Most gardeners prefer to grow fruit crops in their plots, but not all of them are able to take root, give a large number of crops and be unpretentious in the care. Apple-tree Antonovka is one of the winter-hardy varieties suitable for the conditions of Russia. This culture is not the work of breeders, and the work of folk hybridization. A fruit plant has many species that have appeared over a long period of use of the variety.
High adaptability to climatic and soil conditions, low requirements in agrotechnical methods, as well as the aroma and taste of fruits, make Antonovka one of the most popular crops in horticulture. Having studied the biological features of the plant, even a beginner amateur gardener can grow such a tree in his plot.
The variety breeding variety has the first documentary confirmation only in the nineteenth century, but the exact date of the appearance of the fruit crop is unknown. Antonovka combines many varieties that have similar characteristics.
The first of them is the Ordinary apple tree, characterized by a fast-growing crown, which tends to the first part of life upward, and the second one is wide, forming the shape of a ball. The shoots are cranked, and the leaves are oblong, characterized by a bright green color. The bark of the tree is brown, the flowers are pinkish-white in the shape of a saucer. Fruits are medium in size, slightly flattened on the sides and have ribs, in the funnel there is always a rusty shade that does not affect the taste and freshness. The skin of the apple glitters, and the stem is short and sufficiently thickened. The yellowish flesh is characterized by juicy, granular structure, sweet-sour taste and pronounced aroma.
Tip! Antonovka fruits should be harvested in a greenish-yellow state, since they ripen and grow pink during storage.
The variety is highly resistant to frost, the apples keep well on the tree, are easy to transport, suitable for rootstock, and most importantly suitable for any kind of processing. Among the shortcomings can be identified - poor resistance to scab of the culture and frequent damage to the coddle moth.
The Antonovka dessert apple is a medium-sized plant of its kind with average winter hardiness. With age, the tree tends to round shape, developing into a spherical. Saturated green leaves are slightly wrinkled and have cloves. Flowers - large with a pinkish tinge. The weight of one fruit can reach two hundred grams, and the color - green with a light red blush formed by stripes. The taste is slightly sour and fragrant. You can get a harvest only in the third year of cultivation after planting, the amount of which varies from 40 to 120 kg.
The variety Golden Antonovka ripens in the third decade of August or in the first decade of September. Spreading tree, but at the same time of medium height. Apples acquire golden color, high juiciness and characteristic sweet-and-sour taste of the variety. Each fruit weighs about 170 grams and is resistant to scab. Winter-hardy plant prefers soil with good aeration and light structure.
Antonovka Polutorafuntovaya or 600 is characterized by the size of the fruit (250-600 grams) and easily tolerates frost. With a sufficiently high yield of wood, storage is characterized by a much smaller period compared to other varieties of this plant. Self-infested only partially.
Aportovaya is a variety whose apples appear four years after planting. The young seedling quickly increases the vegetative mass, and the yield increase occurs annually. Fruits reaching about 200 grams are harvested at the end of September. Their skin becomes yellow with a pink blush. The main feature of the subspecies is considered long-term storage of juicy fruits.
Dwarf Antonovka begins to bear fruit in three years. The tree has a smaller crown (3 m), but a larger crop. For stock are suitable MM-106 at the age of eight years, as well as MM109 and No. 25-111.
White apple is a fairly old variety. Fruits are more acidic than other varieties, able to maintain their quality and freshness, despite the large size. Fruits are characterized by a blunt base and a sharp top. And also have a relatively small winter hardiness and a strong sensitivity to rot and scab.
Antonovka is valued as a winter crop, with a large number of species, which can be selected for specific climatic conditions. In addition, apples reach a sufficiently large size, fall off a little and contain a large amount of nutrients, including vitamin C.
How to grow from seed
Due to the low germination of the variety, planting material and soil should be carefully prepared. Seed apples are recommended to take from the south side of the growth of the tree, preferring the ripenest and largest of all. At the site of planting, a crop is dug a hole about thirty centimeters deep and fill it with a fertile layer of earth with an elevation of nine centimeters. Before the onset of frost, the seeds are placed 3-4 cm deep, falling asleep top layer with mulch in the form of needles or foliage. In the spring of organic cover must be removed. Of further care is important rejection and picking with a clod of soil. Also, the cultivation of apple trees is possible by cutting.
