Oak has long been considered a symbol of stability, power and longevity. Some people are proud of the perennial huge oaks that were planted by their fathers and grandfathers. Maybe you want to plant a powerful tree that will grow for more than one century. Perhaps, after many, many years, your children and grandchildren will also proudly say - this oak tree was planted by my father (grandfather).
To grow an oak from an acorn is a long process that takes more than one year. However, the cultivation of oak trains patience, endurance, teaches timeliness and regularity. Anyone can grow an oak tree, but for this you need to know a few subtleties. Involve children in the process - this will not only interest them, but also teach them to be more careful and reverent about nature. So, how to grow an oak from an acorn at home.
Acorns gather in early autumn, when their cap will be easily separated from the fetus itself. By the way, the cap of acorns during harvesting can be removed, they do not carry any value, it is just a mount to the branches and protection of the fetus.
When you bring acorns home, you need to sort them out. Wormy, moldy, empty, rotten and other damaged fruits need to be thrown out - nothing will sprout from them. The remaining acorns must be soaked in a container with water. When soaking unsuitable for growing acorns will emerge, it means that they are empty inside. They also need to be removed. The remaining fruits on the bottom must be blotted with a towel and left to dry. To do this, lay them out on paper or cloth, and then place them in a ventilated place. Dry acorns in open sunlight is not recommended.
When cultivating acorns are ready and dried, they need to be stratified. Stratification is an artificial imitation of conditions close to natural. That is, you need to provide humidity and temperature appropriate for this time of year. Since the collection of acorns falls on the beginning of autumn, it is necessary to stratify autumn conditions.
Stratification can be done in two ways. Divide the acorns into two parts. Most of it should be placed in plastic wrap and add sawdust, moss or vermiculite to the bag. These substances trap moisture. Close the bag and place it in a cold place. It could be a basement or just a fridge. Leave the acorns on the bottom shelf, the temperature there is usually around 8 degrees. Periodically you need to open the package so that the seeds have access to oxygen. Watch for humidity and pour water into the bag from time to time. But do not pour - if the moisture is more than it should - acorns rot.
The rest of the acorns need to sit down in small cups. Fill containers with peat and place 2-3 acorns in each cup. Place the planted acorns next to the package. All fruits must grow in the same conditions, simulating the natural humidity and temperature.
Within a month or two, the seeds will begin to take root. Part of the acorns will not grow or rot, but more than half of the planted acorns are usually pleased with small roots.
The next stage is to sit down sprouted acorns in cups. Carefully remove all contents from the package. Be careful - the roots of the future oak at this stage are very vulnerable and easily broken. Gently sort the germinated fruits from rotting and non-germinating acorns. Acorns with roots put in small plastic cups of 200 ml. It is not necessary to plant deeply, it is enough that the root will be completely immersed in the ground. For planting, you can choose the soil from the area where the parent oak grew. But you can plant seedlings in the usual garden soil with the addition of peat. Do not forget to make holes on the walls of the cup before planting. This is done to remove excess water from irrigation. If this is not done, the young roots will rot and die.
Those acorns that were not in the package, but were planted in glasses, you also need to sort out. Gives root acorns need to sit down one by one in each glass.
The first time the seedlings need to be watered often enough. After planting for a while, it may seem to you that nothing is happening and the acorn will not germinate. But it is not. The fact is that at first the oak is gaining strength in the roots and only after that it sprouts. If you notice that the roots are cramped in small cups, they can be transplanted into larger containers. Planted oaks in open ground ahead of time should not be - unprotected young roots - a treat for rodents, and small leaves attract herbivores.
When can be planted seedlings in the soil
In order to determine whether the sapling is ready for independent growth, it is necessary to meet certain conditions. Pay attention to its leaves - if the sapling has more than five strong, healthy leaves - then it can be planted in open ground. Usually, the ready processes are planted in the soil within two to three weeks after planting. In this case, you need to pay attention to its roots - if they are large and white, it means that the plant is ready for independent growth.
