Apricot is one of the favorite fruits, it is grown with pleasure in almost every garden. How to plant apricot in the fall to get a good harvest in the future? The advice of experienced gardeners will help to answer this question.
How to plant apricot
The tree tolerates frost and drought. At one place apricot can grow up to 30 years without losing its yield. Therefore, before planting, it is important to determine the place and time.
The timing of planting seedlings
The best time to plant seedlings is autumn. Planting time is slightly different in each region. In southern latitudes, it is better to carry out all work at the beginning of October, and in the conditions of the middle band a little earlier.
Important!Works associated with planting a sapling should end a month before the onset of frost.
Choosing an apricot orchard location
Apricot is an oriental culture, therefore it is better to plant trees in well-lit places. The place for the future garden should be well protected from cold northerly winds from all sides.
Despite the fact that apricot belongs to moisture-loving trees, it is preferable to plant it in a relatively dry area. The depth of groundwater should be no higher than 1.5 meters. The plant does not tolerate the mopping of the root system, especially at a young age.
It is important to pay attention to the soil in which it is planned to grow apricot. On sandy soils without additional irrigation, trees age early, the risk of summer burns increases. On chernozem, apricot begins to bear fruit late, the yield is very low. Apricot categorically can not be grown on heavy clay soils. It is preferable to plant young trees on light loamy soils with a neutral reaction.
How to prepare the landing pit
The landing pit for a sapling is prepared in advance, approximately 2-3 weeks before the intended work. The depth of the hole should correspond to the root system of the seedling. Experienced gardeners recommend a depth of up to 70-80 cm.
Before planting the pit is well filled with fertilizer. To do this, the earth must be mixed with humus, superphosphate and potassium.
One landing well:
• Humus - 2 buckets,
• Potassium sulphate - 500 gr,
• Superphosphate - 600 gr.
Fertilizers are well mixed with the soil and poured into the pit. The pit is left until the landing. During this time, the earth will settle.
How to choose an apricot seedling for planting in the fall
For planting a tree is better to give preference to purchased seedlings that are grown in compliance with all requirements. In addition, the independent cultivation of apricot from the stone - troublesome business that requires special knowledge.
The best material for planting - young seedlings, whose age does not exceed 3 years. They quickly take root in a new place, it is easier to care for them. What to look for when buying a sapling, so as not to buy wilderness instead of a cultural tree:
1. A young seedling of a varietal apricot has thick skeletal branches without thorns.
2. Pay attention to the vaccination site. There should be a small spike at its base.
3. In addition, the root system of the seedling must be alive, otherwise the plant will not take root.
Autumn apricot planting: how to conduct
Before landing prepare the seedling. You need to carefully examine it, remove all rotten and dry roots. Healthy roots must be cut to 1/3. Next, the seedling is placed in a clay talker, in which it is desirable to add a mullein.
Apricot planted in a prepared well. It is necessary to monitor the position of the root collar. It should be 5-6 cm above the soil level. If it is deepened, the risk of fungal diseases of the tree increases.
It is more convenient to carry out all the work associated with planting together. Seedling neatly placed in a hole spread roots and covered with earth. After that, the soil around the tree is tamped and watered abundantly. To preserve moisture, additionally mulch the trunk circle with humus.
If you plan to plant several trees, it is important to respect the distance between the seedlings. Adult apricot requires a large area, up to 5 square meters. m. on one tree.
How to care for apricot in the fall after planting
After the plant is planted, it must be prepared for winter. Particular attention should be paid to the trunk and skeletal branches. They need to whitewash to protect against spring burns. Copper sulphate is added to the working solution. This mixture helps to destroy pests that hibernate under the bark of a tree. The whitewashing of the tree is carried out when the weather is settled, and the rainy period will pass.
In addition, young seedlings need to be protected from rodents that cause harm. For this, fir branches are tied to the trunk. Despite the fact that apricot is a frost-resistant plant, it needs additional warming at a young age. When snow falls, they wrap the tree near the trunk circle.
Important! During periods of thaw, it is necessary to remove melted snow from the root neck of the plant so that moisture does not stagnate in this place.
Apricot protection from pests and diseases
Apricot is unstable to damage by pests and diseases. In the autumn, after planting, apricot is treated with complex preparations. Autumn use copper sulphate or Bordeaux mixture. Simultaneously with the treatments, an additional spraying with Zircon, Ecoberin is carried out. They increase the resistance of seedlings to weather conditions and diseases.
How to prune an apricot in the fall
Pruning is an important event when growing apricot. It is carried out in the spring, summer and autumn. Autumn pruning is carried out at the stage of preparing the tree for the winter.
During this period, it is important to pay attention to the broken and damaged shoots that need to be removed. Also cut out all the sick and dry branches. In addition, all growing inside and thickening shoots are cut off.
Important!The first pruning of the tree is carried out a year after planting.
Is it possible to repot the apricot in the fall?
At one place the tree grows long enough and does not tolerate the transplant. But if the need arises, then you can transplant young seedlings. This is best done in the fall. In addition, it is important to adhere to some rules for apricot transplantation.
1. Transplant apricot can be carried out if the age of the seedling does not exceed 5 years.
2. When transplanting it is important to preserve the earthy clod with roots.
3. Apricot is carefully removed from the ground and transferred to a new place, dodging an earthen ball in sackcloth.
Observing these simple rules can make an apricot transplant less painful. Thanks to this plant to recover faster.
Recently, apricot trees are very popular. New breeding allows you to grow this crop, even in the northern regions. Apricot constantly requires care, especially in autumn, when the tree needs to be prepared for winter. Observing all the rules of planting and care, the hardworking gardener will be rewarded with tasty fruits. It's a shame when in the spring it turns out that the apricot is withered.
What soil is suitable
Apricot best land on high ground, solar and warm side of the site, in a sheltered place from the cold wind. On the southern side, it is not recommended to plant apricots, since the vegetative process starts too early, the tree loses its ability to resist frost.
