Buying broiler chicks and starting to breed them - one of the main expectations is an active, strong bird with high weight and high content of meat. If you are faced with the opposite situation - the weight loss of broilers, poor appetite and weak physical condition, you need to make a certain consistent set of activities. Our material will help you with this.
Initially, we advise you to pay attention to the tables of weight gain by broilers according to their age. This will allow you to accurately determine the existence and scale of the problem.
Causes of broiler weight loss
Broilers do significantly exceed the size and quantity of meat of ordinary birds. This achievement is due to interbreeding, as a rule, of meat and meat-egg breeds, the end result of which is heterosis, and determines their larger size.
But the specifics of a larger size has its own characteristics. In the case of broilers, this is a greater bird appetite and increased demands on the quality of food and its saturation with protein, the main building material for broiler muscles.
Reason 1 - poor nutrition
The first and main reason for the lack of weight in broilers is an unbalanced diet, especially in the area of saturation of their food mixture with proteins.
The desire to save and feed the bird with a cheap or low-quality mixture with a low protein content can go sideways to the owner or hostess. This method of saving on poultry is unacceptable in the case of broilers. After all, it is precisely the high saturation of feed with proteins and vitamins that can trigger the rapid rates of broiler muscle building. Violation of this condition - getting a weak poultry population with low weight.
The following recommendations - in the initial period of breeding only born broiler, when the weight of the chick is still around 40 grams, begin to feed him with a special pre-start feed.
In the first 7 days, feed the chicks 8 times a day.
In addition, the introduction of the combination of sprouted grains and green fodder to the nestlings will give him an excellent start for development and growth. This is an excellent solution in conditions of lack of funds for the purchase of special vitamin complexes.
This solution will be useful both for the proper development of the poultry musculoskeletal system and will allow optimal preparation of the digestive system of a small boiler for complete digestion of food and extracting the maximum amount of useful substances from it.
These are two very important factors at the beginning of the development of broiler chicks: the ability of its bone system to withstand the heavy weight of meat in the carcass and the ability of the digestive system to absorb all the useful elements of food.
Further, when the chick reaches weight in the region of 200 grams and further, it is necessary to saturate the feed with phosphorus by introducing fish meal, increase the proportion of green fodder to improve digestion, and add carrots and potatoes to its diet.
A sufficient amount of protein in the feed can be achieved by introducing high-quality feed into it.
A small amount of special stone of the small fraction in the feed will also help it to adjust the work of the intestines. At this stage, vitamin supplements will already be relevant and have a beneficial effect.
closely control the ability of the bird to drink water. With a lack of water, the body of a broiler begins to use internal reserves. And the first component of the internal reserve is muscle, not fat. It is their broiler will lose in case of improper content.
Reason 2 - conditions of maintenance and walking
In addition to high-quality food rich in protein and minerals, poultry needs a certain order of content. With a shortage or an excess of key decisions in the content, such an unpleasant phenomenon as underweight of a broiler can be observed.
Broilers for full weight gain should not have the possibility of excessive activity. This can be avoided by using their enclosed content (use of cells). It is necessary to arrange them with this mode of content, good illumination of the room and excellent ventilation. These are necessary conditions for a healthy bird:
- Maintain normal temperature conditions in the broiler room. Do not hope that, they say, the birds will warm themselves, approach this issue seriously. The main reason for the lack of growth and gain of meat mass in broilers is low temperature. Modern technologies of thermo-insulating materials, with their competent and balanced application, allow solving this problem quickly and permanently with low financial costs. Using infrared lamps will allow you to solve the problem of heating and lighting. The use of red and blue light bulbs has a beneficial effect on birds; their weight gain
- When installing ventilation, make sure that there are no drafts in the room, they have a bad effect on bird immunity.
- Also watch out for litter. It must be promptly changed. It must be clean and dry to prevent its contamination by harmful microorganisms and viruses.
- Periodically, walk your broilers. Clean air and the sun have a very positive effect on their state of health, and increase their appetite.
Reason 3 - poultry diseases and ailments
Poor living conditions, lack of sunlight and clean air, poor-quality low-protein food are all factors that weaken the bird greatly, making it immune to the ability to cope with diseases.
The lack of attention of the owners to the health of the bird will be naturally punished by its low weight and poor appearance, the very low quality of the meat obtained from the birds after slaughter.
Regularly inspect birds for worms. If the moment is missed, your bird is at risk for worm infection. Cappiliar disease is the name of your problem.
