Without the zucchini hard to imagine a garden. This vegetable is one of the first ready to be harvested and appears on the tables in the form of various dishes. The ease of growing zucchini, availability, precocity and other characteristics allow, with proper care to grow these plants of different varieties in open ground, greenhouses and greenhouses in Siberia, the Moscow region and in the Leningrad region.
Variety of zucchini variety
Our grandmothers did not think much about the varietal characteristics of the cultivated plants and from year to year they collected their seeds from the best fruits. Sometimes a new variety appeared at the site, but its main characteristic was color spectrum fruits: white, green, yellow, etc. with
The arsenal of modern gardeners is much wider and the color range as a sign faded into the background. Attention is paid to such characteristics as:
- Maturing terms (early, middle, late)
- Growth type (bush, climbing),
- Peculiarities of pollination (parthenocarpic or pollinated by insects),
Among the variety of zucchini should be given special attention to varieties that have earned the recognition of breeders and are most popular among gardeners. Each group has its own favorites. Someone is comfortable because of their ripening, and someone conquers its compactness.
The best varieties of bush type for cultivation in the open field
Most asthenia of the pumpkin family form long spreading scourgewhich require large areas. At the same time, modern summer residents and gardeners are often limited to 6 acres, on which they want to plant a variety of crops.
The limited space and economy of each meter makes the planting of traditional climbing varieties a real luxury, but the bush ones become a godsend for such sites.
Canned squash can easy to fit into tight spaces and even plant in a bed of flowers, where large leaves will be the perfect backdrop for other plants.
Fruits are green, 14-15 cm long, tasty, universal purpose. Perfectly withstand transportation. In compliance with the rules of agricultural technology from 1 square. m square can be collected 7-7.5 kg.Aeronaut
Ultra early. The first fruits are ready to be collected within 35-40 days. Fruits are white, oval, of excellent taste, universal purpose. The flesh is thick, cream. Well kept.White
Early maturing hybrid. Fruits weighing up to 500 g, green. The flesh is dense, white. Productivity is high. Disease resistance is above average.
Early bush type. Disease resistance is very high. Fruits are pale green, cylindrical. The flesh is pinkish yellow or light yellow. Suitable for canning.Odessa
The best self-pollinated parthenocarpic species
Squash forms female and male flowers. In most cases, pollination and fruit set occurs. with insectsthat carry pollen. However, when grown in greenhouses, especially in winter, cross-pollination is problematic.
Early ripening and high yields make the Cavili hybrid one of the best.
Fruits are light green, up to 22 cm long. Fruiting is plentiful and long lasting. The ripening period is 1.5 months, and the active setting of new fruits lasts for 2 months in any conditions, even without the participation of pollinating insects. During this time, from 1 square. m manages to collect about 9 kg. The flesh is tender, juicy, whitish.Kavili
Superearly hybrid. Ideal for the production of early products under the film shelters. Maintains the big differences of temperatures.
The ripening period is 35 days. Fruits are light green, with delicate skin. The pulp is dense, the seed chamber is miniature. Fruit weight can reach 800 g, with a length of 25 cm.Jellyfish
Hybrid Dutch selection, very compact and fruitful. On 1 square. m can accommodate 3-4 bush and collect up to 15 kg fruits. Good fruit stitching without the participation of insects and early ripening make this variety an excellent candidate for planting in greenhouses.
The fruits of the variety are dark green, cylindrical with light green dense, juicy and tasty pulp. It can be used not only for canning and cooking various dishes, but also to eat it raw. Zucchini fruiting period very long and can stretch until September.Parthenon
The plant requires to grow chernozem, light, fertilized soil. It is necessary to remember that the zucchini will not grow on the highly marshy land with a close bedding of groundwater.
Preparation of soil for landing is made in the fall. It must be dug up to a depth of 30 cm, harrowed and fertilize. Organic fertilizer fertilizer per 1 m2 must be applied in volume - one bucket. In addition, 20 g of potash additives and 30 g of superphosphate are required.