The main requirement for the soil is good breathability, because the roots of the tree need a constant flow of air throughout the vegetation period. Apricot has a negative impact on flooding the site with water for a short period of time, an excess of moisture for the root system can be detrimental and lead to tree fading.
When choosing a place for the future garden apricot, you should pay attention to the composition of the soil. Black soil would be an excellent option, but sandy loamy, medium loamy, well-breathable soils are also suitable, so this land warms up quickly and easily allows air and water to pass through.
Do not plant apricot seedlings on clay soils. They retain moisture, and for this reason, the growth period of the tree does not have time to end towards the onset of cold weather, and subsequently it does not tolerate the winter and slowly stops bearing fruit.
The soil composition should be neutral or slightly alkaline. Acidic soils need liming. It will not be superfluous to add dolomite flour to the ground when loosening the ground in the near-stem circle.
Preparing the soil for planting
To prepare the soil for the future apricot orchard, you need 1 or 2 years before planting. The soil should be processed as deep as possible. After all, the greater the depth of the treated soil, the richer the fertile layer melts. Trees grow well and delight with excellent yields.
Spring soil digging up shovel or cultivator to a depth of about 10 cm. Subsequent tillage of the land until the end of the growing season is done to a depth of 8 cm. The number of soil treatments in the summer depends on how often the garden is watered, it is about 4–5 treatments.
In the autumn, the garden is plowed, the depth should be about 20 cm between the rows, and 15 cm near the tree itself. In the summer, the soil is cultivated by a cultivator to a depth of 10 cm.
Also, the land is not recommended for a long time to leave in the form of black steam, its physical properties deteriorate. The negative impact of steam can be reduced by sowing white lupine, pea or mustard, and manure applied to the soil.
The land of the future garden must be kept clean, weeds must be removed in a timely manner. Watering make furrows or sprinkling.
It is also interesting to read the best varieties of peaches.
Do not forget about fertilizer
In autumn, the soil is fertilized with mineral fertilizers. And before the onset of winter, the earth needs potassium and phosphorus, and Calcium will not be superfluous. Most of the potassium and phosphorus are found in wood ash, and a large amount of calcium is in chalk, or it is possible to buy in specialized stores, preparations that include calcium.
Pit for planting: depth
Planting seedlings begins with digging a planting pit, which must be excavated and prepared in advance, at least one month. The width of the pit is 100 cm, and in depth they dig 70–80 cm. At the bottom of the landing pit, drainage is made of branches and gravel, and only then the prepared soil is poured.
Fill it with chernozem, which is mixed with one bucket of humus, with the addition of ash and mineral fertilizers. The pit is filled with layers, and at the same time each layer is very well tamped to the formation of a small mound, the root neck should be above ground level.
Choosing a sapling for planting
Young apricot trees should be purchased in specialized stores or nurseries. When buying seedlings, it is necessary to carefully examine the root system, make sure that there are no dried or frozen roots that may not settle down.
Faster in a new place are taken trees with closed root systemthat are grown in containers. They are planted at any time of the year, regardless of the climate of the area.
It is better to buy two-year-old saplings, because the root system of them is quite well developed, it has at least 3-4 main roots. But you can also plant annual plants, you need to ensure that at the time of planting there were no dried roots.
Preparing a seedling before planting
Before planting an apricot, cut the tips of the roots, removing, thus, the damaged and diseased roots. They are dipped in a specially prepared mixture, which consists of water, clay and fresh mullein.
The prepared mixture should be of medium thickness, the thickness of the applied layer of the mixture is about 3 cm. At first glance this procedure may seem meaningless, but this is far from being the case. The earth will adhere perfectly to the root system, plus it is able to protect the roots from heat.
When can I plant?
Almost all gardeners insist that the best time of year for planting apricot is autumnAfter all, with the onset of winter, the ability of the soil fungi to actively vital activity decreases, thereby reducing the risk of infecting the tree. Planting an apricot is the first and main step in growing apricots.
Apricots are planted at least 60 cm deep.
Since rotted organic fertilizers are introduced into the planting pit, In the first year after planting a tree, no fertilizer is applied.. After all, their surplus increases and delays growth, seedlings may not have time to prepare for the onset of cold weather.
From the second year, they begin to make fertilizers with a nitrogen content (early spring) and phosphate (with the arrival of summer). The amount of fertilizer applied depends on the external state of the tree, with strong growth and large shoots it is recommended to reduce the amount of nitrogen fertilizers, and, conversely, with weak growth they add.
A large amount of nitrogen, which plants need, to be in rotted manure. It is brought in early spring or before the arrival of winter; in the summer, manure cannot be applied.
All the leaves that have fallen from the tree are collected and burned, since various infections can overwinter in the leaves of the fruit tree, in particular, the fungal infection.
For the formation of flower buds, 2-3 weeks before the beginning of this period, apricots fertilize with nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers. Apricot trees need and potash fertilizers, they are made when digging the soil along with phosphorus. Organic fertilizers are applied once every two or three years.
First about watering
Trees after autumn planting you need to water abundantly in spring and summer. Constant watering contributes to the formation of new roots in wet soil.
With the onset of August, the number of waterings is reduced, and then completely stop watering, so as not to contribute to unnecessary growth until the arrival of winter. The earth in the tree wheel is constantly maintained in a loose state, without weeds.
Treesregardless of age need additional watering in Mayso that apricot with an intensive growth of all its processes does not experience a lack of moisture. To restore the strength that was spent on ripening the fruit, the tree, after the last apricot was torn off, is watered.
There is a perception that apricot does not need frequent watering, as it rather easily tolerates drought. But, to ensure comfortable conditions, this type of care is absolutely not to be neglected.
Also need to feed
Fed apricots in the spring, make fertilizer in the ground. When poor soil they are made annually.
