree from frost and sunburn.
What can process bushes and apples in the fall
There are various preparations of chemical and biological origin, which can be used to treat apples from pests and diseases in the fall. Some can be used in conjunction with each other, others - only separately. There are drugs that can, if they are not applied in time, harm the apple tree or do not give any effect when processing.
There are even means prohibited to use. But gardeners continue to use them to control apple pests in the fall, despite toxicity, due to their high efficiency. It is possible to treat the garden with a drug that is harmless or toxic to humans, but this should be done, knowing the possible consequences and taking safety measures.
Phytosporin is a bacterial fungicide and biological pesticide. It is prepared on the basis of the bacterium Bacillus subtilis (hay bacillus). Treatment with phytosporin inhibits the reproduction of bacterial and fungal diseases of apple and other fruit crops.
This drug belongs to the system, that is, penetrates into the plant and moves through the tissues, suppressing the infection. In this case, there is no need for multiple treatments - after a few hours after hitting the leaves or branches, the hay wand begins to act inside the apple tree, washing it off is useless.
Phytosporin is used in the fight against such infections:
- downy and powdery mildew,
- brown rust,
- tracheomic wilt,
- bacterial cancer,
- all varieties of spotting,
- scab apple tree
- root rot.
In fact, this is not a complete list of apple diseases for which phytosporin treatment will help. Before being dissolved in water, the drug is in a state of hibernation. Connecting with the liquid and falling on the apple tree while processing, the hay stick begins to multiply and act. The best result is achieved when combined with contact fungicides.
In addition to treating apple diseases, phytosporin is used:
- as an anti-stress medication, including in the fall,
- to accelerate growth,
- as a stimulator of the own immune system of apple and other plants,
- if you treat compost with phytosporin, it will ripen faster and be of better quality,
- to increase crop productivity,
- for preventive treatments.
The optimum temperature for phytosporin use is 25–30 Но C. But the hay stick develops well in the temperature range from 5 to 45 Следовательно C. Consequently, it is possible to treat apple trees in the fall from scab and other diseases. Only the temperature at the same time should remain more than 5 ° C for no less than 2 weeks.
In the autumn, it is necessary to process not only the apple tree, but also the soil under it. When, for some reason, the owners do not remove plant residues from under the tree, it is necessary to water the soil with a solution of phytosporin from a watering can. If you process the heaped healthy leaves of an apple tree so that it is saturated with hay bacon from top to bottom, you can get excellent compost by spring.
One can say about the danger to humans and domestic animals - allergic reactions are extremely rare. But if the drug gets into the eyes when treating an apple tree or another plant, a serious infection may occur.
There is no waiting period if the fruits are treated with phytosporin. Apples are allowed to eat immediately, of course, after washing out. But in order to play it safe and exclude the possibility of an allergic reaction that may develop, although very rarely, it is better to wait several days after treatment.
Perhaps the treatment with this drug causes the most controversy among amateur gardeners and professionals. Karbofos or malathion can act as an active substance in insecticides and broad-spectrum acaricides with the following names:
Preparations for processing crops karbofos contain in various concentrations. Due to the strong toxicity, all agents are added with strong odor.
Karbofos can be processed in the fall apple trees from such pests:
- spider mite,
- leaf wrappers,
- other gnawing leaves and sucking insect juices.
The method of preparation of the working solution must be indicated on the packaging. When processing it should be strictly followed. It is necessary to spray the apple trees in dry, windless weather, preferably in the evening, at a temperature not higher than 15⁰ C.
Karbofos cannot be mixed with other drugs for treatments, used more often than 2 times a year. The validity period is 10-14 days, the waiting time is 30 days. This means that if you treat an apple tree in the fall with Carbofos, you can eat the fruits in a month.
For bees, the drug is very toxic, it is strictly prohibited to use it during flowering. If you really want to spray apple tree karbofos, it is better to treat it in the fall, after harvesting. Only harmful insects and their larvae will suffer, and not bees or humans.
Bordeaux fluid (mixture) - compound solutions of copper sulphate and quicklime. It is a fairly strong fungicide used to treat apple trees for many diseases. It has a beautiful sky blue color.
In the autumn, it makes sense to process an apple tree with a solution of strong concentration. So you can protect the tree from scab and other fungal diseases.
To effectively process the apple tree, the concentrated mixture must be properly prepared:
- 450 g of quicklime are dissolved in 5 l of water.
- 300 g of copper sulfate is dissolved in a small amount of hot water (but not boiling water!) And topped up to 5 liters. It is impossible to use metal dishes - the preparation will spoil if the apple trees are processed by them, the desired result will not be achieved.
- A solution of copper sulphate is gradually poured into the calcareous milk, stirring constantly.
- In the resulting sky blue drug immersed rusty and lubricated iron nail. If it is covered with a reddish bloom, lime milk is added.