In the spring, the ground should be dug to half the depth, and then filled with ammonium nitrate. In the end it is necessary to make loosening rakes. The width of the bed for the zucchini is 1.2 meters.
The best predecessors in the garden for this pumpkin culture is considered potatoes, tomatoes, cabbage. It is believed that after cucumbers, squash and pumpkins, it is not recommended to plant this crop.
Temperature range starts from + 22С. This indicator is the most suitable for the formation of foliage, lash development, rapid and abundant flowering, mass ovary and maturation.
High humidity for culture is destructive, and therefore it is better to leave the soil dried up rather than fill with water. Given this indicator, the culture is not grown under film.
Principles of care
To get a good harvest of zucchini (zucchini), you should understand the basic subtleties of care. For example, seeds sown in the open ground, quickly give rise to shoots that adore pecking birds. That is why they will have to be protected.
- Watering - rare and abundant watering is recommended. Water should be warm. Approximately 10 days before the harvest, the plant is stopped to be watered.
- Loosening is a mandatory procedure after every rain and watering. The plant destroys heavy stale soil. In addition, it is necessary to spud the shrub in addition to form a mass of adventitious roots.
- Thinning is a process required in a situation where seeds are sown in open ground. A distance of 70 cm is necessarily maintained between the growing bushes, therefore all shoots are pulled out from the common hole, leaving only one strong. A weak plant is enough to pinch near the soil.
- Primary feeding - made after the formation of the 7th sheet. You should make a mixture of water, ammonium nitrate, potassium component, superphosphate. Secondary feeding is necessary after the beginning of the formation of the ovary with a solution of mullein 1:10 or chicken droppings 1:15.
- Pollination is a very important procedure for fruiting. The best remedy for pollination is spraying with a 2% solution of honey.
Squash harvesting must be done on time, until they lose their useful components, and the flesh with the skin is not rude. The ideal size of the fruit for its collection is 15 cm, and the thickness is 6 cm. In general, up to 25 fruits can be harvested from a bush during the growing season.
Seed preparation for sowing
For some time before sowing the seeds should be disinfected. The easiest way is to keep them in the sun for a couple of days. After the heating process, they are kept in a weak solution of potassium permanganate and washed with cold water.
To obtain strong seedlings, treatment is carried out with a solution of wood ash. A spoon of fertilizer dissolves in a liter of water. Of course, the seedlings will grow faster if they are pre-germinated.
For a couple of days before sowing in open ground, any sort of zucchini is soaked and folded into cotton fabric, as shown in the photo. When landing can easily damage sproutsbecause they are very fragile. That is why the sprouts should not be stored - they are immediately planted.
Rules of sowing zucchini
If seeds are sown for seedlings, it should be remembered that the plant reacts extremely sensitively to transplants. Seedlings are best grown in a separate peat pot, so that the capacity was sufficiently deep.
It is often affected by fungal disease - black rot, and therefore the soil before planting must be poured with a hot solution of potassium permanganate or frozen. The plant is planted in a well-warmed and loosened soil, and the seeds should go to a maximum of 4 cm in depth. From above they must be moistened so that in future the seedlings will not weaken.
Selection Criteria for Good Varieties
In order to know what is best planted on the site, you must understand at least main criteria for the selection of varieties.
- Bush or climbing form - many varieties of zucchini are bush, and therefore they are easier to grow in a large area. The fruit is cut off small, when the skin is thin, and the flesh is tender.
- Varieties and hybrids - the latter give a steady crop, but only the first generation.
- Possibility of pollination - varieties are traditionally pollinated or parthenocarpic. In the second case, the seeds are incapable of life during planting. Good self-pollinated varieties are: White Swan, Belogor, Apollo.
- Varieties - zucchini and usual squash with fruits of white, yellow and yellow-green color. Zucchini are characterized by high juiciness and yield.