From the second year, in the beginning of spring or autumn, after planting the plant, they make complex mineral fertilizers. Organic fertilizers are applied every 3–5 years: manure, peat or compost. You can use bird droppings as a type of organic fertilizer.
To apricot fruit well, make mineral fertilizers. In the second or third year, ammonium nitrate is applied - 60 g, potassium chloride - 40 g, and superphosphate - 130 g. Since the fifth, seventh year of tree growth, the amount of mineral fertilizers slightly increases.
We protect our tree
The apricot tree needs protection from diseases and pests, from the onset of cold weather. Wounds and freezers are treated with garden pitch. This procedure is carried out in early May.
The most dangerous disease for apricot, as, indeed, for other stone trees, is monilioz. Start the fight right away. Moniliosis is able to destroy the crop more often than the winter frost. To get rid of it, the trees are sprayed about three times with a solution of copper sulfate. Hurry up and spray the apricots before the buds form.
Since August, the amount of watering is reduced and fertilizing with phosphate-potassium fertilizer is done for more successful ripening of wood. The tree is whitewashed from sunburn, late autumn or early February, with particular attention to the stem and the skeletal branches of the tree. Copper sulfate and clay are added to the slaked lime.
Apricots do not cover for the winter. The snow near the tree is raked, because the stagnation of water has a negative effect on the tree more than a slight frost.
Autumn planting apricot trees
For apricot planting it is correct to choose areas with loamy soil of neutral or weakly alkaline reaction. The soil should be a sufficient amount of humus, fluorine, potassium and nitrogen.
The groundwater in the apricot growing area should be quite deep, the place should be well lit and heated, not exposed to harsh winds. For additional protection of apricots from such traumatic factors, shields and fences, painted for more light reflecting in white, are often used.
The best effect is achieved if you plant apricots 2-3-year-old seedlings. Then they take root faster and begin to bear fruit earlier. The first half of autumn is considered the best time for planting apricots: before frost, seedlings should have time to acclimatize.
For planting apricot trees, it is necessary to prepare a pit with dimensions of 70 x 70 x 70 cm. Fill it in the following sequence:
- сначала выкладывают дренаж из веток и гравия,
- затем закладывается питательная почвенная смесь, состоящая из 2-3 ведер перегноя, 500 г суперфосфата, 2 кг золы, которую можно заменить 100 г калийной соли, 200 г аммиачной селитры и 1 кг извести.
Тщательно перемешанной питательной смесью яма заполняется так, чтобы образовалось небольшое возвышение. This is done to ensure that the root neck of the tree, even after the shrinkage of the earth, does not sink into the soil. Otherwise, there is a risk of podpryvaniya in the ground, which often leads to fungal diseases of trees.
Before planting a tree, you need to slightly cut off the roots, remove the damaged parts of them, and dip the rest into a talker, consisting of clay, water and a liquid mullein. This is necessary to create a protective layer for the roots. Yes, and the soil will stick to them better, which means that the trees will be more stable.
It is easier for two people to plant trees in order to gently straighten the roots, fill in and compact the ground. A hillock is formed around the tree, a groove is made outside of it, into which 2 buckets of water are poured. With this inIt is important to ensure that the roots do not erode or become bare. If this happens, you need to fill them with earth.
Apricot fruits grow on the annual bouquet of sprigs. Therefore, systematic pruning of the crown for its rejuvenation and increasing the yield of trees is indispensable.
In the fall, they mostly perform sanitary pruning of trees, that is, they remove dried, unfruitful and diseased shoots. They are very harmful to the tree, as they often serve as a haven for insect pests.
Pruning is performed taking into account the age and condition of the fruit tree:
- young branches need to be shortened only slightly,
- An adult tree needs a thorough pruning of the lateral and skeletal branches, which are cut by at least one third, leaving about half of the strongest shoots,
- old trees pruned the top, all lowered and non-fruitful branches.
Sometimes you have to remove large branches that have not been bearing fruit for a long time. As a result of such manipulations in spring, the tree comes to life and fruit buds appear on it in those places where there had not been many years before due to insufficient lighting of the fruit.
The trimming tool must be decontaminated and well sharpened so that the procedure is quick and painless. Small sections are not processed by anything, and large sections are painted with oil paint.
Feeding and preparation for wintering
Autumn plant feeding is carried out after the collection and destruction of fallen leaves and shallow digging of the earth. Phosphate fertilizers are applied in the amount of 50 g per tree, and potash fertilizers in the amount of 30 g. Apricots are fed with organics in the form of humus or compost based on the rate of 4-6 kg per tree every 3-5 years.
If plants bear bad fruit due to acidification of the soil, then every 5-6 years in the autumn it is lime, bringing 5-10 kg of fertilizer under the tree. Note that the older the tree and the larger its crown, the more lime it needs.
In the fall, you also need to take care of protecting the bark and tree branches from spring burns. To do this, they are treated with a solution consisting of 2 kg of lime, a glass of flour paste and 200 g of copper sulfate, diluted in a bucket of water. You can also use for this purpose water-based paint or garden whitewash.
Protection from rodents are brushwood or spruce branches, tied down along the trunk with needles down. Without a loss, frost apricots can be helped by wrapping trunks with snow. When thaws, the snow must be otgresti from the root of the neck, so that the frozen during the night frosts water does not accumulate in this place.
Protection against diseases and their prevention
Apricot trees have many enemies: excessive moisture, drought, frost, winter cold, harsh winds, large temperature fluctuations, as well as specific diseases. The cause of the disease is most often a violation of agrotechnology. Sick trees more than others need feeding with potassium and lime.
Adding an article to a new collection
In winter, for the apricot tree, thaws are most pernicious, which can "wake up" the plant prematurely. As a result, shoots that have started to grow will freeze during the cooling period. To avoid this, you need to know how to cover apricot for the winter.