Rooting a young apple plant is best carried out in the autumn before the end of the month of October, and if the work is carried out in the spring, then April will be the best time frame. Planting of a young tree sapling should be done in well-watered, fertilized sandy or loamy soil, not less than three meters from the groundwater table. Deepening in the ground is prepared in advance, digging a hole in the fall for spring work, and about two months before pre-winter rooting. The depth of the hole in the ground should be at least 80 cm, and the diameter should be about one meter.
The distance between new trees should be determined by their type of crown size, developed in a special scheme, as well as alternation with apple pollinators. A roller is created around the apple tree, into which watering is carried out with warm water. The variety Antonovka prefers well-lit and spacious places. Each plant is tied with two pegs hammered alongside.
Tip! The day before planting the crop, its roots are placed in a bucket of water.
Caring for an Antonovka apple tree includes fertilizing with fertilizers, loosening the root soil layer, removing weeds, watering, pruning and crown formation, as well as preparing the tree for winter.
The amount of watering will depend on the specific climatic conditions of the region, and the volume of fluid is determined by the type and age of the crop. After each moistening of the apple tree, weeding and loosening of the ground surface are carried out. In the first seven years of the life of a fruit plant, it is necessary to maintain purity from any species of grass at its base, as well as the free passage of oxygen to the roots. Tree growing is accompanied by agrotechnical measures aimed at maintaining a healthy state and combating harmful insects.
Caring for the soil where the Antonovka apple tree grows provides for the introduction of nutrients three times a year. The first of which is carried out in early spring when digging up the soil around the tree. The second feeding is done before the beginning of the flowering phase of the crop, and the third during the period of fruit formation.
Fertilizers for apple trees can be mineral compounds and organic matter. When applying slurry or chicken manure to the roots of a plant, it should be borne in mind that natural raw materials must be fermented and diluted with water before application, in a ratio of 1:10.
The fruiting of the apple tree begins, when Antonovka passes the sixth growing season, and the full-fledged period of the formation of a large number of apples falls on the tenth year of the tree’s life. For the southern zones, ripening falls on the beginning of September, while for the northern zones - in the middle of the same month. Over time, the crop yields irregularly, with a break of one year. Dense yellow fruits are considered ready to be harvested.
The Antonovka variety itself is almost sterile, so side plants should be planted next to it, for example, Welsey, Autumn striped or Pepin saffron. To increase crop yields, it is better to plant several different trees. Ornamental spreads and wild apple trees have excellent pollen transfer ability.
The harvest from one plant of the Antonovka variety per year reaches 200 kg, but at the same time this amount increases with the age of the crop. There were cases when 1 centner of fruit was collected from a unit of a tree. Apples should be removed before frost and leave to ripen in a cool place. Fruits stored for three months acquire a pleasant aroma, and their flesh becomes softer and sweeter.
Cropping and crown formation
The formation of the crown of the tree begins in the second year after planting. The trunk is shortened, weak, curved appendages are removed, as well as a third of young branches. Pruning of apple trees in the summer is carried out after the start of fruiting and it is aimed at cleaning sick, damaged, dried and hinder the growth of other woody processes. At the twenty-year-old plants cut down collar. All work associated with a change in the number of branches of culture, you need to finish before the first frost.
Apple-tree varieties Antonovka, although it has a high winter hardiness, but measures to prevent freezing of the plant are recommended to be held annually. The first three vegetation periods used hilling and mulching (12 cm) with compost or humus to protect the roots from the effects of low temperatures.
Tip! Before the first winter, the trunk of the tree must be wrapped with burlap or a layer of roofing felt.
Fruit crops can be found in almost all suburban areas. Many of them do not require much care and attention of the gardener, while giving good yields. These plants include apple variety Antonovka, which spread throughout Russia. The tree has gained popularity because of its large fruit-bearing fruit, as well as its unpretentiousness to the growing conditions. The variety is one of the best of its kind, it takes root easily and increases the growth of apples every year.