What is absolutely impossible to do when preparing a solution for processing:
- Pour the copper sulfate with boiling water.
- Use metal utensils.
- Mix concentrated solutions of lime and copper sulfate (first they are added with water).
- Work without skin, eye and respiratory protection.
- Pour lime milk into the solution of copper sulfate (you need to do the opposite).
Process in the fall and before the blooming of apple buds from diseases is better with a concentrated solution. During the growing season, 100 g of active substances are taken for the same amount of water.
The drug is slightly toxic to humans and pets. When handling fairly ordinary precautions.
To treat apples and other fruit crops from pests can be colloidal sulfur. It is also used in medicine for disinfection and against inflammation. Colloid is called ground sulfur with a fraction not exceeding 20 microns. Often for the treatment of fruit trees from fungi, including apple trees, use a substance in granules - cumulus.
Colloidal sulfur is effective against such diseases:
- powdery mildew,
- mildew (but this attack has no relation to the apple tree).
Is it possible to process an apple tree with colloidal sulfur in autumn? Residents of the southern and northern regions will give different answers to this question. The fact is that processing at temperatures below 16 ° C does not make sense. For pathogenic microorganisms, it is not the sulfur itself that is destructive, but its vapors, which begin to actively stand out at 16-18 ° C. If the temperature rises higher than 28 ° C. The leaves will burn.
So, trees and shrubs can be treated in early autumn, when the temperature is quite high. The validity of colloidal sulfur is 12 days. The number of treatments for the growing season - no more than 5.
The maximum concentration of the solution is 100 g of sulfur per 10 liters of water. In order to process the apple, enough 80 g per 10 liters. Mixed with other drugs, colloidal sulfur should not be, it is written on the packaging and in the instructions.
Prepare the solution you need to process the apple tree immediately, as when interacting with oxygen, it loses its properties.
Colloidal sulfur requires compliance with standard protective measures. It is of low toxicity to humans if it does not get into the respiratory tract or mucous membrane.
Garden Vara recipe for treating large areas
Rosin, nigrol and paraffin are taken in the same proportions. First, all the components are heated in separate containers, then powdered wood ash is added to the nigrol. Mix well, pour paraffin, rosin, bring to homogeneity. Before use, heated.
The rules for the treatment of apple and other trees in the garden in the fall:
- Paste is applied only on a dry cut. First, it is disinfected with a solution of copper sulphate, then wait 2-3 hours.
- Before treating the cut with garden shears, the wound surface is well cleaned.
- Pasta must be plastic, and therefore warm. When processing apples in late autumn, keep the pod in your inside pocket.
- Inspect the cut points regularly. You may need to repeat the processing several times.
Garden var is not a fungicide or insecticide. It is of low toxicity to humans, but it is better to work with gloves.
Lime is nothing but a product of the processing of carbonate minerals, including chalk and limestone. Due to the presence of dolomite and calcite, it is a valuable rock-forming element used in agriculture. But lime can be treated with an apple tree to protect against pests. Lime whitening is included in the complex of care for fruit crops all over the world.
Slaked lime is commonly used to treat an apple tree. You can cook it yourself. It is enough to pour quicklime with cold water, mix and wait two hours. If you use a hot liquid, many beneficial substances will evaporate and the treatment will become less effective.
An apple tree trunk is being treated in the fall and spring. First, the old, dead bark is cleaned, under which the larvae and adult pests and spraying of vitriol overwinter. Autumn processing of apple trees with lime:
- protects the barrel against temperature changes
- disinfects the bark,
- "Expels" pests hidden under the bark from the "winter apartment",
- protects apple shtamb from sunburn, which is especially dangerous in winter (snow can serve as a lens, enhancing the action of light).
One of the best recipes for processing apple trees in the fall:
- water - 10 l,
- slaked lime - 1000 g,
- copper sulphate - 200 g,
- dry mullein 1000 g
- clay - 300 g
The solution for treating apples in the fall is stirred and left to swell for 3 hours.
Systemic or complex drugs, in contrast to the contact, act not only on the surface of the plant. During processing, they transport the active substances into the tissues.
Systemic fungicides need several days to begin to act, but their effect lasts for 2 or more weeks. So, before processing the apple tree, you need to see the weather forecast, and choose the time when there will be no precipitation for several days.
- after treatment, they penetrate inside the plant and after a few days are protected from being washed away by rain, weathering and destruction under the action of sunlight,
- active for a long time, act on the roots and young growth,
- act against diseases that cannot be cured if the tree is treated with contact preparations,
- systemic fungicides should be used less frequently than contact ones.
When choosing a systemic insecticide to treat apples in the fall, first of all you should pay attention to:
- On what insects does the drug work?