This heat-loving culture requires careful care in the fall and thorough preparation for wintering. In the climate of the middle zone can not do without a warm shelter of apricot for the winter. And to prepare the plant for the onset of cold weather must be in advance.
Apricot care in the fall when preparing for winter
In the autumn (September-October), sanitary pruning of wood is carried out. Apricot crown is cleaned from dried branches and formed. Consider that in order for the sections to heal safely, the average air temperature must be above 8 ° C.
After leaf fall, trees are treated with 3% Bordeaux liquid. This fungicidal agent will protect plants from fungal diseases. Especially carefully sprayed shtamb and skeletal branches.
In addition, to protect the tree from diseases and pests, the stem is whitened with quicklime with the addition of a mullein or a special composition for whitewashing.
Do it in dry and cool weather.
If an unusually warm autumn comes out, long shoots can grow on fruit trees. This becomes the cause of freezing of not fully mature branches, flower buds and wood. To avoid this, in August, apricots are plentifully watered with a solution of wood ash - 1 cup of the substance is diluted in 10 liters of water. On an adult tree spend about 6 buckets.
This procedure accelerates the aging of shoots and stops their growth in the fall. And it is also important to remove nitrogen fertilizers from the “diet” of apricot trees from the second half of the summer.
Before the onset of stable cold weather, the trunk circle is mulched with peat, humus, compost or sand with the addition of sawdust. The layer of mulch is about 20 cm.
How to warm the apricot for the winter
In the snow-free and frosty, thawing winter of apricots, the root collar suffers (the place where the horses pass into the trunk). From constant temperature fluctuations, it undermines. As a result, the tree decreases winter resistance. To prevent this, the root collar and tree trunk are tightly wrapped with sacking (preferably in several layers). For this purpose, you can use another material, but it must pass air.
In regions with an unstable climate, the shelter should be warmer. An adult plant is shortened to a height of 2.5 m, around it pegs (4-6 pieces) are driven into the ground to a height of the first lower branches, or a wire or wooden frame is installed. From above and to the very level of the soil, the tree crown is wrapped with dense agrofibre (spunbond, lutrasil, agrospan, etc.) or other breathing material, attaching it from below to pegs or to a frame. So that the shelter is not blown away by the wind, covering material is sprinkled with earth all around.
A cap that protects the apricot from the prickly wind and frost can also be made from roofing material, which is placed on top of a wooden frame.
When growing this fruit crop in regions with severe or insufficiently snowy winters, it is recommended to prefer planting the most frost resistant zoned apricot varieties. Because even a good shelter can not save the heat-loving trees.
We hope you have no doubt whether to cover apricot for the winter. Every year, insulate the tree in this way - and it will bear fruit without ceasing.
The tree is very resistant to temperature extremes, it can grow in the same place from about 25 to 30 years. Easily cope with drought and frost.
When choosing a place you should definitely take into account the terrain, check the ground, although this culture is moisture-loving. The ground containing lime is the best. At the initial stage it is forbidden to allow root system to get wet. Therefore, it is planted in a dry place, where the depth of groundwater does not exceed one and a half meters. Apricot grows very poorly on clay soils.
It is advisable to dig up the prepared soil several times in a season a year before planting and periodically water it. Fertilize with humus and manure, to achieve in the subsequent high fertility.
Preparing a pit for planting
In September, a hole is dug in the selected area, the width and depth of which should be about 80-100 centimeters. The bottom is well supplied with fertilizers. At the bottom of the pit it is imperative to put a drainage of broken stone or crushed stone with a layer of 10 centimeters, then 10 cm of black earth. Add wood ash and humus. The last layer should consist of 5 centimeters of chernozem.
As a result, the pit is filled with layers. In the center a mound forms, on which a sapling is subsequently established.
Selection of seedlings for planting in the fall
It is best to buy seedlings grown in compliance with special requirements in specialized stores, from verified persons, in nurseries. When choosing, by all means pay attention to the root system. It is important to check that there are no dried up roots, since in the future they will not be able to adapt to the new territory.
It is best to acquire young seedlings, aged one and a half to two years, which have a closed root system. They take root better and faster, require the most simple care.
It should be a good look at the crown. Check that there are no broken branches and leaves damaged by diseases.
The correctness of the autumn planting
Before you plant, apricot is required to prepare the roots.
- If it can be seen that they have rotted or looked dry, it should be removed if possible.
- Healthy roots are cut to one third.
- In order to plant a sapling, prepare the hole in advance.
Always check the root system so that it is not much higher, about 3-4 centimeters or at the same level with the prepared ground. If you go deeper, the risk of disease will increase.
The plant is immersed in a hole, carefully set it and straighten the roots, covered with earth. Around tamped soil and carefully watered. When planting, make sure that the sapling is standing upright and does not go far deep.
Important! Planting will be successful and correct only in the case when the seedling is planted tightly and is not pulled out of the ground with increased twitching.
Then the plant must be tied to the rods at the top and 23-24 centimeters from the soil.
At what distance to plant apricots? If necessary, planting several trees, maintain a certain distance between them, since an adult tree requires an area of approximately 5 square meters.
In the future, the plant must be prepared for the winter period. Equal attention is paid to skeletal branches and the trunk. The stem of the plant is white copper sulfate.
Important! This helps protect and destroy pests that can live in the bark, as well as protect against spring burns.
To protect against freezing in the lower part, around the trunk, a mound of about 30-35 centimeters in height is made. After the snow cover, they need to wrap a tree. During the period of melting snow, it is removed from the neck of the roots of the plant to prevent stagnation of moisture.
With the onset of the first month of spring, the formation of the crown begins. A careful inspection is made to ensure that the branches are not affected by temperature conditions.
- When detecting damaged buds and twigs, circumcision is performed.
- Skeletal branches are shortened by half.
- On the remaining part may appear the first ovary of flowers.