Place to plant oak
When you plant a tree for a permanent place of its growth, you need to understand that here it will grow not only one day, but years, decades and even centuries. Therefore, the choice of a place to land must be treated very carefully.
Oak should be planted in an open area of at least two square meters. Oak grows in almost any soil, however, when it is very young, it needs land rich in vitamins, minerals and fertilizer. Oak loves open sunny areas, it can not grow in the shade.
When planting oak, it is necessary to take into account that in the future the root system of the tree will be powerful and strong, so you should not plant the tree near water supply and other technical underground systems, near the foundation of the house, next to the paths and other buildings.
Oak grows large and sprawling, with time it will start to give a good shade. Plant it on a certain side of the house, so that the oak later cast a shadow on the dwelling.
Before planting oak ground need to dig and loosen. No other crops should grow near the seedling. A recess is made for planting so that the roots of the future tree are submerged in the ground. After that, the soil should be slightly compacted and pour abundantly.
How to care for oak
The first time after the landing of the oak it must be watered abundantly. At a distance of 20-30 cm from the germ sprinkle the soil with sawdust or crushed bark. This protects the ground from drying out and also prevents weeds from growing near the seedling.
Over time, oak requires less care. It grows rather slowly, however, if it starts, it will delight you throughout your life. The first fruits in the form of acorns will give a tree only in 10-20 years, depending on the type of oak. During the first few years, the oak needs to periodically enrich the soil - it must be fed with mineral fertilizers. Over the years, the tree will get stronger, the roots will go deep into the ground and the oak will only need regular watering.
Young saplings, among other things, need mechanical protection from animals. If there are rabbits, rodents or deer on the plot, the seedling should be protected with a small grid. To protect the plant from the cockchafer and aphids can be using pesticides. They can be bought at any store for summer residents, they destroy pests, but they are absolutely harmless to plants and people.
As you know, every man should build a house, raise a son and plant a tree. The last item on this list is the easiest and most fascinating. If every person on earth would have planted one tree at least once in their life, it would be better to live on the planet and breathe easier. Plant trees, and your descendants will appreciate your efforts!
Oak, or rather, its wood, leaves, acorns are a real treasury of trace elements and other useful substances used by humans for medical purposes, as well as for industrial use.
Let's consider what is included in the composition of acorns:
- tannins (up to 20%),
- gallic and aegallic organic acids,
- carbohydrates, sugars (pentosans up to 14%),
- vitamins: A, B1, B2, B5, B6, B9, PP,
- macronutrients: potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus,
- trace elements: iron, manganese, copper, zinc, aluminum, chromium, barium, vanadium, selenium, nickel, strontium, boron,
- essential amino acids: valine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, threonine, tryptophan, phenylalanine,
- interchangeable amino acids: alanine, aspartic acid, glycine, glutamic acid, proline, serine, tyrosine, cysteine,
- Omega-6 fatty acids, palmitic and stearic saturated fatty acids, oleic monounsaturated fatty acid, linoleic polyunsaturated fatty acid,
- starch, proteins, oils (up to 5%), ash.
Did you know?The eightieth anniversary is an impressive date for each person, and if you still managed to live so much in marriage, it deserves admiration. Therefore, it is this term of the marriage life that he called the "oak" wedding, precisely because of the longevity of the tree itself.
Acorns in the modern world are an undervalued product. And the benefits of them can be significant for a person, because they have a special nutritional and therapeutic value. Of these, products (coffee surrogate, flour, cereal) are made, which, due to the presence of a variety of nutrients, vitamins, trace elements, have a beneficial effect on the human body. Learn how to plant red oak. Tinctures, decoctions and other forms of the use of the fruits of oak help with problems with the cardiovascular, urinary, digestive systems. Remedies from acorns help in the fight against cancer, as well as in the treatment of hernia and diabetes. Acorns are effective for hair coloring. They are given in the form of food to domestic animals (especially pigs), they feed on wild boars.
Collection and selection
Acorns are harvested from mid-August to early October, when they are characterized by a dark brown tint. Acorns are collected correctly from the ground, and after a few days you can repeat the process and collect a new batch of fruit. Important!Fallen early acorns are most likely damaged by acorn weevils or other pests. For this reason, it is better to collect the fallen fruits as late as they have the best characteristics. The main thing is that they do not have time to germinate.