With an unnaturally large number of worms, the bird will simply die. With moderate - will be weak, have low weight and low immunity.
The solution to the problem is a regular examination by a veterinarian, timely vaccination of your livestock and stimulation of the bird’s own immunity with a high content of vitamins in the feed.
At infection of a bird use of antibiotics is necessary.
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Broiler balanced nutrition scheme
For a quick set of broilers muscle mass, you can use the following power scheme:
- The amount of feed from the first day of life per bird starts from 14 grams per day and goes further along the increment of 3-4 grams of increase per day.
- Broiler chick weighing up to 40 grams - prelaunch feed.
- After 3 days of age, you can give chopped green mass, germinated seeds of wheat.
- After the chicks have reached the age of 10 days, mixed feeds are possible.
- The bird's age is 10 days - the amount of feed must be at least 39 grams of feed. The weight of the bird is about 200 grams.
- Next, increase the content of high-quality feed, with a high content of protein (protein).
- At the age of 20 days, the broiler should already have a weight of 800 grams and receive food in the amount of about 106 grams per head per day. Do not forget about vitamins and minerals! Investing in them will fully pay off a healthy and large bird.
- When a month of age is reached, a broiler should weigh 1.5 kilograms and eat about 140 grams of feed per day.
- Further, at 1.5 months, your broiler should weigh up to 2 kilograms of live weight.
With your attention to the above described aspects of broiler breeding and organizing the correct feeding regime, maintenance and vaccination, your broilers will be much larger, healthier and more beautiful than the bird owners, who improperly refer to her care.
Remember that chickens should eat well, so the feeders and drinkers should always be full. Feed broilers must contain calcium and protein.
Keep the hen house clean. In a dirty and damp room, the birds will not develop normally, but they will get sick and wither.
Do not forget to regularly invite a veterinarian to inspect the hens. It is possible that poor weight gain is associated with an infectious disease.
How much should broilers weigh
Growing broilers has its own characteristics. With proper maintenance, the chicks are consistently gaining weight. To monitor the correct weight gain helps a special table. It contains all the information about the set of live weight broilers. Ideally, the weight of broilers should grow as follows:
Of course, such a good weight gain is due to the ideal conditions of maintenance and feeding. In practice, the numbers may look somewhat more modest, but there should not be much difference in performance.
It is worth noting that some farmers slaughter birds as early as 50–55 days of life. Although broilers still do not gain maximum weight by this age, the meat is very tender and dietary.
In any case, contain broilers over 80 days, unprofitable. Meat breeds rarely gain more than 6 kilograms of weight, and meat loses its useful properties and quality.
Currently, hybrid broiler varieties are very popular in farms. They are bred by crossing different breeds of meat. Even against the backdrop of early broilers, hybrid chickens look very attractive in terms of weight gain.
Broiler chickens are quite capricious and whimsical in content, they quickly react to any change of conditions. Therefore, there are many reasons for poor broiler weight gain. So, errors in nutrition, conditions of detention, disease - all this has a negative impact on the increase in live weight.
Broilers are very sensitive to temperature. Violation of the temperature standards of the content of broilers lead to poor bird immunity, as well as to large energy consumption for heating the body, and not weight gain. Therefore, low temperatures, as well as sudden drops, are unacceptable.
Large area for walking
While for most breeds of chickens a spacious territory for walking is a prerequisite for maintenance, broilers can be called an exception. In a spacious area where they can move freely and freely, there is a high consumption of calories. Therefore, it is forbidden to give broiler chickens access to large areas.
Problems in the diet
Unbalanced nutrition and lack of protein - Another very common cause of poor weight gain in broiler chickens. In principle, with low weight gain, the first thing that should be done by the owners is to reconsider the diet of the birds. There may be several problems in the diet:
- birds may not get enough food at one feeding and just be hungry,
- the number of feedings may not match the age needs of chickens,
- the diet can be poor, unbalanced, deficient or oversupply of various nutrients,
- the bird may decrease or even disappear appetite as a result of the transfer from one feed to another,
- feathered water may lack clean drinking water for a normal appetite.
Also very often broiler species can gain weight poorly from a lack of protein in the diet. If the owners feed the chickens independently prepared mash, the weight loss becomes a frequent occurrence. After all, at home it is very difficult to competently make a diet and in the right proportion to pick up all the mineral and vitamin substances and other nutrients necessary for birds.