In the first year, the tree is not fully prepared to bear fruit, so the ovaries are trying to remove.
Be sure to feed the tree. Fertilizer improves and stimulates growth. The treatment is made with a solution of urea, it is possible to use preparations containing nitrogen.
Tree transplanting in the fall
When to replant apricot in the fall? It is best to perform a transplant if there is a great need for it, since the tree best survives in one chosen place, and it does not tolerate the “moving”. If necessary, transplanted in October-November.
It is mandatory to leave a lump of soil and the roots of the plant. When transferring from one place to another, wrapped in burlap.
Important! It is best to transplant if the tree is less than five years old.
The most dangerous pest of apricot is aphid. When it appears, the apricot tree becomes very weak. To destroy it can be sprayed with ash, tobacco extract.
- Also not a little harm is caused by black velvet and caterpillars of butterfly haws, which must be fought.
- Rodents and hares can cause enormous harm. They eat the bark. If it is all eaten almost completely, you should only cut the tree almost to the ground. There is a possibility that maybe it will grow again and begin to bear fruit.
To try to protect against rodents, it is necessary to tie around juniper, spruce or pine branches around the entire circumference, be sure to down branches. After all, rodents do not tolerate coniferous smell. You can trample snow around. Put special nets, which are an obstacle for all rodents.
Planting of a colloid apricot
When planting in spring is required to comply with the following algorithm:
- A landing pit is being prepared. Its size and depth should be such that the roots of the plant fit there in a straightened form. Pay attention to the place of inoculation of the seedling - it should be above the ground surface.
- Before the seedling is placed in the ground, it is necessary to place phosphate and potash fertilizers in the dug hole, mix them with loose soil and only after that place the plant in the landing site.
It is important to ensure that the apricot grows smoothly, not leaning to the side.
After planting, apricot trees are watered abundantly, but so that the planting hillock does not wash off. Further irrigation is recommended by digging holes near the roots of the tree and flooding them with water.
It is necessary to look after saplings regularly. Top dressing is carried out three times during the vegetative period; commercial fertilizer, slurry 1/10, saltpeter or chicken droppings (in proportions 1/30) are suitable for this:
- the first dressing can be done after disembarkation,
- the second - how will the first leaves appear (after about 2 weeks),
- the last - after a similar period (14 days) after the second.
In the first year after planting, care should be taken to clean all the flowers from the seedling in the spring, and then it is necessary to dive extra branches in a timely manner. Preventive spraying against pests can be carried out with preparations intended for apple trees - this will preserve the health of the trees and increase the yield.
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What is different from fruit berry
Scientists do not use the term "fruit", replacing it with the word "fruit." This definition is used to describe the edible part of the vegetation formed due to pollination of a flower or ovary. Vegetables do not belong to this variety.
- an Apple,
- gravy is pennsylvania,
- cherry plum.
In simple words, the fruit is considered to be any fruit of the plant, ripening on trees and having juicy flesh and seeds for reproduction.
Experts attribute to the berries all fruits, developing from one ovary, and having a juicy flesh and a lot of small seeds. Ovary, in the process of ripening berries, transformed into pericarp suitable for consumption. The fruits in question may have up to several thin-skinned carpels. This category is allowed to include products familiar to everyone, for example, gooseberry, watermelon or banana. Wikipedia confirms the theory described.
The seeds in the berries are embedded in the pulp, with the exception of pepper. Its seeds are located in the hollow inner part of the fruit.
Examples of these berries:
Why not all berries have seeds in the center? Experts highlight the concept - false berries or polynokoshki. These include fruits that have bones on the surface or immediately under the shell, for example, strawberries or raspberries.
False berries develop and lower ovary. Their peculiarity is that in the structure of the berry flower tissues develop that are outside the ovary.
Example of false berries:
In everyday life, berries are called all fruits with a sweet-sour taste and small size. Inside there should not be large stones, edible seeds are not taken into account.
Citruses are considered modified berries with a dense skin and juicy pulp. Experts gave such fruits the name - orange. Fruits with an even more dense skin, such as squash or zucchini, are berries, but have a special name - pumpkin.
How to distinguish the fruit from the berry
In botany there is no concept - “Fruit”. Everything that develops from the ovary is considered a fruit. Berries belong to this category, only they have a narrower name “multi-seeded fruit”. You can summarize - everything that has juicy pulp and a lot of small seeds inside are berries, and everything else is fruit.
In the nation, all fruits of small size with a pleasant, sweet-sour taste and bright color of the rind are called berries, no matter what category these products belong to botanists. All fruits that can not be taken with two fingers is called fruit.
Berries taken to use one or the whole handful. You cannot do this with fruit, it is too big and you need to bite off pieces of it.
Herbal products are distinguished by type of growth. Все что растет на травянистых растениях или кустарниках – ягоды, а на деревьях произрастают исключительно фрукты. Но следует заметить, что в данной теории имеются нестыковки, так как рябина относится к ягодкам, несмотря на то, что растет на дереве.
Фруктами считают некоторые плоды, произрастающие на культурных растениях. And berries can be both cultural and wild. Small fruits can be edible and poisonous. Fruits have no such separation.
How to explain to a child
In order for a child from childhood to have a correct understanding of the world, he needs to be told about the difference between a berry from a fruit and a vegetable.
For children, information becomes the most accessible if it is offered with a clear example.
To explain what a berry is, the child should be shown a sectioned view of the product, so that he can clearly see that the fruit in question has fleshy flesh and a lot of seeds inside. The most convenient way to do this is by the example of the gooseberry, as it has a visual structure.
In order for the child to understand the difference between a berry and a fruit, you should suggest that he compare the apple and the grapes. The first has a dense structure, large size and dense bones separated from the pulp by a dense partition, the structure of the grapes is significantly different, it is, like most berries, soft and juicy, and the seeds are in direct contact with the tissues of the fruit.