Apple tree - agrotechnology and biological features
Apple is the leading fruit crop, it is grown in more than 80 countries, where more than 60 million tons of fruits are produced annually. Apple trees are grown in China, India, Germany, Brazil, Spain ... In Siberia, this is quite a young culture, so our varieties do not yet constitute a tough European competition.
In Siberia, an apple tree is grown on a seed stock, which is used as seedlings of winter-hardy varieties of rannet (Purple Tselinnaya, Dobrynya).
Apple tree structure
The root system consists of skeletal and fouling roots.
The root system of apple Siberian breeding can withstand freezing temperatures and soil freezing to -16-20 degrees.
Therefore, we cannot use European rootstocks, which give the crown a more compact form and allow plants to enter fruiting earlier - their root system withstands temperatures from -6 to -10 degrees. During winters with little snow, on such rootstocks, they freeze out, and people who buy such saplings often spend money in vain.
The ground part of the apple tree: shtamb (trunk from the root collar to the first skeletal branches), skeletal branches, branches of the first order, which go directly from the trunk.
1. Growing branches 2. Leader 3. Root neck 4. Horizontal roots 6. Vertical roots 7. Stam 8. Branch of the first order 9. Branch of the second order
In Siberia, it is recommended to grow apples not in the standard form, but in the bush. This is due to the fact that once every 10 years the region has severe winters in which even small-fruited and medium-sized apple trees are damaged. Large-fruited apple trees freeze out completely, and you have to lay plantings completely.
To avoid this, we recommend growing an apple tree in several trunks.
Planting an apple tree: spring or autumn?
Most often, apple trees are recommended to be planted in spring. By planting seedlings in the spring, you avoid their damage by rodents, low temperatures and other stress factors. But the optimal time for planting is autumn.
There are primary and secondary root growth. In the primary, the root system grows in length, in the secondary, the root system thickens, it acquires root hairs that provide nutrition for the plant. The primary growth of the root system occurs in the summer, the secondary growth in the autumn. In addition, all the seedlings in the nurseries are dug out in the fall, and during storage, the seedling's root system gradually dies off. Therefore, in the fall, you plant a seedling with a healthier, stronger root system than in the spring. But in the fall you are expected unpleasant moments, which are mentioned above: damage by rodents, low temperatures, etc.
If you are confident in yourself, you know that you can protect plants from these adverse factors, it is better to plant apples in the fall. If in doubt, purchase a sapling in the fall, store it in a cellar or basement, because no one will save it better than you.
If it is not possible to organize winter storage of seedlings, buy them in the spring, but try to choose the most viable ones. There is always a temptation to buy a seedling with a closed root system, but sellers often simply transplant ordinary weak seedlings into pots that have not been sold since the fall. These seedlings are much more expensive, but there is no sense from them.
There are many ways to plant an apple tree, as described in the horticultural literature. Often people dig huge holes, 60-70 centimeters deep and 60-70 centimeters wide. It is not right.
If you have a small sapling, a small root system, then, accordingly, the fossa should be small. Its depth can be 30-40 cm.
For planting apple trees, we choose the most lighted area in the garden, and the distance between the plants should be at least four meters. If you grow a columnar shape of an apple tree, the distance between the plants is 1.5–2 meters.
How to cook a hole
Choosing a landing site, we begin to dig a hole. The upper, more fertile layer of earth is reclined in one direction, the lower - in the other. If the land is poor, you can add humus and mineral fertilizers.
Mineral fertilizers are added at the rate of:
100 grams of ammonium nitrate, 500 grams of superphosphate and 70 grams of potash fertilizers.
These fertilizers are mixed with the ground and placed on the bottom of the hole, a little bit of humus is poured in from above, and above it is ground, which was in the fertile layer. This is done so that the root system does not come into contact with mineral fertilizers. If the root system comes into contact with mineral fertilizers, it will die, such a plant will not be viable.
How to plant
After all the drops in the hole should form a mound of earth.