Handling and cleaning
Acorns for further use must be processed. First, carry out the cleaning process from the caps and peel. To remove the bitterness they need to soak and heat. It is done this way. The fruits are cut into four parts, filled with water, left to soak for a couple of days, changing the water at least three times a day. After the required time has elapsed, the water with the acorns is brought to a boil, the fruits are extracted, ground, dried in the sun, and then in the oven. As a result, acorns are ready for further processing and preparation.
Harvesting and storage
Acorns for the purpose of cooking are stored in a dry and dark place. Harvesting them for future use for a whole year in significant quantities is not recommended, as the raw material from the fruits of the oak is not stored for a long time and quickly becomes useless. Such a beautiful plant like an oak will look very harmonious with yellow colors: maple, linden, yellow acacia.
Harm and contraindications
Before you start eating acorns, you need to remember the following:
- categorically it is not recommended to use fallen acorns in food, as they may be infected and dangerous to health,
- Oak fruits require a lot of time for digestion in the stomach, therefore, in case of insufficient functioning of the body, it is not recommended to use them at all,
- eating raw acorns can harm the bladder,
- that they are beneficial and not harmful, they can not be abused.
Important!Without heat treatment, acorns cannot be eaten, as the flavonol quercetin contained in them is poisonous.
Acorns are used for culinary as well as medical purposes. If modern people eat them rarely enough, for the treatment and prevention of many health problems, the fruits of the oak are used much more often.
In times of famine, the fruits of the oak saved people from starvation. Now they are made of coffee, flour, cereals. Products from acorns are almost as good as natural coffee, cocoa beans, olives. Confectionery, coffee, pastries, cereals - this is the main area of use of acorns:
- before they were fried, dried, covered with sugar - a useful sweetness was obtained,
- in the XIX century, coffee was considered a luxury, so acorns became an alternative, they were also roasted, ground - and an acorn coffee was obtained, which some of our contemporaries continue to use,
- the bread was obtained from the oak fruits pounded into flour; for this, one-tenth of the wheat flour was added to the composition,
- a significant amount of starch in them helps these fruits to be excellent thickeners for various liquid dishes,
- from acorns you can make butter, which is much like almond or peanut butter,
- Some varieties are eaten as nuts, but not everyone may like their taste.
Selection of acorns for germination
Acorns are best to start collecting in early autumn, before they fall from the tree. The choice should fall on healthy specimens without worms and holes inside. Suitable individuals are brownish with a slight shade of green, although the shade may vary depending on the type of oak on which they grow.
If possible, the selection of trees should begin in the summer. Before choosing a suitable tree in summer you need to keep in mind - acorns on some oaks will be ready in the fallwhile others will not be able to ripen until next year. For example, the fruits of red oak ripen not one, but two whole years. The best proof of the readiness of acorns to collect is that you can remove their cap without breaking the fruit. The cap is not part of the acorn, but is a separate protective coating.
An important point is the selection of the site where the oak will grow and soil preparation.
As already mentioned, the place in the garden should be sunny and spacious. The soil should be dug over and put into the ground humus. Since oak loves fertile soil.
Then planting pits are made, the size of which should correspond to the seedling's root system, taking into account the earthen coma with which the trees should be planted. After planting, the oak must be watered, the ground is compacted. And the circle circle zamulchirovat.
For planted trees need care. They should be watered regularly, periodically update the mulch layer.
Also, as a preventive measure, young seedlings should be regularly treated with pesticides.
Starting from the third year of life, oak can be fed with mineral fertilizers.
Also, an oak tree planted in the garden will also need sanitary pruning of damaged and dried branches.
Oak grows slowly, so the fruit can be expected in 20-40 years.
Tips on how to grow an oak from an acorn at home
Our distant ancestors powerful trees were considered sacred. Oak was called the king of the forest because of its penchant for longevity and endowed it with magical powers (for example, a conspiracy against children's insomnia or a snake bite).