Of course, the berry is also useful during pregnancy; children love it with pleasure. Therefore, I recommend everyone to find out in detail what is the particular watermelon? Below in the photo you can see how it looks, the method, how watermelon is grown in the greenhouse.
And then you can read interesting articles about the benefits and properties of watermelon, watermelon seeds are useful for the body and much more. Enjoy reading!
To learn more about the berry and its benefits for the body, read our articles below, as well as see photos of how the berry looks.
The use of blackberries can normalize pressure, strengthen the walls of blood vessels. Benefit for women is invaluable! Thanks to the berry, the skin is rejuvenated, it becomes firm and elastic.
Below you can see a photo of what a blackberry looks like and what varieties there are. And also read interesting articles to learn a lot of new!
Bilberry helps to normalize pressure, improves eyesight and restores the intestinal microflora.
You can read more about the beneficial and healing properties of the berries in our articles in this section. And also see the photo of what blueberries look like, how it grows and how to collect it.
Useful properties of the roots
In addition to succulent fruits, which are the most popular part of wild rose for the preparation of drugs, in traditional medicine the rhizome of the plant is used. It consists of such useful components:
Its roots have pronounced anti-inflammatory and bactericidal properties. Broths, tinctures and tinctures from the underground part of the plant are used to treat digestive disorders, inflammatory processes of the urogenital system.
Drugs containing rhizomes of rose hips normalize hormones, accelerate metabolic processes in the body. They are used for gout, muscle pain and in the presence of pain in the joints, with cramps in the limbs.
Important! After a stroke, it is recommended to take a bath with the addition of a decoction of the root of the plant.
Means in different dosage forms that are prepared on the basis of rhizomes, have a positive effect on the liver, kidneys, gall bladder. They are able to remove stones and sand from these organs.
Despite the beneficial properties of the underground part of the hips, medications using rhizomes should be taken carefully. They slow down the formation of bile, which can cause constipation. Also, dogrose root is contraindicated for people who are prone to thrombosis.
The flowers of this plant have also found use in traditional medicine due to the unique composition:
- essential and fatty oils,
- tannins and other items.
Drugs containing flowers have anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. Broth from this part of the plant is used in the treatment of conjunctivitis, blepharitis, stomatitis. The use of the inside helps to strengthen the heart muscle.
From this plant make an oily hood, which has many properties. It contains in its composition fatty acids (linolenic, stearic, oleic, palmitic), vitamins A, E, C, F and other useful components.
Due to its unique composition, rosehip oil is used as a choleretic agent. It can be used as a medicine for the treatment of hepatitis, cholecystitis. An additional effect that can be obtained by using an oily extract is an improvement in digestion. Also, this drug significantly lowers blood cholesterol, which will be useful in the presence of atherosclerosis.
Rosehip oil can be used as a fortifying agent to saturate the body with useful substances during the period of spring avitaminosis. It increases metabolism and even contributes to weight loss.
This medicinal substance is also used as an external agent:
- for nursing mothers who have cracked nipples
- to improve skin condition. It becomes more elastic, moisturized, fine wrinkles are smoothed, irritation is eliminated,
- for healing wounds, scratches, abrasions,
- with stomatitis,
- eliminates age spots.
Important! Rosehip oil can be instilled into the nose for rhinitis, rhinitis, pharyngitis. Also apply to the face of wrinkles.
Medicinal properties of fruits
In the juicy fruits of the shrub contains a large number of nutrients with medicinal properties of wild rose:
- vegetable fiber and various acids,
- vitamins - C, PP, K, E, B6,
- minerals - molybdenum, calcium, magnesium, potassium and others,
- essential substances.
Important! There are phytoncides, carotene, organic acids, tannins in hips.
Teas and decoctions from fruits are used as a general tonic for children, during pregnancy and for women who breastfeed. These medicines can be safely consumed in the presence of fever, muscle aches, coughs, and runny nose, when most medicines are contraindicated. They can also be used for the prevention of colds.
Rosehip has a positive effect on the circulatory system, metabolic processes in the body. It is used in the treatment of scurvy, anemia, inflammation of the bladder, kidneys.
Means containing the fruits of plants have choleretic properties, removes from the body the excess fluid that can accumulate in the tissues. Regular consumption of rosehip tea normalizes blood pressure, improves the functioning of the stomach, intestines, liver, gallbladder, intestines. It strengthens the walls of blood vessels, has hemostatic and anti-inflammatory qualities.
Read! How to brew rosehip and drink it for the treatment of various diseases can be found in our article.
It is used to improve well-being during colds and flu, stimulates the digestive system, cleans the walls of blood vessels from cholesterol plaques, nourishes the body with useful substances.
Important! Rosehip infusion can be used for rinsing the mouth with bleeding gums, stomatitis. If you want to brew dried rosehip, how to do this, read our article.
To prepare the medicine, use two or three handfuls of dry shrub fruits, which need to be put in a thermos and pour 930 ml of boiling water. Infuse healing liquid throughout the day, after which it can be applied inside.
Sing three cups of rosehip infusion per day. During treatment, do not consume more than a liter of fluid per day. To improve taste, add a spoonful of natural honey or sugar to the prepared medicine.
Remedy for men
Hawthorn in combination with wild rose has a positive effect on the sexual function of men.
The recipe for healing remedies:
- Use 1 tbsp. l hawthorn to pour 230 ml of hot rosehip infusion.
- Put this liquid in a small container in a water bath. Keep on low heat for 18 minutes.
- Remove from heat, leave for 50 minutes in an airtight container.
- Strain the prepared infusion, take in the form of heat.
An hour before the main meals, drink a means, previously dividing it into small portions.
Rosehip infusion is very useful for the human body, but it must be taken with caution when:
- gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer,
- with gastritis, which is accompanied by high acidity,
- with thrombophlebitis.