- Manufacturers - a feature of imported varieties is considered to be early ripening, hybridity, beautiful appearance, but the scarcity of the mineral composition. Domestic zucchini last longer and have the best taste. In addition, they are more resistant to frost and contain a wide range of vitamins.
Refers to late ripening varieties. Maturation occurs in 99-120 days. The bush of these varieties is compact. Fruits are cylindrical, orange (dark yellow). The length reaches 30 centimeters.
The skin is dense. The flesh is creamy orange, thick, during heat treatment it breaks up into long strands of orange color. Weight - 1.5 kilograms. Mature fruits are stored 4-5 months. The variety is resistant to diseases, easily tolerates frosts.
Similar qualities with a grade of Spaghetti at grades Spaghetti Raviolo, Tivoli.
Is a non-standard sort of zucchini. Bushes are strong, massive, but do not grow over the site. They grow and spread on a support. Fruits of green color. Pear-shaped form. The length reaches 1.7 meters. Weight 12 pounds. Fruits bend and take on unusual shapes. About 43 kilograms of fruits are removed from the bush.
Young fruits are universal in use. When cutting a piece from the fruit, the cut point on the zucchini dries out, and the fruit continues to grow. Taste of old squash spoil. The skin turns to stone.
Overripe fruits are used to create vases, vessels for liquids. The plant is demanding for watering, feeding.
Sort Lagenaria has similar qualities, but the weight of fruits is smaller and reaches 7-12 kilograms.
Varieties of foreign selection
The varieties of foreign breeding include Black Handsome, Kavili F1, Charisma F1, Iskander F1, Carom F1, Amiad F1, Mary Gold F1, Mostra F1.
Early ripe, universal grade. Fruiting occurs at 36-40 days. Fruits are elongated, cylindrical in shape. Weight - 150-220 grams. Length - 18 centimeters. The hybrid is grown in open and closed ground.
Mary Gold F1
Bush varieties of zucchini. Peel of golden color. The length of the fruit reaches 22 centimeters. Variety demanding dressing, regular watering. Fruiting lasts until the autumn frosts. The plant is resistant to golden mosaic, leaf spot.
Yellow Banana F1 Zucchini
This early ripe variety begins to bear fruit 45 days after the seedling of seedlings in the open field. Cluster plant, which produces numerous orange-golden fruit about 25 cm in length. The flesh is juicy and dense, slightly crispy. Highly appreciated in cooking, used for pickling and canning.
The early variety belongs to the zucchini subspecies, after the appearance of the first shoots it takes only 30-40 days to produce ripe fruits. The plant is bushy and rather compact, due to the prevailing female type of flowering it gives high yields. Fruits have an elongated shape and dense peel, tolerate transportation. The variety is cold-resistant and suitable for cultivation in the northern regions, it can grow in greenhouses and in conditions of open ground.
The name of the variety was due to the golden color of the fruit. Bushes are compact, so popular among vegetable growers, because the site does not take up much space. High yield allows you to get flowering mostly female type. The fruits lie well over a long period. Their flesh has a sweetish taste, they are suitable for stewing and pickling.
Compact early ripe variety, suitable for growing in a small area. From seedling to technical ripeness of the fruit takes about 45 days. Squashes grow elongated (70-80 cm) cylindrical with dense and tender pulp. These "snakes" can weigh five kilograms on average about three. Culture resistant to anthracnose and powdery mildew.
The hybrid is considered mid-season, since the period of ripening of the crop it lasts 55-60 days. Fruits are cylindrical with a ribbed surface and white pulp of medium density. Stable fruiting from square meter gather up to 9 kg of crop. Feature of the hybrid is resistance to various diseases.
The variety with camouflage color refers to mid-season, it is well tolerated by such adverse conditions as drought, decrease in air temperature, excessive soil moisture. The immature zucchini has a pleasant taste, which cannot be said about the old. If the harvest could not be collected on time, it is better not to eat it, and if possible, feed it to animals.