To this day, this mighty tree is associated with courage, strength and nobility. Having grown an oak tree on your land, you can leave a memory for more than one generation of descendants, since the oak life cycle ranges from 200 to 600 years.
The easiest way is to grow an oak from an acorn, rather than from a cutting. For growing it is necessary to choose the most healthy and strong acorns. Since not all seeds are characterized by high germination, and at the time of planting on all seedlings take root to the ground, you need to take a few hundred good acorns.
The growing process is slow, but interesting enough and entertaining for any amateur gardener. From the beginning of the germination to the landing on the street can take about three years.
Start collecting seeds is better in early autumn, before the onset of cold weather. It is desirable that the cap is easily removed from the acorn, this means that he has matured well. Listen and knock the acorn to determine the living core, the sound should not be!
You can postpone the selection of seeds until spring, but then they dry out a bit and the germination rate decreases.
And in that, and in another case, choose only the whole fruit, rotten or wormy will not germinate, they are easier to throw out than to waste time and effort. Selected seeds should be soaked in a cup of water, discarding all the pop-up items. Then the selected acorns blot with a towel and dry.
Important! Already in the summer, walking through the park, pay attention to the thickest and most beautiful oak crowns in order to understand where it is better to collect source material for germination in spring or autumn.
It is better to send the fruits for wintering in a cellar or a refrigerator, planting in the spring is most favorable. To do this, in a jar of acorns add a little earth and leaves collected from the same place as our seeds.
Сделать отверстия для вентиляции и убрать на хранение при температуре два-три градуса Цельсия.
In the spring we begin to germinate: the process of stratification will strengthen the endurance of the seeds. To do this, it is recommended to germinate acorns in a package with a moist environment, placing them in the refrigerator.
Control the humidity: too little moisture - the seeds will not germinate, at high humidity they will rot.
The roots of germinated acorns are very fragile and fragile, so we take them very carefully and plant them in small pots or disposable dishes, making sure to make several holes around the perimeter, thereby giving oxygen access and preventing stagnant moisture.
Ordinary garden soil should be mixed with peat moss, plant a sprouted acorn root down by three to five centimeters.
You can take a chance and plant a young oak tree immediately in open ground, but there it is not protected from rodents and insects. The first few weeks acorns require frequent and abundant watering.
Under the spring sun on the windowsill of the week after two young powerful stalks will appear.
How to choose the perfect place for planting in the opinion of the gardener
- Oak is a lover of sunlight, plant it not on the south or south-west side of the plot, an adult oak tree creates a lot of shade and you should not plan a garden in this place, better put a gazebo or a swing,
- over time, oak roots form powerful roots capable of destroying any obstacles (water supply, pipelines, paths), consider this when choosing a place,
- planting oak can be an excellent option for shading the sunny side of the house or the summer cottage,
- in areas with dense vegetation, young oak will slowly develop and may die.
How to grow oak from acorn in a pot at home?
Independent cultivation of oak from acorn at home
The process of growing oak from acorn is quite long, but very simple and interesting.
This plant, growing from a small sapling, turns into a massive tree that pleases every family, passing from generation to generation.
You have a unique opportunity to observe the life cycle of an oak at the stage of its growth at home. How to grow an oak from an acorn, many gardeners are interested.
Selection and preparation of planting material
- The choice of location and landing.
- Pick a seedling.
- Care for young seedlings.
Acorns for planting need to collect in early autumn. Planting material must not be damaged, contain holes, worms or mold. Acorns brown with green tint - are considered good material for planting. Although each variety fruits have a different color.
Need to take acorns, which are easily separated from the cap. The cap is not part of the acorn, but merely its defense. Therefore, during the detachment of the cap, the acorn is not damaged.
Oaks should be looked for in the summer, and by the autumn the acorns will ripen on them. But there are varieties whose acorns ripen only for the next year. For example, a red oak acorn matures for two years.
After collecting, conduct acorns testing to identify and remove spoiled ones. Dip the fruit in a container of water for a few minutes. All acorns floating on the surface, as well as soft and shapeless, are considered ruined. They are rotten inside.