Cooked drugs contain a large amount of acids in their composition, so after using them you must rinse your mouth with plain water. Also, do not take funds with the content of wild rose for a long time. It is best to take short courses of treatment for 7-10 days each with short breaks.
Features of the autumn planting
Apricot is among the fruit trees, planting in the fall is undesirable. Yet this plant is considered to come from the southern edges, and it is best to take root in warm conditions. And in general, the autumn planting is more suitable for regions with mild winters.
True, there are gardeners who claim that it is autumn that is the best time, because with the onset of winter, soil fungi in the soil significantly reduce their activity, and the risk of seeing a plant diseased decreases sharply. However, thanks to the efforts of breeders in our time, many interesting varieties have been developed that can take root in the conditions of even those regions where cold winters are observed.
In addition, planting in the fall has some advantages over spring. And if we add to this the fact that sufficient or even heavy snow cover is usually observed in Siberia and the Urals, our event no longer seems hopeless.
Choose zoned apricot varieties to be sure that the tree will take root well and easily survive the winter
So why is autumn so good? First of all, it is an opportunity to create all the conditions for the full hardening of the plant. True, this will be ensured only if the necessary interval - at least a month - is maintained between the landing and the first serious frosts. During this time, the root system usually manages to take root in a new place and tolerates cold more easily.
Autumn planting simplifies caring for a plant - it is enough to water a tree only once, the rest will be done by rains. True, there is one thing - apricot does not like excess water, and it is undesirable to keep it at the roots. Unlike apple or pear, apricot prefers to hibernate with more or less dry soil. If there is at least a small amount of moisture, its roots continue to grow, and before the coming winter this growth is undesirable.
Despite the fact that apricot is not the most frost-resistant plant, it is not covered for the winter, and snow is raked around the tree to avoid stagnation of water, which can harm more than frost.
Remember that relying on the stated resistance of the seller of any kind is not worth it. Apricot, even adapted to local conditions, is still not the most resistant to winter temperatures tree, and, therefore, needs additional shelter.
When planting an apricot, the necessary fertilizers and nutrients are added to the pit, which will be enough for the next year. That is, next season you will not have to think about the issue of feeding.
The best varieties of apricot for growing in central Russia
- Hardy - a variety of late ripening (first half of August). The first fruits can be removed for 5-6 years of tree life. Harvest from one plant - up to 80 kg. A fruit weighing 30-40 grams has an excellent taste and can be used both fresh and canned.
- Red-cheeked - gives a harvest in the second half of July. The first fruits can be removed for 3-4 year. The variety is characterized by high winter hardiness and drought resistance. The weight of one orange fruit with red specks - 40-60 gr.
- Sunny - one of the best hybrids for central Russia. It has excellent winter hardiness. The color of the fruit is yellow with a weak blush, the average weight of one fruit is 45 grams. Crop is removed in the second half of July. Regular and rich yields are noted.
- Northern triumph - has a high winter hardiness of the tree and medium in flower buds. Included in the State Register in the Central Black Earth region (its southern part). Fruits of yellow-orange color reach a weight of 55 grams. In the food goes fresh. The first harvest is removed in the fourth year of the tree.
- Honey - a variety of free pollination with an excellent indicator of winter hardiness. Fruits with sweet and aromatic pulp have an average weight of 15 gr. The color of the fruit is yellow and small red dots. Up to 20 kg of crop is removed from one tree.
- Snegiryok - champion among winter-hardy varieties, the most reliable option for central Russia. The tree is undersized - 120-150 cm, and with shelter for the winter, it can be grown even in the Urals and in the northern regions. From one tree can be removed from 7 to 10 kg of crop. Fruits are small - 15-18 grams with dense pulp and excellent taste. Cream peel in the period of maturity is covered with purple blush.
- A cup - a dwarf-type tree (up to 150 cm) with a cupped crown is distinguished by increased winter-resistance. Productivity varieties high, and fruiting occurs every year. The fruit has an average weight of 25-30 grams. Cream peel is covered with a faint blush. The flesh is friable, tender, sweet with a bright aroma.
- Other varieties such as Alyosha, Tsarsky, Lel, Monastyrsky, Piquant, Rossiyanin and others can also be noted.
The most suitable varieties for the Urals
These varieties are distinguished by resistance to low temperatures and the ability of fruits to ripen in a short summer, not inferior in quality to their southern counterparts.
- Cupid - winter-hardy and drought-resistant, has a good yield - up to 40 kg per tree. The weight of one fruit covered with yellow ruddy peel - 30 gr.
- Khabarovsk - high yield - up to 35 kg per tree. Fruits of pale yellow color are harvested from mid-July to early August.
- Seraphim - every year at the end of July yields up to 30 kg of crop from a tree. Considered one of the earliest varieties. Cream colored fruits have a sweet and sour taste.
These varieties are considered the most popular in the Urals. However, the most winter-hardy are Minusinsk ruddy, Minusinsk amber and Siberian Baikalov.
The best varieties for cultivation in Siberia
The Khabarovsk variety is also good for cultivation in Siberian latitudes, like Siberian Baikalov. And if you already know a little about the first, then you still have to get acquainted with the second.
- Siberian Baikalov is a rather large tree - up to 3.5 meters high and up to 4 meters in diameter. The average size of the fruit - 25 gr. Fruits with a small blush have dense and fragrant pulp. Harvest from a tree - 20 kg.
- Sayan - tree height up to 3 meters. Fruits of round shape weighing 25-30 grams are not covered with blush. Productivity - up to 15 kg per tree.
- Northern Lights - has rounded fruits with a clearly defined seam. They have good taste and a mass of 25-30 grams. The variety is considered late. Adapted to the conditions of Siberia and tolerates cold even in winters with little snow.
- Mountain Abakan is a tree up to 3 meters high with good winter hardiness. The fruit with dense orange pulp has a mass of up to 25-30 grams.