We put a seedling on this mound, evenly straighten the roots, so that in the future they will also grow evenly and consume moisture. Fall asleep on top of the earth from the top layer. If this land is over, you can take it from the fertile top layer of the earth anywhere in the garden. The main thing is not to allow stones, dirt and all kinds of garbage.
Spread the ground evenly, compact it with your foot. To make the root system more intimate with the ground, it is necessary to shake it in small movements, take it by the stem and pull it up several times. After that, once again it is necessary to trample down the ground with his foot.
After landing around the stem is the hole depth of 5-15 centimeters. The plant is watered at the rate of 2-3 buckets of water per sapling, so that the mineral fertilizers will separate, and the root system will receive the necessary moisture. They mulch with humus or sawdust, if they are not, then it is possible with leaves, but not fruit plants, but ornamental plants. Mulch will prevent increased moisture loss from the soil.
After planting, the seedling must be cut to 1/3 (if spring planting, then by 2/3). Do not be afraid to cut the sapling!
At the dug out seedling, root hairs actively dying within 3-5 hours, which provide plant nutrition, larger branches die off within a few weeks. The remaining branches of the root system after planting cannot fully provide the above-ground part of the plant with nutrients. Rejection of the aerial part occurs, and it is extremely painful for the plant. To avoid this, the seedling must be pruned, thereby you allow the plant to grow and develop.
Many amateur gardeners pity their plants, I do not understand why to regret. Fruit plants are designed to bear fruit. If you do not take care of your plants, do not cut, do not form, do not brighten the crown, then the harvest is reduced.
In the first five years, we form fruit plants and when pruning we focus on fruit formations.
Простая кольчатка имеет почку плодовую на конце, сложная кольчатка – три-четыре почки. Копьецо – небольшое ответвление, на котором формируется один, два или три плода, в зависимости от их размера (у европейских сортов яблонь обычно один плод). Fruit twig - one fruit is formed on it in large-fruited varieties and several in Siberian medium and small-fruited ones. The fruit branch and the fruit-tree are characteristic of European varieties, the Siberian varieties do not have such fruit formations.
Siberian varieties have a special type of fruiting, taken from a Siberian apple berry and formed during the period when it fought for its survival. The main fruit formations of the Siberian varieties are collar. Kolchki appear already in the second or third year, so the Siberian varieties early in fruiting. When pruning and shaping fruit plants, the main attention should be paid to fruit formations, to see which remained and how many of them. How beautiful the tree will be at the same time is not important at all.
In fruit plants - apple, cherry, pear - we still value their decorative qualities. For us, it is a plant that bears fruit..
Spring pruning, forming an apple tree, do before the sap movement, before bud break, in April. Thanks to this pruning plant does not lose nutrients and it will be better, more productive to work. The second pruning, summer, is carried out in May and June, for those plants that have received severe damage. Why in these terms? Gardeners are waiting for the full blooming of all the leaves in order to assess whether the branch died or not. If at the end of May the leafing did not occur, then the branch died, if the leaves did not blossom on the whole tree, it means that the tree can no longer be saved.
Why not cut the apple tree in the fall? Trimming the plant, we inflict a large number of wounds. In the fall, a period of dormancy begins in plants, sap flow does not occur, cells are not active, besides, there is evaporation and drying of tissues at the cutting site. The plant becomes weakened, and it is not uncommon that even after nonsurovic, not colder -25 degrees, winters, it becomes sick of a milky luster. Such plants are subject to destruction, because the milky luster is not cured by anything, it is only oppressed.
Frosting is the main problem faced by Siberian apple growers.
What plants are not viable and still die, if not immediately, then gradually? How to distinguish them? We make a cut garden pruner and carefully consider it.
The stronger the degree of damage, the darker the color of the wood.
Live wood, live cambium and live bark means that the apple tree has not suffered, such an apple tree can be further formed in any desired way.
Weak and moderate freezing suggest that it is possible to work with such plants, but they will require our increased attention. In particular, fertilizer will need to be applied per tree: 20-30 grams of ammonium nitrate, 150-200 grams of superphosphate, 50 grams of potash fertilizers.