Suitable for planting acorns need to pull out of the water, spread out on a towel and let them dry in the shade. They are then placed in a tight-fitting plastic bag. So that the planting material does not deteriorate, add moisture-retaining substances (vermiculite, moss mixture or wood chips) to it.
In a large package can hold about 200 acorns.
Pickling of oak seedlings
As soon as the plants germinate and empty 2-3 leaves, they are transplanted in a larger tank in order to strengthen and grow a little more. Usually this procedure is performed 2 weeks after planting the acorns.
Other gardeners plant the seedlings immediately in the open ground, or they adapt the seedlings, gradually increasing the period of their stay in the open air, and then plant them in the open soil.
There are many opinions, but still, there are main signs by which it is possible to determine the readiness of acorns to transplant houses:
- The plant has reached a height of 15 cm and has several leaves.
- Having healthy white roots.
- The plant has a well developed main root.
- The seedling is larger than the pot.
- If the age of seedlings exceeds two weeks.
Landing on a permanent place
Determining a landing site is a very important matter. This should be a plot with a large space, because in adulthood, oak reaches large sizes.
Factors to consider when choosing a landing site:
- Oak, like many other garden plants, needs good lighting. Therefore, its cultivation should occur in a sunny area.
- This should be a place away from water pipes, pipelines, tracks. In the case of technical or construction work, you risk damaging the root system of the tree.
- If you plant a tree in the south-west of the house, then in the future, it will cast a shadow on the house.
- In southern regions, the tree should be planted in the west or north-west of the house to create shading.
- It is not recommended to plant oak seedlings in places where there is a lot of vegetation. Plants in the fight for light and moisture, can simply destroy the seedling.
After the site for planting is selected, it is cleaned in a diameter of 1-2 m. In order for the soil to be uniform, it is dug up to a depth of 30 cm, breaking up lumps. To grow an oak from an acorn, it is necessary to use a slightly moist soil.
Therefore, before planting it must be watered or wait until it rains. Then you need to dig a hole 30 cm wide. The depth of the fossa will depend on the length of the spine. He must be fully immersed in it. The acorn is dipped into the hole, root down, and leaves to the top.
Then gently sprinkle the sapling with earth, lightly tamping and watered abundantly.
At 30 cm from the tree you need to lay out the mulch or pieces of bark.
This will prevent the soil from drying out and weed growth. The main thing is that the mulch does not come into contact with the stem of the tree. In order for the transplant to be successful, experienced gardeners recommend planting several acorns in one place. To do this, you need to clean the area of 60x60 cm and plant two sprouts on it, sprinkling it with 3-5 cm layer of soil.
Care for young oak trees
After landing, the oaks need special care. After all, young saplings are a source of food for animals that eat leaves (rabbits, deer), including rodents, which often dig them up.
Therefore, it is necessary to take all necessary measures to protect young trees at home. You can set a strong fence made of plastic or grid of the grid. In the regions where deer live, it is necessary to create protection for the crowns of the trees, making a fence of the grid.
To protect the oak trees from the May beetles and aphids, you must use pesticides.
Oaks have a long root that is capable of extracting moisture at great depths. In the fall and winter watering is reduced. But in the summer young seedlings require frequent hydration. Many gardeners use drip irrigation, which provides a constant and uniform watering of the trees in the house. It will take about 30 liters of water for about two weeks.
A drip irrigation system will be required in the early years of the trees. It is installed around the trunk of seedlings to prevent the accumulation of moisture, which can result in its rotting. Every year of life, the oak requires less attention and reverent care. Its root goes deep, and the crown becomes high.
Further care is timely watering in hot and dry weather.
After about 20 years, the tree will give you its first fruits. Although in each class this period comes in different ways. Some varieties may not bear fruit and up to 50 years. Oaks, regardless of age, shed their foliage, and young saplings are no exception. Therefore, do not get upset, you just need to wait for the onset of spring.
If you want more information, you can see detailed information on how to grow oak from an acorn at home.