A very unusual mid-season variety, it received its name due to the fibrous pulp, which in the process of its preparation stratifies, disintegrates and becomes similar to pasta, but only outwardly, there is no similarity with the taste of pasta. Externally, the fruit is not too different from its relatives, its bush has a tendency to grow strongly.
This high-yielding early ripe grade is popular among vegetable growers due to the high taste of the fruit, it is most often grown for winter storage. Bushes have an impressive appearance, they form long (about 50 cm) green fruit weighing up to 4 kg. They are most actively formed in rainy weather.
Early hybrid, which in the greenhouse gives particularly high yields, but in warm countries even in open ground few people can give way to the primacy. The plant has not too high bushes with oblong fruits weighing up to 3.5 kg of light green color. This hybrid is not afraid of any heat or torrential rains, is resistant to many diseases.
Popular ultra early variety, ripe fruit can be plucked after 40 days of growth in open ground conditions. The bush does not have dense foliage. Fruits ripen simultaneously in large quantities, their weight often does not exceed a kilogram. The flesh is juicy and dense. The variety is highly valued for resistance to disease and lower temperatures.
One of the most common hybrids begins to bear fruit six weeks after the emergence of the planted seeds. Its fruits are slightly club-shaped, their small mass does not exceed 800 grams, and is about 35 cm long. The crop gives amicably, but if the street is long-standing wet weather can be contaminated with powdery mildew.
Mid-season fruitful hybrid, fruit ripening lasts about 55-65 days. Plant bush lets a little whips. Medium-sized fruits weigh from 0.5 to 1.5 kg dark green with juicy fibrous pulp. The yield of the variety is up to 15 kg per square meter. This variety is recommended to grow in the North-West regions.
The bright representative of the round zucchini. Before the technical ripeness of the fruit takes about 50 days. A bushy plant has a powerful structure. Squashes grow round and massive about three kilograms each. The hybrid is appreciated for a good presentation and high-quality harvest, it is stored and transported for a long time.
Early hybrid of zucchini subspecies. Shrubs sredneroslye do not branch and have a neat and compact look. Its medium sized fruits have an oval shape and are creamy or creamy green with a pattern in the form of blurred longitudinal stripes in color, ribbing is present only on the stem. The hybrid gives a plentiful harvest in an open ground.
Farmer Can F1
Ultra-hybrid begins to bear fruit 40 days after the sown seeds have risen. The plant is formed into a shrub with a large number of long cylindrical fruits weighing up to 3 kg, which have light ribbing throughout the squash, the mesh pattern is located on a light green peel. The flesh is tasty has a dense structure.
The representative of the early varieties of zucchini subspecies. In early spring, when planted in open ground, the zucchini develops well and tolerates a slight decrease in temperature without serious consequences. This variety is popular for use in preservation, because its pulp contains a lot of solids and sugars. It is well transported and about two weeks can be stored in the refrigerator. Плоды имеют ярко-зеленую окраску, а кожица даже переросших остается мягкой.It is a sort of zucchini grown in greenhouses and open ground in the Moscow region and the Central zone.
Miracle Orange F1
Hybrid mid-season fruits ripen for 50-55 days. When planting, be aware that cabbage will be the best predecessor for it. The hybrid is intended for growth only in an open ground. Fruits are dark yellow in color with a thin glossy skin and creamy juicy flesh. Their weight is no more than 700 grams, and the yield per square meter is 5 kg.
The fruits of this hybrid can be collected in 45-50 days from the first shoots. Up to 20 zucchini weighing less than a kilogram and up to 80 cm long can be obtained from one bush. The crop is well-kept. Resistant to such common diseases as powdery mildew and anthracosis. Constant fruit picking stimulates the growth of new ones.
Early-growing variety, a representative of the bush zucchini, because the plant is weakly branching, in the open ground the fruits ripen in six weeks. Squashes have the shape of a cylinder, which goes to the base to narrow, their color is pale yellow, the skin is smooth, the flesh tastes good. The peculiarity of the variety is its keeping quality, the fruits can be stored at least a month without any processing.