Strong damaged plants save almost impossible. Even if you save it with watering and fertilizing, the apple tree will hurt, its wood will remain fragile, and during strong squally winds the plant will break.
With even stronger damage, the plant dies immediately.
After strong winter freezing, we select more viable shoots, without damage, and form their growth in the right direction. We will describe in the second part of this lecture, which will be published on FORUMHOUSE in the near future, about how to form an apple tree in different forms, including standard and bushy ones.
Watch our video story on how to store seedlings in the winter, and the best way to hold a spring planting. Read our article on how to provide emergency assistance to a diseased apple. You can not independently determine what kind of apple grows in your garden? At FORUMHOUSE you will be helped to identify the variety from the photo.
"Antonovka" is an old Central Russian apple tree variety. There is an assumption that this is a spontaneous hybrid of cultivated and wild apple trees, which began its distribution from Kursk province in the XIX century.
For the first time the plant was described in 1848 by N. I. Krasnoglazov in his work “Rules for fruit growing in open ground, greenhouses, greenhouses, etc.”. In the same century, "Antonovka" some experts began to consider a sort of, uniting a number of related varieties.
Based on Antonovka, modern specialists have developed several other popular varieties of the variety: “A. sweet "," A. one and a half foot "," A. white ”, as well as several independent varietal variations, obtained by crossing“ Antonovka vulgaris ”with other varieties of apple trees (for example,“ Cherry ”,“ Imrus ”,“ Bogatyr ”,“ Friendship of Peoples ”).
Speaking about the biological characteristics of the variety, we must proceed from the characteristics of the apple tree and its separate fruits, because when it is grown, not only apples are important, but also the peculiarities of crown growth on the site, not to mention caring for the plant.
The apple tree “Antonovka ordinary” grows to a height of up to 7 m, characterized by a round and slightly crown extended upwards.
In young trees, the main branches are more elevated to the trunk, and only over time they fall to the sides. The shoots are covered with brown bark and oval-shaped bright green leaves with jagged edges and a wrinkled surface. During the flowering period, quite large white flowers with a pinkish tinge and petals tight to each other appear on the tree.
With age, the crown of "Antonovka ordinary" from the oval shape becomes more spherical, and the intervention of gardeners has nothing to do with it.
Most of the rounded fruits of the variety are quite large in size, often with pronounced ribs in the lower part. The color of apples varies depending on the specific ripening period: at the beginning they are green-yellow, and during long-term storage they turn completely yellow. The flesh of apples is juicy and sweetbut at the same time it contains a slight sourness, which distinguishes the variety “Antonovka” from many others.
Since the apples sit tightly on thin or medium stalks, the probability of shedding the crop is almost nil. The rind of the fruit is smooth, and the overall appearance gives them excellent commercial quality.
"Antonovka" perfectly pollinated by other varieties, therefore, it would be logical to plant several apple trees in the garden.
This feature significantly increases the amount of the harvest, especially if the pollinators for Antonovka ordinary are the Anis, Welsey or Pepin saffron varieties.
Planting and care
It is better to plant Antonovka in the spring, before the bud breaks and the hole prepared in advance from autumn. Such preparation allows the earth to settle and "ripen". Several buckets of humus and several handfuls of wood ash are added to the excavated land.
Spring planting of an apple tree increases survival rate and wintering. A hole is dug 100x100x70 cm in size, hammered into the center of a garter peg, stones and bricks are put on the bottom, fertile soil is planted and an apple tree is planted.
Planting is carried out by two people, one holds an apple tree and tramples down the ground, the second pours the ground under the seedling. It is important to prevent air voids near the roots and root deepening. For this, it is left at a height of 6-10 cm after landing. Over time, the earth draws in a sapling, the root neck is located at ground level.
The apple tree after planting must be watered abundantly with 3-4 buckets of water, which is necessary not only for wetting the roots, but also for soil compaction.
Caring for Antonovka consists of performing standard agrotechnical techniques:
- loosening and weeding of the wheel circle,
- top dressing
The ground around the apple tree should be kept clean, protecting it from weeds and drying out with a 5 cm layer of hay, wood chips or peat mulch.