- Among other varieties we can mention the Amur already familiar to us, as well as East Siberian, Handsome, Laureate, Triumph of the North, etc.
Place for landing should be prepared at least two weeks before the event, so that the earth will have time to sink a little. Place for landing choose sunny, but with protection from drafts. Groundwater should not be closer than two meters to the surface, because it is at such depth that apricot roots usually go. If this rule is not observed, there is a need to build a small mound that will raise the seedling to the desired height, saving its future roots from contact with the aquifer. However, unlike an apple or pear, apricot calmly transfers close proximity to groundwater.
Apricot loves sunny open spaces, but protected from the northern drafts
It is not recommended to plant apricots on the southern side of the plot, because in this case the tree growing season starts too early and the tree loses its winter hardiness.
Landing in Siberia is carried out on an elevation to prevent rotting of the root collar. It is best to plant apricot on the mound, which must be gentle to protect the roots from freezing.
The pit for planting apricot should be spacious and be at least 70 cm in diameter and in depth
A landing pit is dug out spacious - 70 cm in diameter and 70 cm in depth. Apricot has one feature - its root system in diameter is twice the size of the crown, therefore between seedlings (if several trees are planted) they are kept for at least three meters. In the Urals, this size increases to five meters.
At the bottom of the pit stack a mixture of mineral and organic fertilizers. It consists of humus (2-3 buckets), a glass of ash, 400 grams of potassium sulphide and 700 grams of superphosphate.
To make the apricot easier to take root in the new place, regardless of the region of growth, it is recommended to buy a seedling with a closed root system in a specialized store or nursery. The best option is a biennial plant with a well-developed root system.
Абрикос не любит глинистые почвы, поскольку они слабо насыщаются кислородом и долго задерживают влагу. Чтобы исправить ситуацию, в посадочную яму кроме местного грунта добавляют торф и крупнозернистый речной песок, которые смешиваются в пропорции 1:1:1. Если же почва песчаная или супесчаная, необходимо увеличить её влагоемкость и плодородность. To do this, a layer of clay 20-30 cm thick is laid on the bottom of the landing pit, with a deadwood, brushwood or grass on top of it to maintain humidity. Next will go the upper fertile layer of the earth mixed with the nutrient mixture.
A peg is driven into the middle of the pit, to which a sapling will later be tied up - this is an obligatory protection from the wind in the first years of the apricot's life.
It is best to plant apricot together - one person holds a sapling by the shtamb, not letting it fall, the second one falls asleep the ground. A tree is placed on a mound of nutrient mixture and a fertile layer of earth and straightens its roots down the slopes if the root system is open. Next, the planting pit is filled with earth and periodically shaken the seedling behind the stem so that there are no voids between the roots. The root neck should be located 3 to 4 centimeters above ground level.
Apricot is better to plant together - so much easier
The earth around the seedling is compacted, and a watering circle is erected around the perimeter, which will hold the water when watering, preventing it from spreading. On one sapling 2-3 buckets of water are required. After watering the ground around the seedling mulch with humus or peat.
The pictures 1 and 2 show the wrong garter of a sapling, the picture 3 shows the correct
Now it remains only to tie the plant to the peg, and the landing will be considered complete.
The apricot planted in the fall needs moisture in spring and summer, except for its second half. Periodic watering contributes to enhanced growth of roots and young shoots. In August, its regularity is reduced, gradually reducing to zero, so that the shoots cease to appear. Especially important is additional watering in May and after removing the last fruit for a tree of any age.
The land near the seedling is periodically weeded from weeds to a depth of no more than 6-8 centimeters in order not to damage the roots.
Top dressing is carried out annually if the soil is not rich in nutrients. It is best to produce it in early spring or autumn. Once in 3-5 years you can make compost (5-6 kg per 1 sq. M.), Manure (4 kg per 1 sq. M.) Or bird droppings (a 1:10 solution).
For good fruiting use mineral fertilizers. In the second or third year of life, 60 grams of ammonium nitrate, 40 grams of potassium chloride and 130 grams of superphosphate are added to the seedlings. For 5-7 years of apricot life, these proportions increase slightly.
To strengthen the health of the tree, its wounds and freezers must be smeared
Since apricot does not have high winter hardiness, it is recommended to additionally protect it from severe frosts. If there are wounds or freezers on the tree, they should be covered with garden pitch. It is best to carry out this procedure in early May.
Of all the pernicious factors, moniliosis (fruit rot) is considered the most common and dangerous for apricots, therefore, it is necessary to start protecting the tree immediately. The best tool in the fight against this disease is a solution of copper sulfate (100 grams per 10 liters), which is used to spray three times before the buds begin to form.
Whitewashing helps protect the tree from pests and sunburn.
To protect against rodents, as well as against sunburn in late autumn or early February, the tree trunk and the beginning of the skeletal branches are whitened. The mixture for whitewashing consists of lime-fluff (300 g), copper sulfate (1 tbsp. L.), Table glue or PVA (2 tbsp. L.) And 2 liters of water. Instead of glue, you can use 0.5 cups of milk.
Pruning is important for the growth and development of apricot. It requires the formation of a crown and the removal of parasitic branches. This requires pruning of the crown and garter to a solid foundation for proper growth. Annual shoots are shortened to a height of 70-80 cm above ground level. The skeletal branches of young saplings are shortened by a third, and the center conductor must always be 30 cm higher than the nearest skeletal shoots. You cannot leave several branches growing from one point at a time. In spring, fruit-bearing branches are shortened to stimulate the growth of flowers on the rest of the shoots.
Apricot crown formation pattern by year
It is possible to plant and grow apricot with success not only in central Russia, but also in the Urals and in Siberia, which indicates a high level of modern breeding, which creates varieties resistant to severe frosts. However, one should not rely only on this factor. Without proper and timely care, all the best qualities of a particular variety will be nullified. Therefore, carefully and carefully treat the planted plants, and then you can count on a decent harvest.