Video: stunting due to improper diet
Special breed broiler
Breeding chickens are divided into 2 categories: with a high rate of gaining muscle mass and with a low speed. In the latter case, the birds gain weight over a longer time. If you didn’t pay attention to this moment when choosing a breed, you may have an unpleasant surprise in the form of a slow set of muscle mass. Be sure to ask the breeders such a characteristic of the breed.
Broilers are extremely sensitive to feed, especially newborn chickens. Food for them should be of the highest quality and fresh. Poor, inappropriate, old feed (rotted or moldy) can cause metabolic disturbances, reduced or increased acidity and dyspepsia. When dyspepsia occurs a violation of digestion in the stomach, there is a heaviness, pain.
At the same time the bird can refuse food, it becomes apathetic, inactive. One of the symptoms of dyspepsia is abnormal stool. If you observe such a clinical picture, you need to take immediate action. In this condition, ascorbic acid, glucose, a solution of potassium permanganate helps well. The second problem is helminth infections. The most frequent are such: capillaria, ascariasis, prostagonidosis. It is dangerous to give veterinary drugs to chickens on their own without a definite diagnosis. To do this, it is necessary to examine the feces with the methods of helminthic otoscopy and various samples to determine the type of parasites and select the appropriate drug.
After anthelminthic treatment, it is necessary to endure a 3-day quarantine in chickens, and all litter during this time should be burned.
Conditions in the hen house
Analyze the conditions of detention - here it is necessary to adjust the temperature, airing, estimate the area for walking birds. If you keep broilers year-round, you should definitely take care of the weatherization and the organization of heating in the house. The main nuances in the arrangement of the chicken coop:
- The room should not be cracks, drafts.
- The temperature should be in the range of 20–22 ° C for adults. Newborn chickens are kept at 30 ° C, and after reaching the age of one week, the temperature is lowered by 2–3 ° C every week. The temperature regime for monthly individuals and more adult broilers is the same. In winter, the house should be heated and insulated. Infrared lamps can be used to maintain the temperature.
- The house must be well ventilated, since respiratory and digestive diseases can develop in a stale room and the metabolism is also disturbed.
- Take care of the lighting. Ideally, it should be red, soft. With such lighting, chickens have lower levels of stress and minimal risk of snapping. Duration of daylight should be in the range of 14-17 hours.
- For broilers optimal cellular content. Sometimes the bird needs to be released to fresh air, while at 1 square. m area for walking should have 20 chickens or 10 adult chickens.
- It is extremely important for the health of birds to constantly maintain cleanliness in the house!
Next, analyze exactly what you feed and water the birds, what additives you give them. It is optimal to give the broiler breeds a combined purchased feed, as they are already balanced in composition and you will not have to bother with thinking about the diet. If chickens do not go out into the fresh air and do not receive sunlight, be sure to give vitamin d. When using household mixers, you should definitely supplement them with premixes: vitamin-mineral complexes, balanced in composition of all substances. Also, the diet of grain must be diluted with greens, vegetables and fruits.
Rules of feeding and watering
- Chickens should have constant (!) Access to clean and fresh drinking water.
- When feeding chickens and growing individuals, it is necessary to adhere to the recommended volume of servings and number of feedings in accordance with the age of broilers. So, before the first week of life, 8-time feeding is necessary for the feathery, from the second week - 6 times a day, even after a week 4 feedings per day are enough.
- Different types of combined feed may have a different taste (it is determined by the composition). Birds are very sensitive to the change of feed, so you can not abruptly replace the old feed with a new one. It is best to interfere with food in equal parts, and after a while add less and less old food to ensure a smooth transition to a new food.
Weight and height control according to regulations
From the first days of a broiler chicken, you need to keep records of weight control, as well as make all the data on the conditions of detention and feeding.
Record changes in weight should be on weeks, also need to make information about the change of feed, temperature, number of feedings.
Approximate norms of chick weight:
- newborns - 40 g,
- 2 weeks - 0.2–0.25 kg,
- 3 weeks - 0.8 kg
- 4 weeks - 1.5–1.6 kg,
- 8 weeks - 3 kg or more.
Reviews of poultry farmers about solving the problem of poor growth of broilers
Ensuring acceptable conditions of maintenance will avoid problems in the form of poor weight gain. But before you understand all the nuances of broiler care, you can make a lot of mistakes. Надеемся, наша статья помогла вам разобраться в причинах недобора веса и узнать о профилактических мерах, которые стоит предпринять.