Watering regularly and plentiful, once a week poured under the tree 3-4 buckets of water. In the drought can not be allowed strong drying of the soil.
Pruning and shaping required seedling from the first year of life. In the first year, the seedling is cut to a height of 50 cm, seeking regrowth of side shoots.
Then begins the regulation of the length, location and angle of origin of the first shoots, in the future turned into skeletal branches of the first order. In the third year, branches of the first tier are shortened to 20 cm, the second - to 10 cm.
When pruning, they monitor the subordination of all tiers, regulate the height of the tree, and remove competing branches. The result is a harmonious crown with branches that receive maximum illumination.
The formation of an apple tree ends by year 5. Then should be carried out sanitary pruning, and from 10 years - rejuvenating.
Protection against pests and diseases at a young age apple should not consist of the use of chemicals. Until the age of 5, apple trees are better used either by folk remedies or by biological ones.
For top dressing and protection from fungal diseases, leaf foliar dressing is perfect. Fertilizers for apple trees will be personally cooked slurry or infusion of bird droppings, herbal infusion.
To obtain a slurry, the working capacity is 1/3 filled with manure and filled with water. The closed container is placed in a shady place for 1–2 weeks, stirred daily and waiting for the end of fermentation. The result is a mother liquor.
For watering near the root it is diluted 1: 4, for watering on the sheet - 1:15. To use this infusion through a spray, it must be filtered, which is quite difficult. Therefore, for foliar application, it is worth using industrial pellets of manure or bird droppings. Before spraying the whole tree, try its effect on one branch.
Important! The concentration of the solution for foliar feeding should be 3 times less than that poured at the root.
In general, an apple tree planted in a well-filled planting pit should be fed only from 3–4 years of age. The main fertilization is done in the fall. Under the apple tree pour 3 kg of manure and close it up in the soil when digging the ground. This procedure is carried out once every 2-3 years.
Additional feeding during the season 3-4 times, delivering the tree the necessary basic and secondary nutrients.
Even in the last century, there was a strong dependence of Antonovka's winter-hardiness on the humidity regime. High winter hardiness can boast those trees that have regular watering. On elevated areas, the apple tree develops less and has lower winter hardiness.
Taste Antonovka gradually fading. Antonov apples were definitely included in many dishes:
- duck stewed in apples with fried Antonovka,
- Christmas goose with apples
- apples baked with honey
- cabbage apples,
- thick homemade jam with transparent slices,
- filling for pies,
- apple kvass.
Nowadays, natural juice is not made from it, not every person is able to take at least one sip of a sour, sour drink. Antonovka is intended for other purposes.
In the shops Antonovka is not for sale, there apples from industrial gardens of Poland are not very sweet, not very sour, almost odorless and, of course, useless. But many Antonovka in private gardens, in the fall, the garden owners simply do not know what to do with the harvest.
Unfortunately, recently Antonovka has become unstable to diseases of fruits and apples have become poorly stored.
The most useful apple is Antonovka. It gradually becomes the same inaccessible and legendary thing, like a Russian oven, a balalaika, a pig with horseradish and black caviar. It imperceptibly becomes a thing of the past, along with folk traditions and original Russian cuisine.
Young housewives often do not know what to do with sour and hard apples, because there is no place to keep them until full ripeness occurs.
Transportability and storage
The apples picked from the tree can be successfully stored for up to three months, transferring transportation well. But in order that they can be consumed fresh as long as possible or processed for conservation, it is worth remembering a few recommendations:
- do not shake apples from the tree, since in the places of impact the fruits will deteriorate very quickly,
- for long-term storage harvest must be taken a little earlier than usual (until it reaches the technical term of maturity),
- container for reusable use before picking apples should be sprayed with antifungal solution and thoroughly dried,
- putting the apples into the shipping container try to avoid hitting each other and about the walls of the box
- before placing the crop in a warehouse, storage or cellar all fruits are sorted, getting rid of specimens even with minimal damage to the peel,
- sorted fruits are stored in plastic or wooden boxes, filled with chips, or wrapped in separate paper sheets or tracing paper,
- the temperature of the air in the storage should be within 1.4–1.8 ° C.