- At what stage of development should pests be during processing. It is useless to use drugs that paralyze the nervous system of an adult insect if it is in the larvae stage at that time. For the destruction of eggs, there are special insecticides - ovicides. They during processing act on the larvae, but do not harm adult insects.
In general, systemic medications are an extensive topic. There are a lot of them, and new ones appear annually. What kind of drug to treat the apple tree in the fall depends on what it was sick. And what parasites were affected during the vegetative season.
Unfortunately, there is no universal drug. There are no fungicides and insecticides that can be used to process an apple tree in spring or autumn and protect against all problems.
In addition, systemic drugs are much more toxic contact. When processing it is necessary to use protective equipment and not to let pets out on the street for at least 3 days. It is impossible to process apples during flowering - bees can die.
Processing of fruit plants, including apple trees, in summer and autumn should be stopped at least one month before harvesting. If a longer period is indicated on the package, it should be adhered to.
Diseases and insects tend to adapt to the action of systemic drugs. They should be alternated during treatments. And you need to pay not on the name of the drug, but on the active substance. It is not always possible to mix insecticides and fungicides with each other and foliar dressings. Before filling different preparations in one cylinder, ask the specialists if this can be done. Processing may be ineffective or harm the apple.
Usually, before treating an apple tree in the fall or at another time, gardeners at best wear gloves and a gauze bandage. And after a week or two they cannot understand why “suddenly” they felt bad. After all, most drugs have a negative impact on people not immediately. Of course, if they wash, drink, splash in the eyes or treat a neighbor or relative instead of a tree, the “result” will come immediately.
Absolutely safe drugs do not exist. This applies not only to insecticides and fungicides used for treatment, but also to fertilizers, albeit to a lesser extent. The most harmless are powder humate and epin. Everything.
An allergic reaction can even occur on biological products. More often people with white skin suffer - it is more sensitive.
Before treating an apple or other fruit crop, wear long sleeves, goggles (building or swimming), a respirator (not a gauze bandage). Hair is removed under a hat, shawl or cap, rubber gloves are stored for hands. And the long sleeve is needed for treatments, not only in spring or autumn, but also in summer. It is better to sweat a little, than to get poisoned.
После обработки следует искупаться, а одежду выстирать. С препаратами на основе карбофоса или другими, отличающимися высокой токсичностью, лучше работать в противогазе.
Подготовка яблонь к обработке осенью
To control pests and diseases, before processing, in the fall, apple trees are pruned, they clean the dead bark with a metal brush, and they cut off the rotters. All fallen leaves and other plant debris are raked and removed from the site.
It is often recommended to burn them. But the smoke emitted when burning leaves is a strong carcinogen. Almost all countries of the former Soviet Union have adopted laws prohibiting burning leaves, however, few people pay attention to this. But in the autumn of 2018 in Ukraine, some owners of private houses had already paid very substantial fines.
What to do with the source of infection? The way out is compost heaps, where fallen leaves and plant residues are removed. There they can be treated with special preparations that turn waste into an invaluable fertilizer for the garden. Only you need to choose a chemistry that totally destroys pests and diseases.
In the autumn, when the temperature is low, the compost heap can be treated with a saturated solution of urea. Urea will burn out the larvae of pests and pathogens, and saturate the vegetable mixture with nitrogen. Pile need to move the forks and handle several times. In the spring, compost is spilled with other drugs, for example, phytosporin. After a year it can be used.
Apple care in the fall: pest control
Before treating an apple tree from pests in the fall, it is prepared as above. Then in warm weather, spray it with a suitable complex insecticide. Most often, the treatment is carried out with ovicides, since larvae and eggs of pests usually spend the winter on an apple tree, and not adults. In especially advanced cases, use karbofos. After leaf fall and late fall, you can process the apple tree with urea.
It should be noted that the larvae of pests usually hide in cracks, forks of branches, under the old bark. Many chose the apple buds. It is necessary to process a tree completely and carefully, without sparing a preparation.
How to spray apple trees in the fall from diseases
After the apple tree is prepared for processing in the fall, it is sprayed in dry cloudy weather. Which drug to use depends on the temperature:
- at + 6⁰ С and more, the tree is sprayed with blue vitriol,
- if the temperature has fallen lower than + 5⁰ С, it is necessary to process the iron sulfate.
Spraying is carried out in dry windless weather.
Strongly infected apples need to be processed twice: first with copper and then green vitriol. Between spraying should take at least two weeks.
Apple trees, which are cared for every year, can be treated with a more benign Bordeaux preparation.
Other methods of control and prevention
The wound surface left after pruning apple trees in the autumn should be dried and treated with garden pitch. Stambs and skeletal branches to a height of 1.5-1.7 m from the surface of the ground lime. This treatment will help in the fall against pests, diseases, sunburn and temperature changes.
Pristvolny circle under the apple should be dug, and protect the trunk from hares with a metal grid.