Disease and pest resistance
With proper care (seasonal whitewashing, protection of the trunk from rodents and frosts, timely loosening of the soil, etc.), “Antonovka ordinary” is almost unresponsive to the most characteristic diseases of the apple tree. In particular, it is highly resistant to scab, passing this quality when crossed to new varieties.
In addition to its amazing fresh taste, Antonovka apples are widely used for various culinary purposes. They are used to prepare drinks (various compotes, juice, wine), as well as jam, jam, marmalade, and even marmalade.
Some housewives add this fruit to sauerkraut, which gives it an original taste. In addition, apples of this variety are great for baking, stuffing poultry and even cooking fresh salads.
Rules for planting apple seedlings
The apple tree “Antonovka ordinary”, which is described above, looks attractive not only in the photo, because if you believe the numerous reviews of gardeners, it is quite profitable in terms of cultivation. Possessing a high level of resistance to various adverse factors, this variety will not require large physical costs from you. It will be enough basic knowledge of planting a tree and further features of its cultivation.
You can plant Antonovka on your plot in the spring or even in the autumn, the main thing is to have time before the bud breaks or 2-3 months before the first frosts appear (so that the tree can take root well).
Autumnal planting is considered preferable if it is carried out in black earth soils, in all other cases it is better to wait for spring.
Choosing a place
Like all other apple trees, Antonovka prefers well-lit places, since with insufficient light exposure, it is possible to reduce the sugar content of the crop or decrease its volume. Also pay attention to the soil moisture and the possibility of stagnant water, which the tree simply does not tolerate. If on your site there is a similar probability, then take care of good drainage in advance, or place the seedling on the hill.
For good growth and abundant fruiting, groundwater is allowed at a level of 2–2.5 m from the surface.
Make sure that the soil in the selected place is breathable and does not have an increased level of acidity (to pH 5.6–6.0). At elevated rates, you can add a little lime or dolomite flour to the planting substrate. It is best to use sandy, loamy and floodplain soils for the full development of the apple tree, although it feels good on leached chernozem.
If you decide to plant your Antonovka in the spring, you need to prepare the soil at the chosen place in the fall (approximately in October).
During the autumn planting, the soil is dug up 1-2 months before planting the seedling. The first time, digging the plot, try as carefully as possible to select all the weeds, because the young plant is difficult to cope with them. Also, do not forget to apply fertilizer: 8–10 kg of peat mixed with 100 g of superphosphate and 30–40 g of potassium sulfate, about 6 kg of compost or manure, and 35–45 g of potassium salt should fall to 1 m².
Planting pits are also excavated in advance: during the autumn planting - in 1–1.5 months, and in the spring - in the fall. For the Antonovka ordinary apple, as well as for many other varieties, the size of the pit varies between 80–100 cm (width) and 80–90 cm (depth).
These values depend not only on the size of the plant’s root system, but also on the composition of the soil, since on heavily depleted lands, in addition to the roots, it is necessary to put a nutrient substrate into it, due to which the plant can develop normally in the next few years. By the way, removing the upper part of the soil, which is always more fertile, pour it in one direction, while the lower, infertile layer should be sent to the other. When planting apple trees, you must use only the top layer. For convenience, mark the landing site with a peg by drawing a circle with a diameter of 0.8–1 m in front of the digging around it.
It does not matter where you took your seedlings: you prepared them in advance or bought them in finished form, before planting you need to inspect them again, even if you are absolutely sure of their suitability.
Also do not forget to make a control cut - test for freezing. Если наблюдается побурение или пожелтение тканей, можете не сомневаться — корневая система саженца пострадала от зимних морозов. В таком случае нужно подрезать корни до неповрежденных тканей. In the same way, do with rotten, dried or broken roots, performing all the manipulations only with a sharp knife with a clean blade.
It is likely that such sanitary pruning has already been done in the fall, then it is not necessary to repeat it, since callus infusions have already appeared on the root slices.
Dried roots are placed in the water for 1-2 days before planting, and if you notice that besides the roots, the bark on the stem and the branches have wrinkled, then the whole plant should be “soaked”. After the specified time, the bark should be leveled, but if this did not happen, then another sapling will have to be found - this one is no longer suitable.
Growth regulators will also help speed up rooting. For example, you can dissolve two tablets of heteroauxin in 10 liters of water and put the roots of an apple tree into the solution for 1-2 hours before planting.
Process and scheme
When planting several apple trees in your garden, it is important to leave a certain distance between them, which depends on the estimated size of the tree in adulthood.
"Antonovka ordinary" refers to the vigorous varieties, so the seedlings are placed after 3-4 meters, observing a distance of 5-6 meters between rows. As soon as you prepare the landing pits and fill them with the substrate, hammer in the center straight and barked peels 120 cm long. Also do not forget to loosen the nutrient mixture and pour it closer to the peg in the form of a small hill. On top of it, fertile soil is poured on without fertilizer, 5–8 cm thick.
Later, during direct planting, the same substrate is poured onto the roots, which is a mandatory measure in order to avoid burn of the root system as a result of direct contact with fertilizers. The Antonovka sapling is set on a mound so that the root neck rises 8-10 cm above ground level (for convenience, you can put it across the board pit or shovel). When the loose soil shrinks, the sapling will go down a little, just taking up its normal position.
All the roots should be evenly spread over the mound, and when filling the pit, periodically shake the seedling so that the void between them is filled with the substrate. As soon as the root system is completely hidden under the ground, compact it with your foot, pressing the foot along the stem radius.
At the border of a completely filled pit, fill the ground with a roller about 12 cm in height, and then pour the sapling abundantly, depositing liquid in the resulting hole (at least two buckets per plant). Watering is necessary even in rainy weather, as this procedure helps to fill the voids between the roots and normal soil subsidence. If there are ravines - immediately fill them with earth.
Better survival of seedlings will contribute to the mulching of the soil in the circle near the trunk by a 5–8 cm layer of humus, peat dust, rotted manure or sawdust.
In order for the sapling to take a more stable position and not swinging in the wind, it should be tied to a peg with soft twine (in the form of a figure eight).
Features of seasonal care for apple trees
“Antonovka ordinary” - non-capricious varietyHowever, when caring for trees, certain requirements must be observed. Let's find out what you need apples for rapid growth and abundant fruiting.
In the first seven years after planting the apple tree, it is necessary to regularly remove grass and any other plants from the soil, performing weeding each time after watering.
As for the latter, it is performed twice a week, pouring no less than a bucket of water under each tree. In a very dry season, the regularity of irrigation, as well as the amount of applied fluid, increase. During the spring and autumn digging of the soil in the circle of the circle, you can feed the apple tree with mineral compounds: superphosphate, potassium chloride and wood ash.
To preserve moisture in the soil and protect the plant from drying out of the root system, mulching of the soil with sawdust, humus and rotted manure will help (the optimal layer thickness is 8 cm).
Fertilizers for Antonovka are applied three times a year: after the snow melts (that is, in early spring when digging the soil around the tree), before the beginning of its flowering and during the formation of fruit on the branches. Any mineral fertilizers are suitable for top dressing, but if you use organic matter (for example, slurry or chicken droppings), do not forget that it must ferment and be diluted with water in a ratio of 1:10.
Fight against diseases and pests
Despite its high resistance to diseases and pests, during periods of strong epiphytotics, the susceptibility of Antonovka to scabs may increase to average values, therefore, to protect it (and at the same time itself) from possible problems, it is very important to use preventive treatments with fungicide formulations.
Protection against cold and rodents
In the first three years after planting, to protect young plantations from freezing of the root system, they are spud for the winter, covering the soil with a 10–12 cm layer of rotted compost or humus. In addition, to protect the trunk from rodents and other pests, it needs to be treated with chalky solution or lime washed (used for older trees). Before the first frosts, the trunk is also tied with sacking or roofing felt, and for better protection against mice, it is additionally protected with lapnik or mesh.
On this, perhaps, everything. Now you know about the peculiarities of growing an Antonovka ordinary apple tree and without problems you can achieve a good harvest of sweet-sour apples.